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Article
Immunohistochemical Study of Retinoblastoma Protein (Prb) Expression in Cervical Carcinomas and Their Premalignant Lesions

Authors: Arwa Mujahid Abdullah Al-Shwaikh --- Dr. Ismail Ibrahim Latif
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-76
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The retinoblastoma gene was the first tumor suppressor gene identified that was altered not only in retinoblastomas but has been described in a wide variety of human neoplasms. The retinoblastoma gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that in its hypophosphorylated stat plays an important role in regulation the cell cycle, thus preventing from tumor formation. This study was designed to determine pRB expression in a group of cervical tissues comprised of normal, premalignant and malignant lesions. A total of 60 cervical tissue samples were included in this study. 50 archival tissue biopsy samples comprised a risk group for cervical neoplasia; these were selected from histopathology files of Al-kadhimya teaching hospital, Al-Ulwiya teaching hospital, Al-Yarmouk hospital, Medical City department of teaching laboratories, and from four private laboratories. The remaining 10 normal cervical postmortem tissue biopsies were obtained from the institute of forensic medicine and considered as control group. Immunohistochemistry was done for detection pRb expression. The results of this study found that there were significant differences of pRb expression between CINII/III or ISCC and normal cervical tissue (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). There was no significant difference between CIN I and CIN II/III (p>0.05). There were no significant differences between CIN I or CIN II/III and ISCC in relation to pRb expression (p>0.05).This results suggest that Rb protein expression may be important in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.


Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF P53, BCL2 AND CD34 IN CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIAS AND CARCINOMAS

Authors: Mohammed K. Chaloob محمد قاسم جلوب --- Alaa G. Hussein علاء غني حسين --- Ban J. Qasim بان جمعة قاسم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 100-111
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Immunohistochemical expression of several biomarkers; including those regulating apoptosis and angiogenesis; may help to distinguish reactive conditions from precancerous and cancerous lesions of the uterine cervix.Objective:To assess the IHC expressions of p53, bcl2 and CD34 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and carcinomas.Methods:A cross sectional study included a total of 127 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks; of which 22 cases were chronic cervicitis, 24 cases were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 28 cases were high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and 53) cases were invasive cervical carcinomas. Sections from each block were immunohistochemically stained for p53, bcl2 and CD34.Results: p53 was not expressed in chronic cervicitis, with significant increase in its expression from LSIL through HSIL to carcinomas had been identified. A significantly higher IHC expression of p53 was observed in adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas compared to squamous cell carcinomas. Bcl2 was expressed in all cases with non-significant differences. Regarding CD34 IHC expression; there was a significant increase in microvessel density (MVD) from chronic cervicitis through LSIL and HSIL to carcinomas. A significantly higher MVD was detected in adenosquamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, in poorly differentiated carcinomas and was significantly increasing with stage.Conclusions: p53 plays an important role in the progression of the severity of intraepithelial cervical lesions. MVD can be utilized as ancillary marker for the risk of malignant transformation of cervical intraepithelial lesion.Key words: LSIL, HSIL cervical carcinoma, p53, bcl2, CD34, MVD

Keywords

LSIL --- HSIL cervical carcinoma --- p53 --- bcl2 --- CD34 --- MVD


Article
The Relationship between Human Papilloma virus (HPV) infection and Gene Expression of miRNA-744, BCL-2, CASPASE-3 genes Associated with Cervical Cancer in Iraqi Patients

Author: Tabark S. Jassim , Abdul Hussein M. AlFaisal
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 30-35
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

: Most types of HPV are harmless and some types are high risk and can cause cervical cancer or abnormal cells in the lining of the cervix that sometimes turn into cancer. A total number of 90 subjects (70 Iraqi patients with cervical dysplasia (abnormalities) and 20 apparently healthy women) were included in this study. The patients and healthy were aged between 25-55 years. The molecular detection in our study showed that 30 of patients were positive to HPV and 40 patients were negative to virus compared to negative results in healthy women. The most common genotypes is HPV-16. Also multiple infections of HPV-HR were observed in the infected women. The correlation between gene expression, histopathology and HPV virus showed a significant increase of folding values of the genes mi-RNA744 and caspase-3 parallel to decrease of folding value of the gene Bcl-2 which indicated that the apoptosis rate was increased with the histopathology grade where the highest level of expression of the genes was in carcinoma. The results also revealed that mi-RNA744 could be up regulator of the gene caspase-3 and down regulator of the gene Bcl-2.


