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Article
PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN PATIENTS WITH
الموت المبرمج للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون

Author: أریج حمد جعفر
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 242-249
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACTIn this study forty cases were investigated for evaluation of apoptosis in patientswith colon cancer by using the TUNEL assay. The results showed that the number ofTUNEL positive colonic epithelial cells were significantly different from that in thecontrol group and the frequencies and percentages of apoptosis between patients andcontrols were statistically significant (p < 0.05)

الخلاصةفي هذه الدراسة تم أستقصاء 40 عینة لتقییم الموت الفسلجي للخلایا في مرضى سرطان القولون بالاعتماد علىبین (Tunel positive) أظهرت النتائج وجود إختلاف معنوي في عدد الخلایا الموجبة .(Tunel) تقنیة ال.(p< المرضى ومجموعة السیطرة ( 0.05

Keywords

Colon Cancer --- Apoptosis.


Article
Cytogenetic studies of the drug methotrexate (MTX) on the blood lymphocytes of colon cancer patients .

Author: Zainab M. T. Jaafer , Eshmail K. Shubber
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of study is to investigate the cytogenetic parameters in order to define the effect of methotrexate (MTX) on blood lymphocytes, manifested by blast index (BI), mitotic index (MI), replicative index (RI), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The results showed significant reduction in BI and MI and RI indices with MTX concentrations (0.0, 0.2 ,0.5 ,1, 2, 4, 8, µg/ml) in comparison with the control. The results of BI showed significant reduction according to increasing of concentration. Of the drug in colon cancer patients, it gave 28.6 %, 18.6 %, 14.5%, 10.4%, 6.8 % , 6.7 %, 3.3% respectively. The results of (MI ) gave 3.6 %, 2.3%, 1.6%, 0.18%, 0.22%, 0.0%, 0.0 % respectively. The values of (RI(, gave 0.72% at zero concentration and 0.44% at concentration of 0.2µg/ml of M% TX and 0.27 % at concentration of 0.5µg/ml. On the other hand the SCE showed increases in the SCEs frequency in colon cancer samples in MTX concentration (0.0, 0.2, 0.5, µg/ml) which gave 8.47, 10.41, 10.49. respectively. The SCEs in the high concentration of drug (1,2,4,8 µg/ml) cannot be detected due to its toxicity of the drug. The mutation fraction increased in colon cancer patient which gave 9 at 0.2 µg/ml, and 15.72 at 0.5 µg/ml and 4.1 in 1 µg/ml. The conclusion demonstrated decreasing in (MI), (BI) and (RI) and increasing in the SCEs frequencies and mutation fraction in colon cancer patients in comparison with the control. The presence of mutant cells in lymphocytes of colon cancer that resistant to MTX, gave an idea about amplification in DHFR gene that regulate the activity of DHFR enzyme and also indicated the resistance of cancer cells to drugs.


Article
The Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer in Young Age Group in Karbala Province/ Iraq

Authors: Rasha Abdul Raouf ALSafi --- Nazar j. Metib --- Ameer Dhahir Hameedi --- Abulmahdi F Mohammed
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 4025-4031
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Iraq. Aim: to identify the clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer in young Iraqi patients in Karbala. Design of study: Retrospective study was conducted in a single center, Imam AL-Hussein general teaching hospital during the period from January 2009 to April 2017. Patients and Methods: A sample size of 96cases of Colorectal Carcinoma was diagnosed during the study period. The clinic-pathological parameters were reported. Results: The mean age of the patients was (51.68). There is a general increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer across the years with percentage of (41.7%) being younger than 45 years. There was slight male predominance. The predominant site of the tumor is colon in (75%) of cases followed by rectum (17.7%). The most common type was adenocarcinoma (82.1%) followed by mucinous type (27.3%), most patients presented with grade I (61.5%). In the majority of patients the malignancy reaching the pericolic fat (54.5%). About (43.6%) of patients presented with N1 and (50.9%) with stage III followed by stage II in (30.9%). For all cancer grades, the frequency of CRC was higher among patients > 45 years with the majority of patients with grade III being younger than 45 years and this make a significant difference between both categories, (P=0.043). With respect to the depth of invasion, those with advance disease (T3), 17 out of 30 cases were younger than 45 years, thus there was significant difference between 2 age groups. Conclusion: the incidence of colorectal cancer is upgrading in those younger than 45 years

