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Article
Impact of Age Factor in Cervical Abnormalities and Cancers Incidence in Some Iraqi Married Women

Author: Jinan J. Al-Mussawy1, Abdul-Hussein M. Al-Faisal1, Saife D. Al-Ahmer1, Asan A. Qasim2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-66
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, and it has the fourth highest mortality rate among cancers in women. The present study aimed to reveal the impact of age factor in cervical abnormalities and cancers incidence in some Iraqi married women. 150 scraping cervical cells samples were collected from the women clinically diagnosed with cervical abnormalities and cancer who were divided into two groups; the first group included the women with abnormal pap smear which revealed 13.33% of women were less than 30 years and followed by 66.66% of women whose age between 30-50 years and 20% of them were more than 50 years old. While the second group iclude the women with normal Pap smear (Healthy women) which revealed that 26.66% of women were less 30 years, followed by 53.33% of women whose age between 30-50 years and 20% of them were more than 50 years old. The results showed that the highest percentage of precancerous stage was founded in 30-50 years old women, wherease the highest percentage in advanced stage represented by squamous cervical cancer and adenocarcinoma was founded in more than 50 years old women. In addition, the results of current study exhibted that the rates of ASC-US were 43% and 50%, while the rates of LSIL were 42% and 52% in less than 30 years old and 30-50 years women respectively. Wherease the rates of ASC-US and LSIL were 6.6% and 4.7% in more than 50 years old women. As well as the results revealed that the rates of HSIL and SCC were higher in over 50 year's women with percentages 40% and 63.63%, respectively.


Article
Cervical CytologyContinuous Nine Months Oral Danazol

Authors: Waffaa N Saieed --- Inas T Al-Hamdani
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 40-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Danazol is a synthetic steroid primarily used to treat endometriosis. Its effectiveness
is due to reversible hypo-oestrogenic and hyper-androgenic state which leads to atrophy of
endometrial tissue. Its effect on cervical tissue has not yet been studied. Pap smear is a well known
method for cytomorphological evaluation of exfoliated or mechanically dislodged cervical cells. It can
detect pathologic abnormalities as well as hormonal effects. An attempt to link prolonged danazol
therapy (leading to relief of symptoms of endometriosis) to changes in cervical cytology during this
therapy and trying to find a possible relationship between them was the main goal of this study.
Objective: To study cervical cytological changes with continuous oral danazol use
Design: Prospective Study.
Setting: Al-Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital and Central Health Laboratory/ Baghdad, Iraq.
Methods: sixty eight cases of pelvic endometriosis with primary infertility, started oral danazol
between Jan. 2002 and Nov. 2002, in doses of 200-800mg/day. Their ages were between 20-38y.
The forty cases included in this study had the following criteria collectively:
1-Cases with primary infertility and endometriosis irrespective to their age or stage of the disease.
2-Normal cervical cytology prior to commencement of treatment.
3-Amenorrheic and symptom free, during the period of treatment.
4-Use of barrier method of contraception (condom).
5-Monthly performed high vaginal swab, revealed normal flora.
6-No biochemical evidence of impaired glucose metabolism.
According to the American Fertility Society Score (AFSS), sixteen cases had stage II, twenty cases
had stage III, and four cases had stage IV. Non had stage I. Cervical cytology was repeated after nine
months continuous oral danazol treatment.
Results: The forty cases that fit the criteria of inclusion were divided into two groups; A & B; group
B included the 12 cases requiring equal to or less than 400mg/day oral danazol, while group A
included the twenty eight cases that required more than 400mg/day danazol. After the completion of
nine months treatment, group B showed cervical cytological changes of "squamous metaplasia", while
group A showed "androgenic" picture of cervical cytology i.e. proliferation of glycogen rich
intermediate cells with vesicular nuclei.
Conclusion: Cervical cytology changes can be caused by continuous nine month oral danazol
therapy if we want to reach a symptom free state in patients with primary infertility and endometriosis.
These changes were dose related, when the dose exceeded 400mg/day, the changes were mainly
androgenic, while doses equal to or less than 400mg/day showed sqamous metaplasia. The changes
were irrespective to age and stage of the disease.
Key Words: Danazol, cervical cytology ,endometriosis.


