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Article
Efficacy of Azithromycin in Comparison with Metronidazole in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis

Author: Jawna’a K Mammdoh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: 18 Pages: 323-330
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects of systemic azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning (SRP) and compared it with metronidazole in the treatment of chronic per-iodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty four patients with clinical diagnosis of chronic periodontitis underwent scaling and root planing were divided into three groups. The first group (n = 20) patients received azithromycin 500 mg once daily for 3 days plus SRP. The second group (n= 11) received met-ronidazole 500 mg 3 times daily for 7 days plus SRP. The third control group (n= 13) patient received SRP plus placebo treatment once daily for 3 days. Clinical measurement including gingival index, bleeding on probing and probing pocket depth were performed at the base line visit and 40 days after taking the treatment. Results: The results obtained at 40 days from the base line showed better signifi-cant improvement in all clinical parameters (p≤ 0.05) in the treated groups, except for bleeding on probing in control group were no significant improvement was reported. Azithromycin plus SRP give the greatest improvement in mean gingival index and bleeding on probing (p< 0.05) when compared with the control group but no significant differences were observed between metronidazole treated group and the control group. Conclusions: The adjunctive use of azithromycin with SRP has potential to improve periodontal health over SRP only and could be an interesting alternative to metronidazole from patients with chronic periodontitis


Article
Salivary level of RANKL and OPG in chronic periodontitis

Authors: Batool Hassan Al-Ghurabi بتول حسن الغرابي --- Sara Mohammed Mohssen سارة محمد محسن
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 189-194
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal diseases are initiated by microbial plaque, which accumulates in the sulcular region andinduces an inflammatory response. The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand / osteoprotegerin(RANKL/OPG) axis is involved in the regulation of bone metabolism in periodontitis, in which an increase in receptoractivator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand or a decrease in osteoprotegerin can tip the balance in favor ofosteoclastogenesis and the resorption of alveolar bone that is the hallmark of periodontitis. This study was performedto investigate the role of salivary levels of RANKL and OPG in pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis.Subjects and Methods: Fifty five subjects with chronic periodontitis with ages range from 24-64 years and 25apparently healthy volunteers their ages and sexes were matched with the patients were participated in this study.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinicalattachment level and bleeding on probing. Saliva samples were collected from all patients and controls. Enzymelinkedimmunosorbent assay was carried out for estimation the salivary level of RANKL and OPG in studied groups.Results: The present data revealed that the median salivary levels of RANKL was elevated in patient as comparedwith control group (P<0.001), whereas the salivary levels of OPG doesn’t show any significant differences betweenthe study groups (p>0.05). In contrast the ratio of RANKL/OPG ratio was significantly higher in patients whencompared with the ratio in control group. Furthermore, negative significant correlation was noticed between RANKLand OPG. Regarding correlation between salivary (RANKL and OPG) and clinical periodontal parameters, RANKLlevels was showed significant positive correlation with each of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Otherwise no association between OPG levels and clinical parameters of periodontitis was found. Moreover; theratio RANKL/OPG was showed significant positive correlation with each of gingival index, probing pocket depth andclinical attachment level.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that salivary levels of RANKL and OPG play a crucial role in pathogenesis ofperiodontitis, and the relative RANKL/ OPG ratio appears to be indicative of disease occurrence

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- RANKL --- OPG


Article
Detection of specific IgG and IgA anti Epstein-Barr virus in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients and healthy subjects

Authors: Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عبد عون --- Maha Shukri مها شكري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: special issue Pages: 125-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth.Recent studies have demonstrated that various human herpesviruses especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play apart in the pathogenesis of human chronic periodontitis. This study aimed to detect anti EBV IgG and IgA in saliva ofchronic periodontitis patients and healthy control subjects by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test and todetermine the differences between males and females regarding the periodontal condition and the levels of antiEBV IgG and IgA .Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of sixty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (32 malesand 28 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (16 males and 14 females) with age ranged from30 to 50 years. Both groups without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP),probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected fromall subjects and examined by ELISA test for EBV IgG and IgA antibodies detection.Results: The results of the present study observed that there was no significant difference of PLI and GI betweenmales and females in chronic periodntitis patients. Concerning BOP the number of bleeding sites in females wasmore than in males. For PPD and CAL, there was increased PPD with its different scores (0, 1, 2) in males comparedwith females and there was increased CAL with its different scales (scales 0, 1, 2, 3) in males than females. Thepercentage of control group who were positive for anti- EBV IgG was (36.7%) and in chronic periodontitis was (81.7%). Concerning IgA, 40.0% of healthy group and 68.3% of chronic periodontitis patients showed a positivereaction for anti- EBV IgA .Conclusions: The present study showed that EBV Abs (IgG and IgA) were detectable in saliva from healthy individualsbut they were significantly more frequently found in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients. The present study showedthat there was no significant gender difference regarding the salivary level of anti- EBV IgG and IgA.