Article
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Frequency of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Lesions in a Sample from the North Iraqi Population

Author: Ava Taher Ismael*, Rafal AbdulRazaq Al-Rawi*, Wahda M.T. AL-Nuaimy*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 241-246
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus has been linked to many types of cervical lesions, ranging from the relatively innocuous lesions to fatal invasive squamous cell carcinoma. There is growing evidence of Human papillomavirus being a relevant factor in other anogenital cancers (anus, vulva, vagina and penis) as well as head and neck cancers.OBJECTIVE:To assess the feasibility of immunohistochemical staining paraffin sections for the presence of Human papilloma virus with monoclonal antibodies (clone K1H8, IgG) raised against the major coat fusion capsid proteins and to detect the frequency of human papilloma virus immunoexpression in benign, preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in patients living in Erbil city ( North of Iraq).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 paraffin blocks samples of cervical tissue were retrieved retrospectively from the Pathology Department of Maternity Teaching Hospital and some private laboratories in Erbil city, during a period spanning from September 2013 to June 2014. They were categorized as: Benign cervicitis (10) samples, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN I (33) samples, CIN II (10) samples, CIN III (13) samples, cervical squamous cell carcinoma (6) samples and three samples with cervical adenocarcinoma Immunohistochemistry was performed on those samples using the avidin -biotin-peroxidase complex in which primarily monoclonal anti Human papilloma virus antibodies was used. RESULTS: None of the 10 samples of benign cervicitis were positive for Human papillomavirus protein while 21 out of 33 (63.6%) samples of CINI, 9 out of 10 (90%) samples of CIN II and 9 out of 13 (69.2%) samples of CIN III were positive for HPV. Also Human papillomavirus positivity observed in all six samples of squamous cell carcinoma (100%), mostly in sheets of less mature squamous cells and in 1 out of 3 (33.3%) samples of adenocarcinoma , mostly focal and in single cell.CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical staining technique revealed a significant detection of HPV protein in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma. .


Article
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF P53 IN INVASIVE CERVICAL CARCINOMA (A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY)
التعبير المناعي النسيجي الكيميائي لبروتين p53 في سرطان عنق الرحم الاختراقي (دراسة سريرية مرضية)

Authors: Ban Jumaa Qasim بان جمعه قاسم --- Hussam Hasson Ali حسام حسون علي --- Saif Janan Baythoon سيف جنان بيثون
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2008 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 90-102
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in women; it comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women worldwide. P53 is a tumor suppressor gene, functional inactivation of the P53 gene is a key event in tumorigenesis of many human malignancies, in cervical carcinoma this functional inactivation could occur either due to mutations or causes other than mutations like binding and inactivation or degradation by viral proteins.Objective: To assess the immunohistochemical expression of P53 in invasive cervical carcinoma (squamous cells carcinoma and adenocarcinoma) and to study the correlation between P53 over-expression with clinico-pathological variants (age, grade of tumor and histological type).Materials and methods: A total of 42 tissue samples of invasive cervical carcinoma (30 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of adenocarcinoma) were included in this retrospective study. The samples were obtained from archival paraffin embedded blocks covering the years 1998 to 2005 from the histopathology files of al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, Al-Ulwiya Teaching Hospital and from private laboratories. All the clinico-pathological data had been obtained from the files of these patients.Out of 12 cases of adenocarcinoma, 8 had punch biopsy, and 4 had hysterectomies .For the 30 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, 16 patients had punch biopsy and 14 had hysterectomy.All cases were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining with P53 tumor marker.Results: The percentage of P53 over-expression in cervical adenocarcinoma (58.3%) was significantly higher than P53 over-expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (16.66%), (P<0.05).P53 nuclear positivity in poorly, moderate and well-differentiated invasive cervical cancers was (50%, 18.18%, and 16.16% respectively), with no significant difference between P53 over-expression in different grades (P>0.05). The percentage of P53 over-expression for the patients below the age of 50 was (32.14%) and for those equal and above 50 was (17.64%), no significant difference was found in P53 over-expression between the two age groups.From the clinico-pathological assessment, the mean age of cervical adenocarcinoma (38.5 ±1.11 S.D. years) was significantly lower than the mean age of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (47.5±1.94 S.D. years).No significant difference was found between the grade of the invasive cervical carcinoma and the two histological types.Conclusion: In this study, a significant correlation has been found between P53 over-expression and the histological type of the invasive cervical carcinoma.-Although there was no statistical correlation between P53 over-expression and the three grades of the invasive cervical carcinoma, poorly differentiated tumors showed the higher percentage of P53 over-expression.-No significant difference was found between P53 over-expression and the age of the patient.