Article
Case Report: Cervical Thymic Cyst

Author: Mohammed H. Al-Alwan
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This is a case report of a patient who presented with a swelling in the neck, which proved to be a cyst related to the thymus gland, and so we can add another cause for the list of lateral neck swellings. The embryology, histopathology and differential diagnosis of cervical thymic cyst are reviewed.

Keywords

Cervical --- Thymus --- Cyst


Article
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Workers about The Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear in The College of Nursing
معارف ومواقف وممارسات العاملين في كليات التمريض حول مسحة عنق الرحم وسرطان الرحم

Authors: Hana Algomele --- Nuha Alwandawi --- Wafaa M. Atoof
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 3 Pages: 141-147
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objectives: The main aim of the study is to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of workers about the cervical cancer and Pap smear in college of nursing. (Teaching and employers staff in Baghdad and Al-Mosul nursing college).Methodology: Ninety two women was deals in present study. The study was conducted during April/2013.The participants were categorized into 2 groups according to their occupation: teaching staff (n= 44) and employer’s staff (n= 48). The knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear are assessed through answers of participants to a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, risk factors, knowledge and practice of cervical cancer and Pap smear .The data were analyzed by using the SPSS, version16.Frequency, percentage and chi-squared test Results: The results of this study shows that the knowledge of the teacher sample is low (40.5%), Just over (35%) had heard of cervical cancer and the main source of information about knowledge is the doctors (36.6%).Almost (7.2 %) had down a pap smear test at least once, only (26.8%) of women wanted to be done the pap smear test and (50%) answers had fear from test of causes did not done pap smear. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that educated women of sample have deficit knowledge, attitude and practice toward cervical cancer and Pap smear. Recommendation: Efforts to increase coverage in cervical screening programs needs to be directed towards medical practitioners as well as towards women. Long term education programs should be made available to motivate the femafle population in the Iraq. In addition, training should be supplied to nurses and primary care physicians to encourage optional screening.

Keywords

cervical cancer --- Pap smear


Article
Metastatic Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Najaf City: Clinico-Pathological Analysis

Authors: Waseem A. Elkatib وسيم الكاتب --- Firas M. Hassan فراس حسن
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Cervical lymphadenopathy (LAP) is a common problem facing doctors. Most run a benign course. It is the job of these doctors to differentiate it from tuberculosis and metastatic lymphadenopathy. Different types of biopsies can be used to reach diagnosis including FNAC, incisional and excisional biopsies.Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinic-pathological patterns of metastatic cervical LAP in Al-Najaf city.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one year from Jan 1, 2013 to Jan 1, 2014 in the general surgery and otolaryngology departments of Al-Sadar Medical City and surgical department of Kufa university-Faculty of medicine. The data was collected by using a predesigned form including information as age, gender, level of lymph node involvement, and other clinical features.Results: Among the total 60 patients included in the study, 28 patients were males and 32 were females. Their age ranging from 20 to 68 y with a mean age equals to 53.6 y. The highest age groupwas the sixth decade with 32 (53.3%) patients. A known primary site was discovered in 93.3% of the patients. The highest primary site malignancy was that of the larynx with 35.7% of total patients with known primary tumors. 38.3% of the patients had N3 stage at the time of presentation.Conclusion: Inflammatory neck disease is very common in our country, one should not forget the possibility of metastatic carcinoma in an adult presenting with a rapidly growing, hard, non-tender, lateral neck mass. Early diagnosis is paramount as any delay will eliminate the best opportunity for effective treatment with curative intent.