Keywords

colon cancer --- young age --- epidemiology --- stage --- grade


Article
Isolation and Characterization of XantIsolation and Characterization of Xanthine Oxidase from Tissues of Benign and Malignant Colon Tumors Patients
عزل ودراسة خواص أنزيم الزانثين اوكسديز من أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة

Author: Lelas F. Bdaiwi ليلاس فرحان بديوي
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2012 Volume: 23 Issue: 4E Pages: 70-82
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present research included the determination of xanthine oxidase XO in tissues of benign and malignant colon tumor patients.Six samples were collected from patients in surgery unit in Al-Zahrawi hospital in Nineveh Governorate, three of them were benign and the others were malignant colon tumors.The results showed that there are (62%) increase in the specific activity of the enzyme in malignant than benign.The research also included an isolation and partial purification of XO using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. The number of purification folds was (12) fold from benign and (17) folds from malignant.The molecular weight of XO was determined using gel filtration on sephadex G-100 and it was found to be (199000 ± 2000 , 191000 ± 2000) dalton from benign and malignant colon tumor respectively.The results also showed that the enzyme gave a maximum activity at (1.5×10-4 M) of xanthine as a substrate and phosphate buffer at pH (8.5), temperature of (40/°C) and incubation time (6 minutes). Using linweaver-Burk plot, the Km was (2.5 × 10-4M) and Vmax was ( 7.1 10-5) U/ml.The research also shows an inhibition effect of some metal ions like Cu+2, Hg+2, Ag+2 (but not by Co+2) and some chemical compounds like N-acetyl cysteine, 1-phenl-3-pyrazolidinone on XO activity.

تضمن البحث تقدير فعالية إنزيم الزانثين اوكسديز في أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة إذ جمعت العينات من وحدة الجراحة في مستشفى الزهراوي في محافظة نينوى وكان عددها ست عينات ثلاثة منها لمرضى ذوات ورم خبيث والباقية لمرضى ذوات ورم حميد.أشارت النتائج إلى حدوث ارتفاع معنوي بنسبة (62 %) في الفعالية النوعية للإنزيم في الورم الخبيث مقارنة مع الحميد كما تضمن البحث عزل وتنقية الإنزيم باستخدام تقنية الترشيح الهلامي وكان عدد مرات التنقية (12) مرة للحميد و(17) مـرة للخبيث كما تم تقدير الوزن الجزيئي للإنزيم وكان بحدود (199000 ± 2000 ، 191000 ± 2000) دالتون للإنزيم من الورم الحميد والخبيث على التوالي.كما تضمن البحث تحديد الظروف المثلى لعمل الإنزيم من الورم الخبيث وأظهرت النتائج أن أعلى فعالية للإنزيم كان عند تركيز (1.5×10-4) مولاري باستخدام الزانثين كمادة أساس وعند استخدام محلول الفوسفيت المنظم عند أس هيدروجيني (8.5) عند درجة حرارة (40/ºم) وزمن تحضين (6) دقائق. وباستخدام رسم لينويفر-بروك كانت قيمة km (2.5×10-4) مولاري. والسرعة القصوى كانت (7.1  10-5) وحدة/ ملي لتر.كما تم دراسة التأثير التثبيطي لبعض المركبات والمعادن على فعالية الإنزيم وكانت Cu+2، Hg+2، Ag+2، N-acetylcystine ، 1-phenyl 3-pyrazolidinone، أما Co+2 أظهر تأثيراً تنشيطياً.


Article
Immunohistochemical detection of p16INK4a proteins expression in paraffin embedded sections of colorectal cancer tissues.

