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Effect of Essential Oils Extracted from the Peels of Two Species of Citrus on Some Fungi
تأثير الزيوت الطيارة المستخلصة من قشور نوعين من الحمضيات في بعض انواع الفطريات

Author: Estabraq A. Mahmoud استبرق عزالدين محمود
Journal: JOURNAL OF MADENAT ALELEM COLLEGE مجلة كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة ISSN: 2073,2295 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-65
Publisher: City College of Science University كلية مدينة العلم الجامعة

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Abstract

This study investigated the effect of essential oils extracted from peel of Citrus limon and Citrus reticulata on two species of fungui: Penicillium expansum and Fusarium proliferatum and also effect of two fungicides: Hymexazol and Benomyl against this fungi. Results showed that the essential oils of C. limon inhibited the radial growth of P. expansum and F. proliferatum at concentration 4.5 and 5%, respectively. However, the essential oil of C. reticulate inhibited this growth at concentration 5.5 and 6%, respectively. Moreover, the two fungicides inhibited radial growth of this fungi. In conclusion, there is a positive relationship between the increasing of concentration and the percentage of inhibiting of radial growth of fungi.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية فحص تأثير الزيوت الطيارة المستخلصة من قشور نبات الليمون Citrus limon واللالنكي Citrus reticulata في نوعين من الفطريات (Penicillium expansum و Fusarium proliferatum) وتأثير اثنين من المبيدات الفطرية (Hymexazol وBenomyl) تجاه نفس الفطريات. أظهرت النتائج وجود تثبيط كامل للنمو الشعاعي للفطرين P. expansum وF. Proliferatum عند التركيز 4.5 و 5%على التوالي للزيت الطيار لنبات الليمون 5.5 و 6% على التوالي للزيت الطيار للالنكي. كذلك تثبيط النمو الشعاعي للفطرين من قبل اثنين من المبيدات الفطرية، في حين أظهرت التركيزات الادنى زيادة في معدل التثبيط مع زيادة التركيز لكل المواد المستعملة بالدراسة سواء كانت زيت طيار او مبيدات.


Article
Extraction of Essential Oils from Citrus By-Products Using Microwave Steam Distillation

Authors: Ibtehal K. Shakir --- Sarah J. Salih
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 11-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The main objectives of this research is to extract essential oil from: orange ( citrus sinensis), lemon( citrus limon) and mandarin( citrus reticulata) peels by two methods: steam distillation (SD) and microwave assisted steam distillation (MASD), study the effect of extraction conditions (weight of the sample, extraction time, and microwave power, citrus peel type) on oil yield and compare the results of the two methods, the resulting essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC). Essential oils are highly concentrated substances used for their flavor and therapeutic or odoriferous properties, in a wide selection of products such as foods, medicines and cosmetics. Extraction of essential oil is one of the most time and effort consuming process. Microwave-assisted extraction is a green technique for the extraction of natural products. (MASD) was better than (SD) in terms of rapidity, energy saving and yield. (MASD) gave higher yield than (SD) with shorter extraction time, yield of orange oil extracted by (MASD) was (1.150%) in (35min.) compared to (1.095%) in (45min.) by (SD) process, same results obtained for lemon and mandarin. The optimal microwave power was (135W) gave oil yield: (1.150%, 1.115%, 0.940%) for orange, lemon and mandarin respectively, (MASD) increased extraction temperature in short time and to a higher level compared to (SD). The optimal weight was (398.56gm) gave yield in (SD): (1.095%) and MASD (1.091%) for orange oil, same results obtained for lemon and mandarin. The best citrus peel type which gave the highest yield was orange followed by lemon then mandarin in both processes.Limonene is the most abundant component in citrus essential oil, (GC) analysis showed that (SD) was more convenient to give high amount of limonene because of the graduate temperature rise, while in microwave extraction exposure to low microwave


Article
دراسة قابلية استهلاك البكتين المستخلص من قشور بعض الفواآه من قبل العزلة المحلية . Aspergillus sp.

Authors: أسوان حمد الله البيار --- تغريد إبراهيم خليل --- نادية نايف هجو --- ورود فوزي احمد
Journal: Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20739524 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-20
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

ABSTRACTExtracted pectin samples from citrus peels and sunflower heads byaqueous and ethanolic methods were used only as a carbon source instead ofsucrose for cultivation a local isolate of Aspergillus sp.in czapek-Dox mediumwhich contains 0.2% NaNO3, 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1% K2HPO4, 0.05% KCl,0.001% FeSO4.7H2O, by solid state fermentation methods for polygalacturonaseproduction. Polygalacturonase activity was estimated in different mediumscontain different pectin extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of citrus and sunflowerheads. It is found that, by using citrus pectin in production medium, andsunflower heads pectin as a substrate for polygalacturonase activity signed by(O3)treatment, the enzyme activity was 51.56 U/ml., while by using sunflowerextracted pectin for polygalacturonase production, achieve highest activity94.375 U/ml. for (O2) by using citrus pectin as a substrate. Morphologicalproperties for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were studied also, includingrelative viscosity, it was found that the aqueous extracted pectin from sunflowerbases gives the highest viscosity, while the best morphological properties wasobtained by ethanolic extracted pectin from sunflower bases, which mean theprogression of sunflower pectin on citrus pectin in physical properties.

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