Article
Cervical dysplasia: assessment and risk factors among women attending the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil, Kurdistan-Iraq
خلل التنسج العنقي: تقييم وعوامل الخطر لدى النساء اللائي يراجعون مستشفى الولادة التعليمي في أربيل، كوردستان العراق

Authors: Sherzad Ali Ismail --- Lazha Ahmed Talat --- Baran Kamal Barzanjy
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 286-293
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer in the world. It is the commonest cause of female cancer deaths in South-East Asia and Africa and accounts for 15% of all female cancers in developing countries. the aims of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology among women underwent Pap smear and assess for the presence of risk factors related to abnormal Pap smear results. Methods: A hospital-based cross sectional study, using a questionnaire and involved 2,146 women at the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city from January to December 2009. All Pap smears cytological examinations were conducted using Bethesda classification system. Results: Histological reports were found to be normal in 88.4% of women; meanwhile, 248 (11.6%) women had abnormal cytological findings with a mean age of 36.84 years, significantly older than those with normal results (p <0.05). The duration of marriage was also found to be significantly longer among those with abnormal Pap smear (18.34 years versus 15.72 years, (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study was able to indicate that during reproductive life, the older ages of women and longer duration of marriage were associated with an increased risk of abnormal Pap smear results.


Article
Cervical Spondylosis among Group of Computer Users in Erbil City
داء فقار العنق بين مجموعة مستخدمي الكمبيوتر في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Zekra Ali Aziz --- Dashty Abbas Al-Bustany
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 28-36
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: Neck pain due to poor posture, if neglected for long time, can lead to development of the cervical spondylosis. This study was designed to analyze the relation between symptoms and signs originating from the cervical spine and the duration of computer use.Methods: A comparison of a group of male subjects who work on computer with those who do not work on computer whose ages range between (30 - 50) years was done for liability of cervical spondylosis. Any subject whose BMI is more than 25Kg/m2 was excluded. Likewise any subject with recognized evidence for predisposition to develop spondylosis was excluded.Employee from different establishments in Erbil City (200 Subjects), over a period of six months from January / 2008 were included in the study.Ninety nine subjects who use computer and hundred and one non-computer user. Subjects were subdivided into: First group: Computer user. Second group: Non-computer user. In both groups the duration of occupation ranges between four to sixteen year and hours of working/week range between (22-32 hours). The (99) subjects who work on computer each of them was evaluated for computer work station and asked about his posture during use of computer and asked if he takes a break time when he work for long hours.The difference between comparable subdivisions of the studied subjects was tested by the Chi-square test concerning the frequency of spondylosis in each of them.Results: Cervical spondylosis was statistically significant among those who use computer (P< 0.05).Conclusions: Long term use of computer with bad posture and with out break time increase liability for developing cervical spondylosis in comparison of (same age group, same duration of occupation ,and same hours of working) but not using computer. Proper posture and take a break time when using computer for long time is necessary.


Article
Anterior cervical decompression and fusion using cage and autogenously graft

Author: MUSAED AL-DAHHAN مساعد حكمت الدهان
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 9 Pages: 159-166
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract


Aim
Use of cage and bone graft for decompression and fixation cervical spine

Methods
Fourty patients between june2004 _ june 2006 , evaluated by physical and neurological examination with radiograby by x
Ray and MRI . the treated by anterior disectomy and replaced by cage and bone graft.

Result
Regarding the site of disc prolapsed (10%) between C4 -5(65%) between C5 -6 and (25%) between C6-7 .
37 patients treated disectomy by and bone graft while two
Patient treated by corpectopmy of C5,6 body
The complete recovery presented in 80% , incomplete recovery in 7,5% while no any improvement in 2,5%

Conclusion
Immediate stability with good clinical improvement and no graft morbidity are the advantage of this implant compared to
conventional interbody grafting techniques .

