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Article
Zinc Removal from Industrial Wastewater by Electro-Coagulation Process

Authors: Nawras S. Sabeeh --- Ibtehal K. Shakir
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-46
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Electro coagulation treatment was used for zinc removal from electroplating -wastewater of the State Company for Electrical Industries, This wastewater, here consists zinc ions with maximum concentration in solution of 90 ppm.The parameters that influenced the wastewater treatment are: current density in the range 1—1.4 mA/cm, pH in the range 5-10, temperature in the range 25—45°C and time in the range /0—180 minute.The research is a laboratory experimental type using batch system for electrical process with direct current. The cell comprised of aluminum electrode as anode and stainless steel electrode as cathode. Thirty experiments and one hundred fifty sample lab tests were carried out in this research to study the effect of the mentioned paramet cr5 on the efficiency of the removal process.Experimental work of this research proved a higher efficiency about 95 % removal of zinc from wastewater at 1.4 mA! cm in alkaline media atpH equal and Mmperature 45°C.


Article
Effect of captopril and enalapril on selected coagulation markers in hyperlipidemia

Authors: Sinaa A.AL-Zubidy --- Bassim Irheim Al Sheibani
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2007 Volume: 2 Issue: 3 Pages: 107-116
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background: In addition to their primary indications, hypertension and congestive heart failure, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ACE-Is, have pleiotropic effects, which are under active investigations. There is growing evidence of data stating the significant role of ACE-Is in the regulation of hemostasis. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ACE-Is on coagulation in hyperlipidemia.Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawely rats aged 17-19 weeks were enrolled in this study. The animals were randomized into four groups each containg seven rats: group1, 2,3 and 4. Group 1 was fed astandard chow diet and serve as normal diet control while group 2,3 and 4 received atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol-enriched diet) for eight weeks. Animals in group 2, 3 and 4 were treated with distilled water (lipidemic control), captopril and enalapril for the next four weeks respectively. Captopril was used in a dose of 2x25 mg/kg/day P.O. Enalapril was given in a dose of 15 mg /kg/day P.O. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrified and blood sample was obtained from the heart for determination of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), plasma fibrinogen, platelets count and total serum cholesterol (TSC).Results: Hyperlipidemia is associated with significant rise in plasma fibrinogen level (p<0.05). Captopril and enalapril treatment showed significant fall in elevated plasma fibrinogen levels (p<0.05). Hyperlipidemic rats treated with captopril and enalapril for 4 weeks showed significant prolongation of PT and aPTT ( p<0.05) while the platelets counts were statistically unaffected ( p>0.05).Conclusion: We conclude that captopril and enalapril possess favorable effect on coagulation in hyperlipidemia.

إن هدف هذه الدراسة هو تقيم تأثير عقاري ( كابتوبريل ، اينالبريل ) على عملية تخثر الدم لدى الجرذان ذات مستوى الشحوم المرتفع.ثمانية وعشرون ذكرا من جرذان نوع(Sprague-Dawely) أدخلت في هذه الدراسة حيث قسمت بشكل عشوائي إلى أربع مجاميع . ( سبعة جرذان في كل مجموعة ).المجموعة الأولى أعطيت غذاء الجرذان الطبيعي واعتبرت مجموعة سيطرة. إما المجموعة الثانية والثالثة والرابعة أعطيت غذاء عالي الدهن لمدة ثمانية أسابيع. المجموعة الثانية أعطيت ماء مقطر واعتبرت مجموعة سيطرة عالية الدهون في حين إن المجموعة الثالثة اعطيت عقار كابتوبريل 2×25 ملم / كم/ يوم والمجموعة الرابعة أعطيت عقار انالبريل 15 ملم/كم/يوم لمدة أربع أسابيع.تضمنت الدراسة قياس مستوى الكلسترول الكلي وبعض مؤشرات عملية تخثر الدم وهي :- الفايبرنوجين ، بي تي ، أي بي تي تي وعدد الصفائح الدموية وكانت النتائج كالأتي :- زيادة معنوية ( p<0.05 ) في مستوى الفايبرنوجين في بلازما الجرذان ذات مستوى الشحوم المرتفع بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة.سبب عقاري الكابتوبريل , والانالبريل انخفاضأ معنويا p<0.05) ) في مستوى الفابيرنوجين وزيادة معنوية في بي تي و أي بي تي تي في الجرذان ذات مستوى الشحوم المرتفع ولكن لا يظهر أي تأثيرا احصائيا معنويا ( p>0.05 ) على عدد الصفائح الدموية.نستنتج ان هذين العقارين يؤثران تأثيرأ ملحوظأ وأيجابيا" على عملية تخثر الدم


