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Article
Causes of Vomiting in Hospitalized Children

Author: Fairs M. Frankul*
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-31
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: vomiting is a very common symptom of disease in childhood, it occurs both ingastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal diseases.Objectives: Our aim of the study was to find out the causes of vomiting in different age group, theimproper management of vomiting in daily practice and to emphasis on the usefulness of imagingstudy in the diagnosis.Methods: A prospective study was carried out on patients presented with vomiting admitted toChildren Welfare Teaching Hospital from the first of Dec. 2001 to the end of April 2002 .The ageranged between early neonatal periods to 12 years of age.Reults: A total of 100 child were included in this study,(65) male (35) female male to female ratiowas1.86:1. Surgical causes of the gastrointestinal tract was the most common cause of vomiting (50%) in the neonatal period, while infectious cause formed 78.3% & 48.4% during infancy andchildhood respectively.Imaging studies was carried out on 54 patients and helped to reach a final diagnosis in 21(38,9% )patients.In this study green color vomiting was found to relate mainly (64.7%) to the intestinal obstructionwith a (p) value >0.05.Conclusion: There was no benefit of antiemetic drugs in the treatment of vomiting, Imaging studieswere helpful in reaching the correct diagnosis of vomiting in some cases, green color vomitingshould make pediatrician suspicious of intestinal obstruction.

Keywords

children --- Vomiting


Article
Cyclorefraction of healthy children in the first two years of life

Author: Azzam A. Ahmed عزام عبد القادر احمد
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2011 Volume: 37 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objectives: To provide a description of refractive errors in healthy, term-born children, aged 1 through 24 months, and to test the hypothesis that spherical equivalent becomes significantly less hyperopic and less variable with increasing age.Methods: This is a prospective, cross-sectional design, cycloplegic retinoscopy was used to measure the refractive error in both eyes of 100 healthy, term- born children in four age groups. Spherical equivalent, cylindrical power and axis were analyzed as a function of age.Results: Spherical equivalents of right and left eyes did not differ at any age. Hyperopia declined significantly with increasing age. The variability in spherical equivalent also decreased significantly with age. Cylindrical error of one diopter or more was found in 15% of children; the proportion with astigmatism was highest in infancy and then waned. Myopia and anisometropia were rare, occurring in 5% and 2% of the sample, respectively.Conclusions: Significant declines in hyperopia and variability of spherical equivalent appear to be features of emmetropization. The normal prediction limits provide guidelines against which data from individual patients can be compared.

هدف الدراسة: تقييم نتائج قياس الأخطاء الانكسارية للعين لدى الأطفال من عمر شهر واحد ولغاية أربعة وعشرين شهرا، ومقارنة النتائج مع البحوث المنشورة.التصميم: دراسة مستقبلية مقطعية.المشاركون في الدراسة: شملت الدراسة 100 طفل من عمر شهر واحد ولغاية 24 شهر.طريقة الدراسة: تم إجراء الدراسة في العيادة الاستشارية للعيون في المستشفى الجمهوري التعليمي بالموصل وعيادة المركز الطبي التابعة لكلية طب الموصل حيث تم فحص 100 طفل أعمارهم تتراوح بين شهر ولغاية 24 شهر وللفترة بين أيلول 2007 ولغاية تشرين الأول 2008، وقد تم استعمال قطرة Cyclopentolate وتم أخذ القياسات الخاصة بالأخطاء الانكسارية بواسطة جهاز Retinoscope بعد 45 دقيقة من استعمال القطرة المذكورة.النتائج: نستنتج من هذه الدراسة أن طول النظر يقل بشكل ملحوظ مع تقدم العمر من الأشهر الأولى، اللابؤرية كانت موجودة في 25% من الأطفال خاصة للأعمار بين 6-18 شهر من العمر، وقصر النظر والتباين في قياس الأخطاء الانكسارية بين كلتا العينين كانت 5% و2% على التوالي وخاصة في الأشهر الستة الأولى من العمر .الاستنتاج: في ضوء النتائج المستخلصة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن حصيلة البيانات من هذا البحث هي مقاربة جدا لنتائج البحوث المنشورة في هذا الموضوع .


Article
A Clinicopathological Study on Cases of Hodgkin’s Diseases in IraqiChildren Attending AL-Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital

Author: Sawsan S. Abbas
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 435-337
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Hodgkin’s Diseases is a group of cancers characterized by Reed- Sternberg cells, aneuoploid cells that usually express CD15 and CD30. Several epidemiological and serological studies support the role of Epstein –Barr virus in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin’s Diseases
Patients and Method: A retrospective study was done where by twenty cases were collected from the Pediatric Oncology Clinic in AL-Kadhyimia Teaching Hospital over a period of five years from the first of January 2002 – end of December 2006.Information was taken from the patient’s records in the Pediatric Oncology Clinic including age at presentation, sex, physical finding, histopathological subtypes, staging , treatment applied , outcome and follow up .
Results: Among the studied group 14 cases ( 70%) were males and 6 cases (30%) were females , male : female ratio equal to 2.3:1, rang of age was between 5- 16 years with a peak age at presentation was between 11- 15 years. The initial presentation was an enlarged cervical lymph node in 18 cases ( 90%), histopathologically , most of the patients had mixed cellularity subtype , 9 cases (45%), stage II and stage III comprise the majority of cases 8 cases for each (40%), B symptoms were reported in 13 cases ( 65%) . Chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment with good response. The overall survival was (90%), 18 cases over a median period of follow up of 2-5 years. One case relapses two months after the end of treatment, no death.
Conclusion: Although mixed cellularity was encountered in most of our patients but the response to chemotherapy is good.


Article
Acute renal failure in children under two years of age

Author: Nariman Fahmi Ahmed
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 139-144
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:
Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) in children is a catastrophic, life -threatening
event
Aim of the study: the aim of the present study is to find out the etiology and outcome
of patients with acute renal failure below two years of age admitted to the hospital.
Patients and methods: A prospective study was carried out on children below 2
years of age (with exclusion of neonatal period) presented with acute renal shut down
admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital during the period from Jan. 1st
,
2007tojan30th
,2008.
Results: the study group included 100 patients with acute renal failure, 69 males and
31 females with M/F ratio 2.2:1.Age range was between (2 months - 2 years).
Prerenal ARF was the commonest type seen in 67(67%) patients and hypovolemia
due to (gastrointestinal loss) was the prominent etiology it was found in 53(53%)
cases. ARF due to renal and post-renal causes found in 21(21%) and 12(12%) cases
respectively, six (6%) patients only presented with non-Oligouria.
Forty four patients (44%) required peritoneal dialysis, while(56)patients improved on
conservative management only and most of them (53 %) were the pre-renal group.
Ninety two (92%) patients had either complete or partial recovery of their renal
function, eight (8%) patients died from ARF.
Conclusion: prerenal ARF particularly hypovolemia secondary to gastrointestinal
loss was the most common causative group of ARF in our patients, with good
prognosis for the recovery of renal function in most patients. To evaluate and validate
markers of acute kidney injury more prospective clinical studies required.


Article
LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS IN CHILDREN

Authors: KHALID Q. ABD --- SALMA A. AL-HADAD --- MAZIN F. AL-JADIRY
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 296-302
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder of histiocytes
encompasses a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from a benign localized disease to acute
generalized disease with fatal outcome.
Objectives: to retrospectively evaluate clinical characteristics at diagnosis and outcome of
patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of data on 21 children with Langerhans cell
histiocytosis followed at Oncology unit, Children Welfare Teaching Hospital, Medical City,
Baghdad, between 1999 and 2006.
Results : The age at time of diagnosis of LCH ranged from 3 months to 9 years, with a median of
22 months, and male to female ratio was 1:1.1. The duration of the onset of the disease before
diagnosis ranged from 1month to1 year. Bone lesions, skin lesions and LAP were the common
presenting features. Skull was the major site of lytic lesions 10(47.6%) patients. Tissue biopsy
and/or aspiration were the main diagnostic procedures. Twenty patients treated by different
combinations of chemotherapy. Ten patients survived (50%), and the mean time of follow up
was 28 months.
Conclusion : The study showed a relatively high incidence of advanced (III and IV) stages of
disease 12 patients (57.1 %) with subsequent poor outcome and survival.
Recommendation : Long term follow-up by a multidisciplinary care team is required


Article
Childhood Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Retrospective Analysis Of Clinical Features And Response To Treatment

Author: Sawsan S. Abbas
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Pages: 258-261
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background : A retrospective study was done in the Pediatric ward /AL-Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital on cases diagnosed as idiopathic thrombocytopenic Purpura admitted since the first of January1992 – the end of December 2004.
Aim of the study : The objective of this paper is to review the natural history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic Purpura , presenting feature and response to treatment.
Patients and methods : The review included age ,sex , clinical presentation , physical finding , complications , investigation ,treatment and course of the diseases .
Results: total number of the patients were 65, peak age was between (2 -5) years, 40 cases (61.53 %). Females were affected more than Males with male: female ratio of 1: 2.09 .There was no seasonal variation and all of the cases were preceded by viral upper respiratory tract infection .The main presentation was petechiae and ecchymosis, were found in all of them (100%) followed by epistaxis, 43 cases (66.15 %). In the majority the platelet count was < 20.000 X 10 9 /L, 32 cases (49.23 %) and the hemoglobin level was between 10 – 11gm /dl in most of them, 43 cases (66.15%). Steroid was the first line treatment, response occur within 2 – 3 weeks in the majority, 51 cases (78.46%). Chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic Purpura occurred in 3 cases only (4.61 %).Splenectomy was done in 2 of them (66.66%). No mortality detected.Conclusion : Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is a mild disease with complete recovery in the majority of patients.