تم اجراء عملية رفع الانزلاق الغضروفي العنقي من الناحية الامامية علاجا للانزلاق الغضروفي العنقي وتم استبدال الغضروف المرفوع بغضروف صناعي مع استعمال عظم طبيعي اخذ من عظم الورك لنفس الشخصتم اعتماد الأعراض التي يشكوا منها المريض مع طرق التشخيص المساعدة مثل أشعة x مع الرنين المغناطيسي للفقرات العنقية تم معالجة أربعون شخصاً (10%) منهم كانوا يعاني من الانزلاق الغضروفي بين الفقرات العنقية الرابعة والخامسة (65%) الانزلاق بين الفقرة الخامسة والسادسة و(25%) الانزلاق بين الفقرة السادسة والسابعة تم رفع الانزلاق الغضروفي من الناحية الامامية لـ(38) مريض بينما أجريت عملية رفع الفقرة الخامسة والسادسة لمريض واحد فقط كانت نتيجة تحسن الأعراض لدى المرضى (80%) بينما كان تحسن في الأعراض ولكن بصورة جزئية (17,5%) وعدم وجود أي تغير أو تحسن في الحالة الصحية في (2,5%) فقط.توصلت الدراسات بضرورة تثبيت العمود الفقري للفقرات العنقية بأستعمال الفقرات الصناعية مع العظم للوصول إلى أحسن النتائج


Article
Immunohistochemical Evaluation of the Frequency of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Lesions in a Sample from the North Iraqi Population

Author: Ava Taher Ismael*, Rafal AbdulRazaq Al-Rawi*, Wahda M.T. AL-Nuaimy*
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 241-246
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus has been linked to many types of cervical lesions, ranging from the relatively innocuous lesions to fatal invasive squamous cell carcinoma. There is growing evidence of Human papillomavirus being a relevant factor in other anogenital cancers (anus, vulva, vagina and penis) as well as head and neck cancers.OBJECTIVE:To assess the feasibility of immunohistochemical staining paraffin sections for the presence of Human papilloma virus with monoclonal antibodies (clone K1H8, IgG) raised against the major coat fusion capsid proteins and to detect the frequency of human papilloma virus immunoexpression in benign, preneoplastic and neoplastic cervical lesions in patients living in Erbil city ( North of Iraq).MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 75 paraffin blocks samples of cervical tissue were retrieved retrospectively from the Pathology Department of Maternity Teaching Hospital and some private laboratories in Erbil city, during a period spanning from September 2013 to June 2014. They were categorized as: Benign cervicitis (10) samples, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN I (33) samples, CIN II (10) samples, CIN III (13) samples, cervical squamous cell carcinoma (6) samples and three samples with cervical adenocarcinoma Immunohistochemistry was performed on those samples using the avidin -biotin-peroxidase complex in which primarily monoclonal anti Human papilloma virus antibodies was used. RESULTS: None of the 10 samples of benign cervicitis were positive for Human papillomavirus protein while 21 out of 33 (63.6%) samples of CINI, 9 out of 10 (90%) samples of CIN II and 9 out of 13 (69.2%) samples of CIN III were positive for HPV. Also Human papillomavirus positivity observed in all six samples of squamous cell carcinoma (100%), mostly in sheets of less mature squamous cells and in 1 out of 3 (33.3%) samples of adenocarcinoma , mostly focal and in single cell.CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical staining technique revealed a significant detection of HPV protein in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical carcinoma. .


Article
The Molecular Detection of HPV Infection in samples of Iraqi Women with Abnormal cervical Smears

Authors: Mais N. Abdul-samad --- Nuha J. Kandala
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 4B Pages: 1995-2004
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause almost 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Recently, testing for high-risk HPV types have been adopted by clinical practices for the early detection of cervical cancer in conjunction with cytology tests. Cervical swab samples were collected at the Outpatient Gynecology department of Baghdad Teaching Hospital. These samples consisted of a patient group of 50 samples, and a healthy control group of 10 samples. A papanicolaou test (abbreviated as a Pap test) was also performed for each woman to examine the epithelial cells of both the endocervix and the upper vaginal region. Total DNA (genomic, mitochondrial, and viral) was extracted from cervical swab samples for molecular studies. HPV DNA testing was first done by using Real-Time PCR technology to target the L1 region of HR-HPV with specifically designed primers. This was followed by using AmpliSens kit for specific detection and genotyping of HPV16 and 18 with multiplex Real-Time PCR. The results of RT-PCR detection revealed that out of 16 samples detected with high-risk HPV, 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-16 and 5 samples were shown to be infected with HPV-18. These results show a significant relationship between the histological outcome of the patient and persistent HPV infection.

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