Authors: Faeza aftan فايزة عفان --- Nidhal abdulmohaimen نضال عبد الرحمن --- Abdelameer K. lelo عب الامير ليو
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 445-448
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation is a reality in tumor cells, and the progression from a normal cell into a transformed cell probably includes genetic events affecting checkpoints in the cell cycle machinery.Materials and methods: This study investigated the immunoexpression of p16INK4a in the paraffin sections from 43-cancers of colorectal tissue (CRC),26-hyperplastic polyps and adenomas(CRHPA) and 35-normal tissues (CRN),using immunohistochemical assay. We correlated the expression patterns with tumor histopathological type, site of the tumor, distance metastasis according to the TNM system. Results: In colorectal cancer (CRC) patients’ p16INK4a,immunoexpression was detected in 32/43, there was significant association for p16INK4a, which showed high reaction with monoclonal antibodies in the distal colon and rectal area with P value < 0.001. There was no significant correlation between tissue invasion stage and p16INK4a. There was no significant difference in the immunoexpression of p16INK4a in relation to the two groups of patients with the stage of the disease. Conclusion: p16INK4a, expression have high level in CRHPA than in CRN tissue. Also, their expression in CRC is more than in CRN tissue. In addition, p16INK4a immunoexpression in CRC was significantly more than in CRHPA.Keywords: colon cancer, p16INK4a, immunohistochemical assay, cell cycle checkpoints


Article
Role of mRNA Binding Protein (HuR) Expression Level in Cancer Cells

Authors: Ibrahim Abdulmajeed Altamemi --- Rateb Fanokh Abo Khadher
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-23
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

HuR is a mRNA-binding protein. Intracellular localization of HuR is mainly found within nucleus, but it could be translocate between the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm HuR canincrease half-life of certain mRNA target. Since cytoplasmic localization of HuR is essential for its activity, thus, HuR translocation in malignant cells could have prognostic indication. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the significance importance of HuR in the aggressiveness ofcolorectal adenocarcinoma. To achieve this goal, we have investigated itsexpression level in adenocarcinoma sample from Iraqi patients, 7through linking its expression with tumor histopathological variables (stage, grade, grade, and lymph node involvement), by using Immunohistochemical staining method. Study done on 40 colorectal cancer samples and their respective resection margins. Present study demonstrated that, the positive expression rate of integrin HuR in non-tumor colorectal mucosa was significantly lower than that of the colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue (P<0.005). Moreover, when CRC samples breakdown according to histopathological variables, significant differences in expression level of HuR protein when compared with different tumor stage, grade, and LN involvement depending on mean expression ±SE value (P< 0.05, P< 0.05, and p<0.05 respectively). Our results show that high cytoplasmic HuR expression is associated with a poor histologic differentiation, large tumor size, and poor prognosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma.


Article
Comparative study of CA19-9 levels as tumor marker in sera and tissues of patients with stomach, colon and rectum cancers

Authors: Gheid H. Al-Ubaidi --- Kisma M Turky --- Wafaa F. Al-Taei --- Amar H. Al-dujaili
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 2 Pages: 223-226
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: CA19-9 is among a group of mucin glycoprotein sialosyl lewis antigen (SLA) havingcome to be recognized as a circulating cancer associated antigen for gastrointestinal cancer. Basicresearch into cancer causation will be a powerful determinant of intervention in the transformationprocess reinforcing the need for developing effective molecular tumor biomarkers for early detectionof malignant evolution in tissues of organs i.e. stomach, colon and rectum. In this study, we make acomparsion between the levels of CA19-9 in sera and tissues of patients with these diseases to see iftheir levels are proportional and if it is a tumor marker that affect with malignant cells in tissues ofthese organs.Patients and methods: Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) levels were measured in sera andtissues’ of 8 patients with stomach cancer (G1), 8 patients with colon cancer(G2), 8 patients withrectum cancer (G3) and 30 healthy subjects (G4), by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) technique.Results: The results of CA19-9 levels in sera were (42.625±33.088; 47.013±0.318 and10.938±0.979)U/ml for G1, G2 and G3 respectively compared with serum CA19-9 level of G4, whichwas 7.74±4.92 U/ml. The results were found to be significantly higher than control group (p <0.005).The results of CA19-9 levels in tissues’ homogenate were (1170.25±8.45; 535.75±263.46 and483.75±16.37)U/ml for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The results revealed significantly higher levelsof CA19-9 in tissue’s homogenate of each patients group compared with the serum levels of the samepatients (p < 0.005).Conclusions: Normal level of CA19-9 were found in sera of rectum cancer patients compare to thecutoff value 37U/ml in literatures 1,2, but it is significantly higher than our control group. ,Significant high levels of CA19-9 were found in sera of colon cancer patients. , Sera of stomachcancer patients showed elevation in CA19-9 level in 50% of cases. , Significant high levels of CA19-9 were found in tissue’s homogenate of rectum, colon and stomach cancer patients compared to itslevels there serum.