خلفية الدراسة: سرطان عنق الرحم واحدأ من أكثر الأمراض شيوعا في النساء وهو يشكل حوالي 12% من السرطانات التي تصيب النساء عالميأ.يعتبر P53 جين مثبط للأورام وٳن فقدانه لهذه الوظيفة يعد مفتاحأ في تولد الكثير من السرطانات البشرية. وسبب الفقدان الوظيفي لجين P53 يعزى أما الى حدوث طفرات في الجين نفسه أو تحلل الأخير بواسطة البروتينات الخاصة ببعض الفيروسات. هدف الدراسة: تقييم التعبير المناعي النسيجي الكيميائي لبروتين P53في سرطان عنق الرحم (سرطان الخلايا الحرشفية والسرطان الغدي)ودراسة العلاقة بين فرط التعبير لبروتين P53 مع المتغيرات السريرية المرضية(العمر,درجة التمايز,والنوع النسيجي ). المواد , وطرق العمل: - أُخِذت 42 عينة نسيجية من سرطانات عنق الرحم شملت (30 حالة من سرطان الخلايا الحرشفية و12 حالة من السرطان الغدي)في الرداسة الاسترجاعية .- أُخِذت اﻷنسجة اﻷرشيفية المطمورة في شمع البارافين للمدة بين 1998 و 2005 من ملفات مختبرات التحليلات النسيجية من مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي ومستشفى العلوية وبعض المختبرات الخاصة, وكل المعلومات السريرية المرضية تم ﺇستخلاصها من البيانات الخاصة بالمرضى.-كل العينات تم التحري عنها بواسطة الصبغة المناعية النسيجية الكيميائية لمعلم P53 للأورام.النتائــج: - ٳن نتائج تصبيغ P53 أظهرت وجود علاقة احصائية ذات دلالة بين فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 في سرطان عنق الرحم الحرشفي (16,16%) وبين فرط التعبير المناعي في سرطان عنق الرحم الغدي (58,3%).- كانت نسبة التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 في سرطانات عنق الرحم رديئة و متوسطة , وجيدة التمايز (50% , 18,18% , 16,16% على التوالي) ولم تكن هناك علاقة ذات دلالة احصائية بين فرط التعبير المناعي ودرجة التمايز.-ل م تكن هناك علاقة احصائية ذات مغزى بين نسبة فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 للمرضى تحت سن الخمسين (32,14%) وبين نسبة فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53للمرضى في سن الخمسين أوأكثر.- ان التقييم النسيجي المرضي أظهر وجود علاقة ذات دلالة احصائية بين معدل العمر لسرطان عنق الرحم الحرشفي ( 47,5±1,94( وبين معدل العمر لسرطان عنق الرحم الغدي( 38,5± 1,11 ).- لم توجد علاقة احصائية ذات دلالة بين درجة تمايز سرطانات عنق الرحم والنوع النسيجي.الاستنتاج: - كانت هناك علاقة احصائية ذات دلالة بين فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 وبين النوع النسيجي.- على الرغم من عدم وجود علاقة احصائية ذات دلالة بين فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 وبين تمايز سرطانات عنق الرحم الا ان نسبة التفاعل الموجب لبروتين P53 كانت اعلى في السرطانات رديئة التمايز منها في السرطانات متوسطة وجيدة التمايز.- لم توجد علاقة احصائية ذات دلالة بين فرط التعبير المناعي لبروتين P53 مع عمر المرضى.