Article
8-MULTIPLEX PCR DETECTION OF ERYTHROMYCIN RESISTANCE GENES IN COAGULASE NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI ISOLATED FROM COWS IN BASRAH, IRAQ

Author: Jean M. Mezban, Mohammed H. Khudor , Basil A. Abbas
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-102
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to identify the erythromycin resistance genes in thecoagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and its molecular characterization afterisolating the bacteria from the samples of domestic animals and their products during theperiod from September 2016 to March 2017 from different areas in Basra city. 200samples were collected from animals including: 40 samples from meat, 50 samples fromraw milk, 30 samples from treated milk, 40 samples from cow's nasal swabs and 40samples from cow's teat swabs. Results showed that from 200 collected samples only 108were CoNS distributed in 22(15.1%), 18(12.4%),10(6.8%), 26(17.9%),32(22%), frommeat, raw milk, treated milk, nasal swabs and teat swabs respectively. Samples wereplanted on the selecting mannitol salt medium to isolate Staphylococcus spp. which hadthe ability to grow on the mentioned medium. When the coagulation test was performed,some isolates were not able to produce the coagulation enzyme, and the results showedthat 108 isolates were coagulase negative (54%). Twenty-two isolates of minced meat55%, 18 isolates of cow's milk (36%), 10 isolates of milk sold (33%), 26 isolates of thenose of the animal (65%) and 32 isolates of animal teat swabs (80%). Twenty-fiveisolates of these negative staphylococci were identified using VITEK 2 kit. The resultshowed that 10(40%) isolates identified as coagulase negative Staphylococcus and fall in87four species including 4 (40%) Staphylococcus lentus, 4 (40%) Staphylococcusgallinarum, 1 (10%) Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and 1 (10%) Staphylococcuschromogen. When the ermA, ermB, ermC and msrA genes were investigated by PCR theresult showed that they contain the genes in a percentage 5%, 20%, 20% and 5%respectively. By using the multiplex PCR molecular weight technique (ermA, ermC) and(msrA, ermC), the ratio of both genes was 15% and 5% respectively.


Article
Compromise Study Between The Hydrate And Dehydrate Coagulate (Alum ,Ferrous sulfate and Ferric Chloride )
دراسة تحليلية تفاضلية بين المخثرات المنزوعة وغير المنزوعة الماء ( الشب ، كلوريد الحديديك ، كبريتات الحديدوز)

Author: غيداء ياسين رشيد
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 6 Pages: 291-305
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research focuses on the use of hydrate and dehydrate aluminum sulfate (Alum) ,ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride ,Which burnt in different temperatures degrees ,or use U.S.Pat.NO.4105747 to dehydrate of ferric chloride, and compare the result and selected the batter coagulate to remove the turbidity from the water sampling light 6NTU ,medium 55NTU ,high 150NTU turbidity use the jar test to findthe change in PH and turbidity at the same condition .The study revealed the efficiency of the gradually dehydrate coagulant in reducing the turbidity from prepared samples by continuous burnt when using alum and ferrous sulfate, and when use ferric chloride in continues change from hydrate to dehydrate coagulant.The hydrate and dehydrate alum is batter coagulant for removal turbidity. The final turbidity from the light sample less than 1NTU and less than 2NTU from the medium samples, less than 3NTU from high samples.There is no change in the cost by using hydrate or dehydrate alum.It appears high increase of removal ratio between hydrate and dehydrate alum i.e from 64% to 85% for light samples and from 94% to 98% for medium samples, 91% to 98% increasing removing ratio from high turbidity samples.