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- EBV --- IgG --- IgA


Article
Inorganic ions level in saliva of patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects

Author: Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عبد عون
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 93-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into the tissues supporting the teeth.Inorganic ions have been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease in saliva. The aims ofthe study were the detection of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium ions levels in saliva of chronicperiodontitis patients and healthy subjects and correlate the mean salivary levels of these ions with clinicalperiodontal parameters [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachmentlevel (CAL)].Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of thirty chronic periodontitis patients of both gender (18 malesand 12 females) and thirty healthy control subjects of both gender (15 males and 15 females) with age ranged from30 to 50 years. Both groups were without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were plaque index (PLI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD)and clinical attachment level (CAL). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all subjects and the levels ofcalcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium in each specimen were analyzed. For each group a statistical analysiswas done to estimate the levels of these ions in saliva and to correlate the mean of salivary inorganic levels withclinical periodontal parameters.Results: The present study showed that there was highly significant difference in the levels of salivary inorganic ions(Ca=2, Mg+2, K+1, Na+1) between chronic periodontitis patients and control group with increase in Ca+2, K+1, Na+1 ionslevels in saliva of chronic periodontitis and decrease in level of Mg+2 ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis than incontrol group. There was no correlation between the mean of PLI and Ca+2, Mg+2, K+1 and Na+1 ions in saliva ofchronic periodontitis and there was no correlation between the mean of GI and Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+1 ions and anegative significant correlation with K+1 ions. Concerning PPD and CAL there was no correlation between them andthe mean salivary inorganic levels in chronic periodontitis patients.Conclusions: Estimation of these electrolytes or inorganic ions in saliva of chronic periodontitis may be used aspotential diagnostic markers of active disease status in periodontal tissues and to predict the effective methods ofprevention and treatment


Article
The correlation between hemoglobin level and generalized moderate chronic periodontitis

Author: Suzan Ali سوزان علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 85-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: As the periodontal tissues mount an immune inflammatory response to bacteria and their products,systemic challenge with these agents also induces a major vascular response. Certain inflammatory cytokinesproduced during periodontal inflammation, can depress erythropoietin production leading to the development ofanemia. (1) This study aimed to investigate the association between hemoglobin level and generalized moderatechronic periodontitis.Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 60 systemically healthy male of an age ranged (30-60 years old)30 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontitis (CAL =3-4 mm at ≥ 30% of sites) and 30 of them withhealthy periodontium as control group. Full mouth examinations (excluding third molars) were conducted for allpatients. Four sites were examined for each tooth (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal). Plaque index (PI) (2) ,GingivalIndex(GI) (3) , bleeding on probing index (BOP) (4), Probing Pocket depths (PPD), and Clinical attachment level (CAL)were recorded using a marked periodontal probe (Williams probe) and measurement of hemoglobin (Hb)concentration in the blood by colorimetric cyanomethemoglobin method(22)Results: Mean of hemoglobin level was (12.527) for the study group whiles its (14.72) for the control group, highlysignificant differences were apparent between the two groups regarding the hemoglobin level (P- value P<0.01).About the Correlation between the hemoglobin level and the periodontal parameters, the PLI, CAL scores werepositively but non-significantly associated with the hemoglobin level. (P> 0.05).Correlation coefficient (r) between PLIand hemoglobin level was (0.30). For the CAL The correlation coefficient (r) was (0.159).Strong and significantcorrelation were found between BOP and the hemoglobin level (r = 0.343, P value = 0.049).Conclusion: There is an association between hemoglobin levels and periodontal status


Article
Interleukine-6 Level in Saliva of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: A Case-Control Study

Author: Haween T. Nanakaly
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 103-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases in which periodontalpathogens trigger chronicinflammatory and immune responses. Interleukine-6 is a multifunctional cytokine playing a central role ininflammation and tissue injury.The aim of the study IS to determine the level of Interleukin-6(IL-6) in saliva of patientswith chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects.Materials and Methods:The total subjects of the present study is 60, divided into 3 groups; 20 patients with chronicperiodontitis with pocket depth(PD ≥4 mm)(group I), 20 patients with pocket depth(PD <4 mm) with clinicalattachment loss (group II), and 20 healthy controls with pocket probing depth (PPD ≤ 3 mm) without clinicalattachment loss (group III). Un-stimulated salivary sample was taken from each subject and was investigated for thepresence of Interleukine-6by using Enzyme‑linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technology.Results:Mean IL-6 levels in saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis (98.40 ± 18.44 ng/L)was significantly higher thanin controls (11.67 ± 3.32; p=0.001). Also a significant difference in IL-6 levels in saliva was observed between the PPD ≥4 mm and PPD < 4 mm groups and between PPD ≥ 4 mm and control groups, as well as statistically significantdifferences were observed between PPD < 4 mm and control groups (P < 0.001).Conclusion:The Interleukine-6 level in saliva can be considered as one of inflammatory biomarker indicators ofseverity of periodontitis