Article
A STUDY ON HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS USING IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION TECHNIQUE AND ITS ROLE IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA
دراسة حول الفيروس الحليمي البشري باستعمال تقانة التهجين الموضعي و علاقته بسرطان عنق الرحم

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Abstract

Background: clinical epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomaviruses play major role in the development of different types of cervical lesions, are therefore considered as the major infectious etiological agents of genital lesions and cancer. Objective: to determine the prevalence of HPV DNA by using in situ hybridization technique among archival tissue specimen of the uterine cervical lesions and normal cervical postmortem tissue biopsies.Material & Methods: Eighty cervical tissue samples were included in this study. 70 archival tissue biopsy samples comprised a risk group for HPV infection and / or cervical neoplasia; these were selected for the years from 1998 to 2005 from histopathology files of Al-kadhimiya teaching hospital, Al-Ilwiya teaching hospital, Al-Yarmouk hospital, Medical city department of teaching laboratories, and from four private laboratories. The patients mean age was 43.1 years with a range of 20 to85 years. The remaining 10 normal cervical postmortem tissue biopsies were obtained from the institute of forensic medicine and considered as control group. These autopsies were taken from virgin female cervices, their mean age 23.1 years with a range of 18-30 years. In Situ Hybridization was performed for the detection of HPV on cervical tissue.Results: All normal control cases showed no specific signals for HPV DNA. 6 (30%) of 20 cases of cervical tissue with codylomatous changes, 1 (11.11%) of 9 cases of CIN I.3 (21.43%) of 14 cases of CIN II/III, and 9 (33.33%) of 27 cases of ISCC were shown to be positive for HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33 DNA.Conclusion: The In situ hybridization enabling direct visualization of viral tissue distribution and better substantiate HPV as a causal agent in cervical neoplasia.A significant association (p <0.05) was found between Insitu Hybridization signal pattern and the histological type of cervical noeplasia.

خلفية الدراسة: أظهرت الدراسات السريرية و الإحصائية أن الفايروس ألحليمي البشري يلعب دورا كبيرا في تطور مختلف أنواع إصابات عنق الرحم لذلك اعتبر عامل ملوث أساسي مسبب للإصابات السرطانية في عنق الرحم.هدف الدراسة: لتحديد تفشي الفايروس ألحليمي البشريDNA باستخدام تقانة التهجين الموضعي في نماذج الأنسجة الأرشيفية المطمورة بشمع البارافين المأخوذة من إصابات عنق الرحم و مقارنتها بخزعات ما بعد الوفاة المأخوذة من أعناق رحم طبيعية.طرق العمل: تضمن البحث ثمانين عينة و كان سبعون منها مأخوذة من الأنسجة الأرشيفية المطمورة في شمع البارافين و التي تمثل مجموعة الخطر المحتوية على دلائل تشير إلى وجود إصابة بالفايروس الحليمي البشري مع أو وجود حالات سوء نمو ظهارية (السرطانية أو غير السرطانية ) و قد اختيرت العينات من ملفات مختبرات التحليلات النسيجية للمدة بين 1998 و لغاية 2005 من مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي, مستشفى العلوية,مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي, المختبرات التعليمية في مستشفى مدينة الطب و بعض المختبرات الخاصة.كان متوسط عمر المرضى 43.1 سنة ضمن مدى يتراوح بين 20-85 سنة.أما العشر عينات المتبقية تمثل خزع بعد الوفاة من عنق أرحام نسوة أبكار كانت أعمارهم تتراوح بين 18-30 سنة و بمعدل عمر23.1 كمجموعة سيطرة اثبت الفحص النسيجي عدم وجود عوارض أو إصابات فيها.لقد تم التحري بواسطة تقانة التهجين الموضعي عن DNA هذا الفايروس في أنسجة عنق الرحم.النتائج: لقد أظهرت الدراسة انتشار موجبيه DNA هذا الفيروس في مجموعة الخطرهي30%,11.11%,21.43%,33.33% في كل العينات التي تحمل في ثناياها دلائل على الإصابة بالفايروس الحليمي البشري,حالات سوء النمو الظهارية البسيطة ,حالات سوء النمو الظهارية المتوسطة و الشديدة و أخيرا حالات سرطان عنق الرحم المحرشف, على التوالي , في حين لوحظ عدم وجود DNA الفايروس في مجموعة السيطرة.الاستنتاج: إن تقانة التهجين الموضعي تجسد القيمة الحقيقية لوجود الفايروس كمسبب للمرض ووجد إن هناك ترابط وثيق بين توزيع علامات التهجين الموضعي والنوع النسيجي لسرطان عنق الرحم.

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