Article
EVALUATION OF SOME HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND CLINICAL SIGNS AFTER REPEATED EXPOSURE TO WARFARIN IN DOGS
تقيم العلامات السريريه وبعض القيم الدمويه بعد التعرض المتكرر للوارفرين في الكلاب

Author: Israa Abdul Wadood Muhammad Ali
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 249-259
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Warfarin poisoning in dogs is not unusual which is used as a rodenticide. Competitive inhibition of vitamin K with an incomplete synthesis of the coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X can lead to a significant bleeding tendency. The study was conducted at college of veterinary medicine / Basrah university to Evaluate clinical ,hematological and clotting indices in dogs in case of warfarin poisoning, which include twelve dogs of both sex at age about three years old. The animals divided to three groups equally .first group treated with 3mg warfarin tablet given orally daily,the second group treated with 5mg until the signs of poisoning appears While the third group untreated as a control. The results showed that the first group exhibited signs of warfarin poisoning like hematuria, vaginal bleeding, severe eye congestion, limping, bleeding in toe, excessive salivation, severe pale of mucus membrane in gum, hemoptysis, also the second group exhibited signs of warfarin poisoning after ten days the signs was hematuria and vaginal bleeding ,the animal showed signs of severe eye congestion, depression, weakness, and lameness ,bleeding in toe and then excessive salivation ,sever pale mucous membrane in gum, hemoptysis, blood vomit. weakness, excitement,nose bleeding, eye bleeding,protruded of eye,congestion of gum, melena and incoordination. there is significant decrease (P<0.01) in mean value of red blood cell count in dog treated with 3mg warfarin (4.09 ×106 ± o.254) as well as hemoglobin level( 9.613 g/dl±o.6085 ), packed cell volume (23.133 ±0.592) . and there is increase in mean of MCV (72. 40 fl±1.29) , MCH (23.86pg±0.52) and MCHC (32.78 g/dl ±0.50 ) which indicate macrocytic anemia . Also dogs treated with 5mg warfarin showed that the mean of red blood cell count was 3.81 ×106± 0.2347, mean of Hb was 8.30 ±1.006 g/dl and PCV 28± 2.510 with significant decrease (P<0.01) in these parameters and there is significant increase in mean of MCV,MCH. and MCHC 77.07fl±1.31 , 22.74 pg±0.49, 31.38 g/dl ±0.294 respectively . There is significant increase(P<0.01) in mean of prothrombin time and activated partial Thromboplastin Time in dogs treated with 3mg of warfarin, 1.336 ± 0.146 , 1.036 ± 0.1074 min.Respectively whencompared with control animals 0.601± 0.0863 , 0 .153±0.003min. and There is significant decrease (P>0.05) in mean value of platelets count 253.80 × 103g/l ± 18.31 compared with control group 448.12 ±52.24 . ,also there is significant increase(P<0.01) in PT. and APTT. when treated with 5mg 1.855 ±0.2039 , 1.401 ±0.1051 min.respectively,whereas the mean of platelet 240.40 × 103 g/l ± 5.39 with significant differences(P<0.01) .


Article
A Mathematical Model to Determination of Alum Amount Added for the Purpose of Coagulation in Water Purification Plants

Authors: Hassan A. Omran --- Mizher A. Kadhim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 456-460
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Chemicals are used to increase the settling velocity for suspended deposition colloids which are not settled in sedimentation tanks in water purification plants . For this purpose, the alum is used in wide spread across the water purification projects in Iraq. This research contains studying the factors that effect on alum amount added by conducting laboratory tests of water samples from Euphrates river at the purification plant in AL-Musayyab city over ten years (with monthly rate). It was noted that the amount added depends heavily on the turbidity of water entering the purification plant, in addition to water temperature and its pH. The results of laboratory tests have been approved, which included the measurement of the turbidity, pH, temperature, and the value of alum added. Since this method is applicable in all water purification plants. The results during the period of ten years are accredited, and subjected to multi -regression analysis. A mathematical model was conducted to calculate the alum dose, which must be added depending on the raw water turbidity, temperature, and pH. This model also has been examined by using data of another years and gave satisfactory results to be up to 91% each. This model compensates the use of the Jar-test of raw water to determine the amount of alum that must be added and sufficient by measuring the turbidity, temperature, and pH of the raw water only, and then calculating the value of the required dose of alum.