Keywords

Thrombocytopenia --- Purpura --- Children


Article
Bloody Diarrhoea anl0ng Children under five years of Age in Tikirit Teaching Hospital

Author: Thamer Mutlek Jasim ثامر مطلق جاسم
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 78-82
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ObjectiveIs to study the causes of bloody diarrhea in in (50)cases (37%) , Shigella spp in (25) cases (18% and children under five years of age and to clarify their relations Campylobacter jejuni Icases only (0.75%) to the type offood and mothers educational level ConciusionBloody diarrehea is common in children under methods Ahospital based study was carried out at tikreet 5years age who were admitted to Tikreet Teaching Hospital teaching Hospital in Tikreet city on 133 children who were in Tikreet city , There is astrong positive relationship admitted to the hospital with bloody diarrehea their ages between the occurrence of bloody diarrehea and the type of range between one month -5years. The period study is from food. Education of the mother plays an important rule for (January200 I-July 2001). the occurrence of bloody diarrehoea, mostly those who Results The pathogens causing bloody diarrhea were were illitrate Entamoeba histolytica in (57) cases (42%) Salmonella spp


Article
Incidence of Bronchiolitis in Breast Fed Infants Below 2

Author: Haider Nadhim Abd
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common respiratory infectious disease of children.OBJECTIVE:To study the relationship between bronchiolitis and breastfeeding in children below 2 years of age.MATERIAL AND METHODS:A prospective study was carried out with100 child aged up to 24 months to evaluate theirbreastfeeding status as possible risk factors for unfavourable evolution in department of pediatricin AL-Kahdimiya Teaching Hospital during the period from first of October 2008 to the end ofMarch 2009.RESULTS:Hundred cases of bronchiolitis were included in this study. Most of them ( 78 %) were below oneyear. Male children were 70%, female children were 30%. Fifty-four of the children wereexclusively breastfeeding. Eighty of the children were admitted to the hospital because of severeattack. The median length of hospital stay was four days and of oxygen-use was three days.CONCLUSION:The duration of exclusive breastfeeding was inversely related to the length of oxygen-use and thelength of hospital stay. Shorter exclusive breastfeeding was observed in children who wereassigned to a pediatric ward or to an intensive care unit. Longer duration of breastfeeding wasassociated with better clinical outcomes.


Article
Prevalence of dental attrition among 5-11 year-old children in Albu-Etha village (Baghdad)

Authors: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي --- Shanaz M. Ghafour شاناز غفور
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 105-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dental attrition is one of the problems affecting the tooth structure. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dental attrition.Materials and methods: a sample of 98 children aged 5-11 years in Albu-Etha village in Baghdad was examined according to Hansson and Nilner classification.Results: The results showed that boys had higher attrition scores than girls and most of the diagnosed dental wear was of a grade II and mostly in the canine regions. Dental wear of primary teeth was found mostly in the canines while dental wear of permanent teeth was found mostly in the incisors.Conclusion: Dental attrition was found to be higher in permanent teeth than in primary teeth.


Article
Natural History of Symptomatically Treated Children with Cystinosis

Author: Nariman Fahmi A.Azat
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 254-257
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Cystinosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of lysosomal transport of cystine . Nephropathic (infantile) cystinosis is the most common and the most severe clinical expression of the disease .OBJECTIVE:To highlight the natural history of symptomatically treated children with cystinosisPATIENTS AND METHODS :A retrospective study was done on cystinotic patients who were diagnosed and treated symptomatically in children welfare teaching hospital in Baghdad from period Jun 2002 –July 2011.RESULTS:Twenty nine patients ,19 (66%)males and 10(34%) females who were diagnosed as cystinosis and treated symptomatically were included in the study; their ages ranged between (0.6 -12 ) years median 4 years . the age of onset of symptoms of tubular dysfunction ranged from (0.3-3.5 yrs) median (1.1 yrs.), positive family history of cystinosis was found in 11(37.9 %) cases and parents were consanguineous in 25 (86.2%) families.All patients presented with history of polyuria, polydypsia, anorexia, vomiting, constipation and failure to thrive.Rickets was found in 22(75%)and photophobia was found in 19 (65.5%) patients.Follow up data showed renal insufficiency in eighteen patients(62%) at a median age of 9(4-12) years ,hypothyroidism diagnosed in one patient(3.44%)at the age of 11 years , six (20.68%) patients died , three (10.3%)patients secondary to renal failure .CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:Cystinosis causes extensive morbidity and death in childhood and because of high rates of consanguineous marriages in our society ,we encourage a high index of suspicion in infants presenting with fluid and electrolyte loss aiming at early diagnosis and treatment of cystinosis . leukocyte cystine levels is still needed to be available to confirm diagnosis in infants who have negative ocular examination .and to win in the fight against this terrible disease cysteamine treatment need to be available for these patients

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