Article
Isolation and Studying the Activity and Properties of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in Patients Tissues of Benign and Malignant Colon Tumors
عزل ودراسة فعالية وخواص انزيم أدينوسين دي امينيز في أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة

Author: Fatima A. Mohammad فاطمة عبد الحميد محمد
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2012 Volume: 23 Issue: 2E Pages: 117-130
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present research includes determination of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in benign and malignant colon tumor tissues.Patients were enrolled in the study to the surgery unit in AL-Jamhoory teaching hospital in Nineveh Governorate, samples of (6) patients (3) benign and (3) malignant colon tumors.The results showed a significant increase in the activity of (ADA) in malignant tissues compared with benign which was (32.4 and 84.55 mU) in benign and malignant tumors respectively. Which represent about (50%) increase.The study also included an isolation and partial purification of ADA using gel filtration chromatography from benign and malignant colon tumor tissues. the results indicated that the number of purification fold for the ADA was (10 and 12) from benign and malignant colon tumors respectively.The approximate molecular weight of ADA by gel filtration using sephadex G-100 were (31622 Dalton, 39810 Dalton) for benign and malignant tumors respectively.The optimum condition of ADA for the peak separated from malignant tumors showed an optimum reaction incubation time at (30) minutes, pH at (6.3), temperature at (37°C) and the substrate concentration was about (0.021mM). when we used linweaver - Burk plot, the maximum velocity (V max) and Michaelis -menten constant(Km) where found to be (31.25 mU/ml) and (10.310-3mM) respectively. Also in this investigation we was studied the inhibiters of ADA by Zn+2, Ag+1, Ca+2, Mg+2, Hgcl2, Fe+2 benign but not by Fe+3.

تضمن البحث الحالي قياس فعالية انزيم الادينوسين دي أمينيز في أنسجة مرضى أورام القولون الحميدة والخبيثة. جمعت العينات من المرضى المراجعين لوحدة الجراحة في مشفى الجمهوري التعليمي في محافظة نينوى، العدد الكلي للمرضى (6) كان (3) منهم يعانون من ورم القولون الحميد و(3) من ورم القولون الخبيث. أشارت النتائج الى ارتفاع معنوي للفعالية في الورم الحميد و الخبيث (32.4, 84.55 ملي وحدة) على التوالي والذي يمثل زيادة معنوية قدرها (50%).كما تضمنت الدراسة أيضا عزل وتنقية الانزيم باستخدام تقنية الترشيح الهلامي لأنسجة ورم القولون الحميد والخبيث وأشارت النتائج أن عدد مرات التنقية قد بلغت (10 ، 12) مرة في النسيج الحميد والخبيث على التوالي. عند تقدير الوزن الجزيئي للأنزيم بتقنية الترشيح الهلامي وباستخدام السفدكس G-100 بلغ 31622 دالتون و39810 دالتون) للورم الحميد والخبيث على التوالي. تم تثبيت الظروف المثالية لفعالية الأنزيم في الورم الخبيث وبينت النتائج ان اعلى فعالية كانت عند 30 دقيقة وبدالة حامضية 6.3 ودرجة حرارة Cº37 و بتركيز مادة أساس (0.021 ملي مولر) وعند استعمال رسم لاينوفر - برك لتعيين السرعة القصوى وثابت مكيلس- منتن وجد أنها تساوي (31.25 ملي وحدة/مل) (10.3×10-3 ملي مولر) على التوالي. كما تم دراسة بعض المثبطات لفعالية الأنزيم وكانت Mg+2, Ca+2, Ag+1, Zn+2 , Hgcl2,Fe+2 لكن لم يلاحظ ذلك باستخدام Fe+3.