Keywords

Alum Dose --- Coagulation --- Turbidity --- pH


Article
The Effect of Birth Asphyxia on the Coagulation Status in Neonates

Authors: Ashwaq Ali Hussein --- Hithab Jawad Muhsen --- Rajaa Jabbar Kadhum
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 2719-2724
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Birth asphyxia has multi system effect, which predisposes to coagulopathy by enhancing consumption of platelets & some clotting factors as a results of the associated sever hypoxemia, acidaemia & sepsisObjective: To study the effects of birth asphyxia & perinatal events on the coagulation status of newborn infants. Patients & Methods: Across sectional study was done on 27 neonates with birth asphyxia in AL-Zahraa teaching hospital in Najaf city from period of first of February 2012 to first of July 2012. Blood samples were collected from the neonates within the first 24 hrs. After birth and sent for investigations including PT, PTT, plasma fibrinogen and platelet count.Results: The study showed statistically significant effect of birth asphyxia on platelet count especially in severely asphyxiated neonates with Apgar score of 0 – 3 at 5 min after birth (plat. Count < 100,000 per mm3) in comparison to neonates with Apgar score of 4 – 6 at 5min after birth. Infants who have very low birth wt. (i.e. <1500 gms) had significantly lower platelet count (< 100,000 per mm3) than infants with birth wt.>1500 gmsBirth asphyxia had no significant effect on PT, PTT, or fibrinogen level. Other perinatal and prenatal variables examined as (sex, maternal hypertension, DM, mode of delivery gestational age) did not show any significant association with coagulation status.Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia (plat. <100.000 per mm3) is seen in neonates with Apger score (0-3) at 5 min. and in neonates with very low birth wt. <1500gms). No statistically significant relation between birth asphyxia and PT, PTT and plasma fibrinogen level.


Article
ULTRASONIC DISSECTION VERSUS CONVENTIONAL LIGATION COAGULATION IN THYROIDECTOMY

Author: Abdulameer Muhsin Aldaraji
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-75
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

ULTRASONIC DISSECTION VERSUS CONVENTIONAL LIGATION COAGULATION IN THYROIDECTOMYAbdulameer Muhsin AldarajiMB, ChB, FICMS, General Surgeon, Al-Faiha General Hospital, Basrah, IRAQ.Abstract Ligation and diathermy coagulation was the standard method of hemostasis in thyroid surgery for more than a century. New hemostatic techniques were developed in the 1990th. Ultrasonic dissector used for the first time in thyroidectomy in 1999 by Tokami. Many studies compared the conventional method of thyroidectomy with new ultrasonic dissector technique. These studies found many advantages of the new method including reduction of operative time, shorter incision, decrease blood loss, decrease post operative drainage, shorten hospital stay and decrease complications. This study compared the two methods of hemostasis regarding incision length, operative time and complications. Between March 2012 and March 2015, 143 patients underwent open thyroidectomy involved in a prospective study at Al-Faiha General Hospital. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1, conventional thyroidectomy technique(clamp, tie and diathermy coagulation) included 104 patients. Group 2, ultrasonic dissection technique (sutureless thyroidectomy) included 39 patients. The patient characteristic and postoperative complications were reported. The incision length and the operative time was measured. All patients underwent surgery by the routine pre tracheal strap muscle cutting transeversly (not splitting). In group 2, the ultrasonic dissector was used in strap muscle cutting, sealing &section of the blood vessels and in the final resection of the gland. The surgical incision length and operative time were compared in both groups. In lobectomy, there was no significant reduction in the length of incision with use of ultrasonic dissector( z value<1.96)(p >0.05), while in subtotal, total or near total thyroidectomy there was significant reduction in the length of incision (p value<0.05) with use of ultrasonic dissector. There was significant reduction of operative time (p value<0.05) in lobectomy and total or near total thyroidectomy with use of ultrasonic dissector as compared to conventional thyroidectomy technique. There was no significant difference in the complications in both techniques apart from increased incidence of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis in ultrasonic dissector technique (9.2% in USDT v s 3.7% in CT of thyroidectomy). This study found significant reduction of the surgical incision size similar to that obtained by Fabrizo who stated that thyroidectomy can be done with shorter incision. This improve patient satisfaction and cosmetic outcome. The operative time was significantly reduced in lobectomy, total or near total thyroidectomy by the use of ultrasonic dissector technique(USDT) as compared to the conventional technique (CT){lobectomy 44 minutes vs 55 minutes, total thyroidectomy 57 minutes vs 80 minutes}. Similar results were obtained by many other studies such as Micoli et al & Siperstein et al. this may save utilization of operation theatre and decrease waiting list. The USDT is safe as far as the complication rate was similar to that of CT apart from increase the incidence of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Many studies confirmed the safety of USDT such as that of Tokami, Micolli, Siperstein etc . In conclusion, thyroidectomy can be performed safely by the USDT with advantage of smaller incision & shorter operative time as compared to conventional technique.