Article
Measurement of salivary Immunoglobulin A of participants with a healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis conditions

Author: Suzan Ali Salman سوزان علي سلمان
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 120-123
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Secretory Immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a subclass of Immunoglobulin A (IgA), It is an antibody that playsan important role in mucosal immunity. It is the main immunoglobulin found in mucous secretions from mammaryglands, tear glands and salivary glands, every pathologic process in the body involves the immune system, andperiodontal inflammation is one of them and is not an exception.Material and methods: this study was consisted of 60 healthy male participants of an age ranged between (35-50)years old ; 25 of them with generalized moderate chronic periodontists(Clinical Attachment Loss equal to 3-4mm at ≥30% of the sites; 20 participants with plaque induced gingivitis and 15 participants had clinically healthyperiodontium as control group. oral examination include Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Probing Pocket Depth andClinical Attachment Level were conducted for all participants four sites were examined for each tooth (labial,lingual, mesial and distal), 2ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all participants to measureSecretory Immunoglobulin A in μg /ml by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique.Results: salivary IgA(sIgA) mean was (356.3) μg /ml for the chronic periodontitis patients; while it was 202 μg /ml forplaque induced gingivitis patients and it was 129.2 μg /ml for the control group. Highly significant differencesamong the three group were recorded (P-value <0.001). For chronic periodontitis patients, the Plaque Index GingivalIndex scores were positively highly significant correlated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva. The ProbingPocket Depth scores were positively and significantly associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. The ClinicalAttachment Level scores were positively but non significant associated with Secretory Immunoglobulin A level. Forthe gingivitis and the control group they were positive non significant association between the periodontalparameters and the Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva.Conclusion: there is a correlation between Secretory Immunoglobulin A level in saliva and the periodontal healthstatus.


Article
CORRELATION OF SALIVARY LEVELS OF ANTI EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IGG, IGA AND SEVERITY OF CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS
العلاقة بين المستويات اللعابية المضادة لفيروس ابشتاين بار نوع ، ج و أ مع شدة التهاب النساغ المزمن

Authors: Maha Sh. Al-Rubaie مها شكري محمود --- Wasan A. Abid Aun وسن عدنان
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2014 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: E7-E14
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that extends into thetissues supporting the teeth. Recent studies have demonstrated that various humanherpes viruses especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a part in the pathogenesisof human chronic periodontitis and show correlation with periodontal disease severity.Aims of the study: To correlate anti EBV IgG and IgA levels in saliva of chronicperiodontitis patients with the severity of the disease.Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of sixty chronic periodontitispatients of both gender (32 males and 28 females) and thirty healthy control subjects ofboth gender (16 males and 14 females) with age ranged from 30 to 50 years. Bothgroups were without any systemic disease.Periodontal parameters used in this study were bleeding on probing (BOP), probingpocket depth(PPD) and clinical attachment level(CAL). Unstimulated salivary sampleswere collected from all subjects and examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA test) for EBV IgG and IgA antibodies detection.

التهاب النساغ المزمن هو مرض التهابي يمتد إلى الأنسجة الداعمة للأسنان وقد أثبتت الدراسات الحديثة أن. فيروسات قوباء المختلفة وخاصة فيروس ابشتاين بار قد تلعب دورا في التسبب في التهاب النساغ المزمن ويظهر ارتباطا مع شدة أمراض اللثة.هدف الدراسة هو ايجاد العلاقة بين مؤشرات التهاب اللثة وشدة الالتهاب مع المستوى اللعابي لمضادات فيروس ابشتاين بار.تألفت عينة الدراسة من ستين مصابا بالتهاب الأنسجة الداعمة المزمن من الجنسين(32 من الذكور والإناث 28 ) وثلاثين شخصا من الأصحاء من الجنسين ((16 من الذكور والإناث (14 )مع مستوى العمر يتراوح بين 30 إلى 50 سنة. كلا الفريقين دون أي أمراض جهازية. ومعلمات اللثة المستخدمة في هذه الدراسة تشمل النزف عند البحث (BOP)، سبر عمق الجيب (PPD) و مستوى الارتباط السريري (CAL). تم جمع عينات من اللعاب Unstimulated من جميع المرضى وفحصها الفحص المناعي انزيم مرتبط (ELISA test) لمفتش وايغا EBV وكشف الأجسام المضادة. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن متوسط المضادة للمفتش EBV ومستويات ايغا اللعابية في المرضى الذين يعانون التهاب اللثة المزمن هو 13،8992 HU / مل و U 20،8902 / مل على التوالي. في هذه الدراسة لم يكن هناك ارتباط كبير بين مستوى مضادات EBV اللعابية وBOP في المرضى الذين يعانون التهاب اللثة المزمن.بالنسبة لPPD، كان هناك ارتباط كبيرو إيجابية قوية مع درجة 1 و 2 مع مستوى مضادات EBV اللعابية، في حين EBV ايغا لديه علاقة إيجابية هامة مع درجة 1 و 2. بشأن CAL، كان هناك ارتباط إيجابي كبير مع مقياس 2 و إيجابية ارتباط كبير مع مقياس 3.أظهرت هذه الدراسة أنه قد يكون هناك وجود ارتباط بين الإصابة ب EBV و شدة التهاب اللثة المزمن وبالتالي عدوى مرافقة مع EBV قد تلعب دورا في تدمير الأنسجة اللثوية