Article
Image processing Techniques for study of colon tumors samPles

Authors: We'dad A- Kader --- Ziacl M' Abood --- Salah M- Ali
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2009 Issue: 3 Pages: 310-320
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this research, we present many digital image processlngteaohings to a novel upp.ouih to thc aided analysis of digital image forcolon Ju.rr", detection. We have the image (which is the studysamples in the form of a finite thiclmess tissue sections on slide glass)by using the optical microscopic connect directly u'ith a computer bydigital camera.First,usingasupervised-cross-correlation-testing(sccT)method is developed and used to differentiate between normal andabnormal tissue's irnug", of colon cancer, with measurement the meanand standard deviation of these samples'Second, making a comparison clepending on histogram andweightage of RGB iolors between normal and abnormal samples'


Article
Serological markers “CEA test & sAPRIL test” in Iraqi patients with colon cancer
العلامات المصلية "اختبار CEA واختبار sAPRIL" في المرضى العراقيين الذين يعانون من سرطان القولون

Authors: Aqeel Sh. Mahmood د. عقيل شاكر محمود --- Sarmad M.H. Zeiny د. سرمد محمد زيني --- Aqeel H. Mahmood د. عقيل حاتم محمد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2017 Volume: 59 Issue: 4 Pages: 317-320
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Colonic cancer is a very common disease world-wide being fourth most common cancer characterized by abnormal proliferation of the inner wall of colon then taking full colon wall thickness then spreading to surrounding lymph nodes and tissues and finally distant metastasis. It is one of most complicated diseases with debilitating symptoms which becomes more sever , prominent and specific with advancing stage with high percent of fatality and relatively short survival if diagnosed late or if left untreated.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of serum CEA & sAPRIL levels in the diagnosis and screening of colon cancer and their validity for this.Patients and methods: This study was applied on 35 patients with colonic cancer, 35 patients with benign polyps and 15 negative controls. All individuals were subjected to blood sampling for measuring their serum CEA & sAPRIL using ELISA technique.Results: In this study, majority of patients with colon cancer were presented at ages between 53-82 years of age (mean 68.5±6.4 years). Serum levels of sAPRIL & CEA were significantly elevated in those patients with advancing stages (C & D) compared with stages (A & B) and lower levels were found in patients who had surgical removal of tumor or received chemotherapy. Also a positive relation was found between sAPRIL & CEA with alcohol intake and smokingConclusion: according to this study sample it was found that sAPRIL and CEA together are strong indicators for colon cancer screening & diagnosis, and by this will reduce the need for more invasive screening & diagnostic tools.Keywords: colon cancer, tumor marker, CEA, sAPRIL.

خلفية: سرطان القولون هو مرض شائع جدا في جميع أنحاء العالم كونها رابع السرطان الأكثر شيوعا التي تتميز انتشار غير طبيعي للجدار الداخلي القولون في البداية ثم أخذ كامل سمك جدار القولون ثم إلى الغدد الليمفاوية والأنسجة المحيطة وأخيرا الى الانسجة البعيدة. وهو واحد من أكثر الأمراض تعقيدا مع الأعراض المنهكة التي تصبح أكثر قسوة، بارزة ومحددة مع تقدم مرحلة مع نسبة عالية من الوفيات والنجاة قصيرة نسبيا إذا تم تشخيصها في وقت متأخر أو إذا تركت دون علاج.الهدف: تقييم فعالية مستويات المصل CEA & sAPRIL في تشخيص وفحص سرطان القولون وصلاحيتها لهذا الغرض.المرضى والأساليب: تم تطبيق هذه الدراسة على 35 مريضا مع سرطان القولون، 35 مريضا مع الاورام الحميدة و 14 الضوابط السلبية. تم إخضاع جميع الأفراد لأخذ عينات الدم لقياس مصل الدم CEA & sAPRIL باستخدام تقنية ELISA.النتائج: وجدت هذه الدراسة أن اصابات سرطان القولون في أعمار تتراوح بين 53-82 سنة من العمر (يعني 68.5 ± 6.4 سنة من العمر).مستويات مصل الدم من sAPRIL كانت مرتفعة بشكل ملحوظ في المرضى الذين يعانون من مراحل متقدمة (C & D) مقارنة مع مراحل (A & B) ومستويات أقل وجدت في المرضى الذين أجروا عملية جراحية لإزالة الورم أو تلقوا العلاج الكيميائي.أيضا علاقة إيجابية وجدت بين sAPRIL مع تناول الكحول والتدخين، ومع ذلك، مستويات أقل أهمية والعلاقات وجدت معCEA .الاستنتاج: سابريل و سي هي مؤشرات قوية لفحص سرطان القولون والتشخيص للحد من أكثر الغازية وفحص أدوات التشخيص، ويجري مؤشر أكثر قوة معا من كل واحد وحده.الکلمات الدالة: سرطان القولون، ورم علامة، CEA & sAPRIL.

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