Article
Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride
دراسة أداء كل من الشب والبولي ألمنيوم كلورايد مع دبق الحلبة في معالجةمخلفات المياه الناجمة عن معامل الورق

Authors: Mervit M. Janbi ميرفت مهدي حنوص --- Suhama E. Salah سهامة عيسى صالح --- Kadhum M. Shabe كاظم مطر شبيب
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 39-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage dosages range of 50-2000 mg/L, rapid mixing at 200 rpm for 2 min, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 15 min and settling time of 30 min. The effectiveness of Fenugreek mucilage was measured by the reduction of turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). The results show that the combination of PACl and Fenugreek mucilage is more effective than alum, PACl and alum + Fenugreek mucilage. It can achieve greater than 97% of turbidity reduction and greater than 98% of COD reduction at low dosage of PACl (50 mg/L) and Fenugreek mucilage (100 mg/L). The results indicate that lower quantities of PACl are needed to obtain an acceptable reduction in turbidity and COD in the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater.

تعتبر مخلفات المياه الناجمة عن معامل الورق من المياه الملوثة بدرجه كبيره مما يتطلب معالجتها قبل تصريفها إلى الأنهار. وتعتبر عملية التخثير والتلبيد باستخدام البوليمرات الطبيعية من الطرق التي تزايد استخدامها في معالجة مخلفات المياه. في هذا البحث تم دراسة أداء كل من الشب والبولي المنيوم كلورايد كل على حده و الشب والبولي المنيوم كلورايد مع دبق الحلبه في معالجة مخلفات المياه الناجمة عن معامل الورق. وقد أجريت التجارب باستخدام اختبار الجره وبجرع مختلفة للشب والبولي المنيوم كلورايد ودبق الحلبة تتراوح بين 50-2000 ملغم/لتر ومزج سريع مقداره 200 دوره في الدقيقه لمدة دقيقتين متبوع بمزج بطئ مقداره 40 دوره في الدقيقة لمدة 15 دقيقه وزمن تركيد مقداره 30 دقيقه. وقد قيست فعالية دبق الحلبة اعتمادا على الانخفاض في العكوره ومتطلب الأوكسجين الكيمياوي. وقد أظهرت النتائج ان استخدام دبق الحلبه مع البولي المنيوم كلورايد يكون أكثر فعالية من استخدام الشب والبولي المنيوم كلورايد من دون إضافة دبق الحلبة والشب مع دبق الحلبه. حيث بلغت نسبة الانخفاض في العكوره اكثر من 97% ونسبة الانخفاض في متطلب الأوكسجين الكيمياوي أكثر من 98% وبجرعه واطئه للبولي المنيوم كلورايد (50 ملغم/لتر) ودبق الحلبه (100 ملغم/لتر). ان النتائج المستحصله تدل على امكانية استخدام كميات قليله من البولي المنيوم كلورايد للحصول على انخفاض مقبول في العكوره ومتطلب الاوكسجين الكيمياوي لمخلفات المياه الناجمة عن معامل الورق.


Article
Preparation of Polyvinyl Alcohol from Local Raw Material

Authors: Saad H. Ammar --- Cecelia K. Haweel سيسيليا خوشابا
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Polyvinyl alcohol, (PVA) was prepared using polyvinyl acetate emulsion (manufactured by Al-Jihad factory, That-Al-Sawary Company) as a local raw material. In this investigation, polyvinyl acetate emulsion was converted to solid form by coagulation the polymer from its emulsion using sodium sulphate salt as coagulant aid, then alcoholyzed the solid polyvinyl acetate in methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst, polyvinyl alcohol produced by this method is a dry, white to yellow powder. Three affecting variables on the degree of hydrolysis of PVA were studied, these variable are Catalyst to polymer weight ratio in the range of 0.01 – 0.06, reaction time in the range of 20 – 90 min, and reaction temperature in the range of 25 – 50 oC. The effect of degree of hydrolysis of PVA produced on its properties such as water solubility and degree of polymerization were studied also. Finally the alcoholysis reaction kinetics were studied to determine the reaction constants such as initial rate constant and degree of autocatalytic effect of the alcoholysis reaction. It was found that the degree of hydrolysis of formed polyvinyl alcohol increase with increasing of variables catalyst concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature, furthermore, the water solubility of PVA increase with increasing degree of hydrolysis up to about 87 % after this value the solubility is decrease, also the degree of polymerization of PVA decrease with increasing of degree of hydrolysis up to about 89 %.

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