Keywords

chronic periodontitis --- EBV --- IgG --- IgA.


Article
Serum Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and High Sensitive C-Reactiveprotein as Biomarkersin Periodontitis in Iraqi Patients with Osteoarthritis

Authors: Enas Nihad Muhammad --- Saif S. Saliem --- Enas Razzoqi Naaom
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 3 Pages: 7-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis (PD) is well-known chronic disease affecting the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease with compound reasons characterized by synovial inflammation, subchondral bone remodeling, also the formation of osteophytes, that cause cartilage degradation. Chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritis are considered widely prevalent diseases and related to tissue destruction due to chronic inflammation in general health and oral health. The aim of this study is todetermine the association of chronic periodontitis and osteoarthritits in patients by analysing tumor necrosis factor alpha TNFα and high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the serum.Materials and Method: A total of 80 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years ,30 patients with osteoarthritis and moderate chronic periodontitis (CP+OA), 30 patients of both sexes aged 35-50 years with moderate chronic periodontitis alone (CP). And control group (C) of 20 healthy patients with healthy periodontium participated in this cross sectional study. we excluded the postmenopausal and pregnant woman from female patient and smoker patient also. All patients are free of medication and have good general health with no history of systemic disease. Participants with OA have documentation or radiographic imaging, consistent with degenerative arthritis in the absence of an inflammatory condition. Venous blood samples were drawn from each subject using pyrogen-free heparinized collection tubes. Tubes were centrifuged according to the manufacturer’s guidelines, then stored at -15°C till analyse. serum TNFα and hs CRP were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: A non-significant differences between studied group regarding serum level of hsCRP and TNF-α, as well as, the result revealed that the median of serum levels of hsCRP were little higher in chronic periodontitis with osteoarthritis group than chronic periodontitis group and control groups represent as 0.31, 0.29, and 0.24. Similarly, the medium serum level of TNFα was higher in chronic periodontitis with OAthan in other two groups (10.615, 10.533, and 9.682 respectively). The age and gender showed a non-significant difference between the groupsConclusion: The present study revealed that there’s a strong positive correlation between serum levels of hsCRP and TNFα in patients of all groups but there is no correlation between Osteoarthritis and chronic periodontitis.


Article
Prevalence of periodontal abscesses among patients suffering from chronic periodontitis in Iraq.

Author: Wassan Al-Zaidi وسن الزيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Little information is available regarding the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to provide more information about the prevalence and distribution of periodontal abscesses and its relation to other periodontal variables in order to help in the characterizing of the periodontal abscesses in relation to periodontitis.Materials and method: 105 periodontally affected patients were examined 57 male and 48 female the mean age was 43 yrs. Seventeen subjects were diagnosed with periodontal abscesses (10 male and 7 female ) their mean age was 59 yrs. The periodontal abscesses were studied by the assessment of clinical variables including both subjective (pain, redness, swelling and edema) and objective (bleeding on probing, pocket depth and plaque index).Results: It was clear that the prevalence of periodontal abscesses increase with age in both sexes but it was higher in male (10 patients) than female (7 patients) all periodontal abscesses were associated with deep periodontal pocket where the mean pocket depth was (10.7 mm ) in male and (9.7 mm ) in female, also all periodontal abscesses presented with bleeding on probing, most of abscesses scored as "severe" acute stage 90% in male and 85.72 % in female, all male patients affected with periodontal abscesses were smokers, examined patients were presented with abundant amount of plaque accumulation reflect the negligence in oral hygiene care. The mostly affected teeth were anterior teeth then premolar and molar teeth equally.Conclusion: the periodontal abscesses have clear characteristics and they are usually associated with sever periodontal destruction including deep pocket and bleeding on probing also they are correlated with smoking habit and plaque accumulation, their prevalence increase with age and it is higher in male than female

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