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Article
The efficiency of Color Models layers at Color Images as Cover in text hiding
كفاءة طبقات المجالات اللونية للصور الملونة كغطاء في اخفاء النص

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Abstract

The color images are used widely as a cover in hiding of the information. Since the variety of applications of the color image there are several color models of color image. Most color models consist of three layers. The nature of the color mode of the cover plays a main role in determining the robustness and security of hiding algorithm.The objective of this paper tests the layers, components, of the color models of cover color images, to figure out which color layer of each color model is best (less affected) to use as a cover to hide information within each color model in the hiding process. The experiments concentrate on the hiding texts in two positions of each layer, 7th bits and 8th bits (LSB). Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) were used to measure the affected of hidden text in layers. The tests were done on nine colors models: RGB, HSV, HIS, HSL, HSB, YCbCr, La*b*, LUV and CMYK.The results show that some of color models have best layer to hide text such as YCbCr, HSI, CMYK, HSL and LUV . In other color models which have been tested, there is not a distinctive layer. The layer H is the worst because any hiding leaves a clear impact on the cover image.

تستخدم الصور الملونة على نطاق واسع كغطاء في اخفاء المعلومات .ونظرا لتطبيقات الصور الملونة ، ظهرت العديد من النماذج اللونية للصورة الملونة. تتكون معظم نماذج الألوان من ثلاث طبقات. وتلعب طبيعة المجال اللوني للغطاء دور مهم في تحديد قوة وأمن خوارزمية الاخفاء.يهدف هذا البحث الى فحص مكونات (طبقات) مجالات الألوان لصور الغطاء لمعرفة أي طبقة لونية في كل نموذج لوني هو أفضل (أقل تأثرا) بحيث يمكن ان تستخدم كغطاء لإخفاء المعلومات ضمن النموذج اللوني في عملية الاختباء. ركزت التجارب على اخفاء المعلومات في موقعين من كل طبقة، هما الموقع الثنائي الثامن (البت الاقل اهمية) والموقع السابع . وبعد ذلك استخدم المقياسين متوسط مربع الخطأ (MSE) والذروة إشارة إلى نسبة الضوضاء (PSNR) لقياس كفاءة كل من نماذج الألوان وطبقات كل نموذج.تم اجراء الاختبارات على النماذج اللونية التالية : RGB, HSV, HIS, HSL2, HSB, YCbCr, LUV, HSL La*b*, CMYK, . اوضحت النتائج بان بعض المجالات اللونية فيها طبقات اقل تأثرا من اخفاء النصوص ضمنها . بينما في نماذج اخرى لاتوجد طبقة متميزة بقدرتها على اخفاء المعلومات . وكانت الطبقة H هي الاسوء لان اي اخفاء يترك تأثير واضح على الصورة الغطاء.


Article
COLOR IMAGE COMPRESSION USING RIDGELET TRANSFORM AND SPIHT QUANTIZATION IMAGE VIDEO
ضغط الصورة الفيديوية الملونة باستخدام Ridgelet Transform وتكميمها باستخدام SPIHT

Authors: Rafah Abdul Hadi --- Seham Ahmed Al-Musewy --- Walid A.Mahmoud
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 70-87
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

An effective image coding technique which involves transforming the image into another domain with Ridgelet function and then quantizing the coefficients with modified threshold. Ridgelet functions are effective in representing functions that have discontinuities along straight lines. Normal Wavelet transforms fail to represent such functions effectively. This paper shows the application of wavelet analysis to image compression. All of the four steps in compression namally transform, quantization, and coding. achieved quantization part deals with the translation of large set of data into a smaller set. On the other hand, coding deal with the representation of these transformed and quantizaed data into bits. Acomplete implementation, with remarkable results, are presented. The results obtained from the combination of ridgelet gave much better performance than that obtained from the Wavelet ,and multiwavelet Transform with ridgelet transforms.

ان كفاءة تقنية تشفير الصورة تتضمن تحويل الصورة الى مجال اخر( Ridglelet Function) مع تكميم وتعديل المعاملات التي تتمثل باستمرار على خط مستقيم . فشل تحويل Wavelet transforms في تمثيل كفاءة الدوال.هذا البحث بين تطبيق لتحليلات Wavelet لضغط الصورة الفديوية الملونة. وتحقيق اربعة مراحل لضغط وتحويل وتكميم جزء التكميم يتعامل مع ارسال مجموعة كبيرة من البيانات في مجموعة صغيرة بالاضافة الى ان التشفيريتعامل مع تكميم وتحويل البيانات من حيث Bit.وتم الحصول على خوارزمية ضغط الصورة بنيت على تقنية ترميز فعال والذي يتضمن تكميم معاملاات التحويل ( Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tree ) تقسيم الترتيب في اشجار هرمية. ان هذا التنفيذ يظهر ان ضغط الصورة باستخدام عملية التحويل الهجين هو افضل كثيراً من الضغط باستخدام التحويل المفرد ( Wavelet& multiwavelet Transform with ridgelet transforms ).


Article
Building Colour Effects on the Ambient Temperature
تأثير الوان البنايات على درجة حرارة المحيط

Authors: Asmaa.Hassan Moslim اسماء حسن مسلم --- Baha'a A.M.Al-Hilli بهاء عبد الرسول مجيد --- Asraa.Hadi اسراءهادي
Journal: Journal of College of Education مجلة كلية التربية ISSN: 18120380 Year: 2016 Issue: 5 Pages: 263-270
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this research we study the effect of colours buildings on the amount of absorption and reflection of solar radiation that incident upon it and thus its impact on the rising ambient temperatures, we has been taking several tiles as a symbols for building material buildings, were painted with several colours refer to colour buildings and measure a power of solar radiation that falling on the tiles and temperatures that emitted from the tiles with the time ,The tiles were most colours darkness it be highest in temperature according to a mount of absorbed solar radiation.

تم في هذا البحث دراسة تأثير الوان البنايات على مقدار امتصاصها وانعكاسها للإشعاع الشمسي الساقط عليها وبالتالي تأثيرها على ارتفاع معدلات درجات حرارة المحيط بها فقد تم اخذ عدة بلاطات كرموز لمادة بناء البنايات وتم صبغها بعدة الوان وقياس معدلات الاشعاع الشمسي الساقط ودرجات الحرارة المنبعثة من البلاطات مع الزمن وكانت البلاطات الاكثر الوانها عتمة اعلى درجة حرارة تبعا الى مقدار امتصاصها للإشعاع الشمسي.


Article
The effect of accelerated artificial aging on color change of three different types of composite (in vitro study)

Author: Dr. Zainab Shaker Al-Taii, B.D.S, M.Sc.* د. زينب شاكر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-17
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The greater demand for esthetic in the modern life with the simplified bondingsteps for composite filling increase its universal use but their gradual change incolor over time make their replacement very important, the aim of this study is thecomparison among different type of composite to see which type is the best colorstability in the clinical work .Material and method :30 samples of three different materials have been made ,thefirst group is 10 samples fabricated from Filtek z250 ,the second group is 10samples fabricated from Filtek z250xt and the third group is 10 samples fabricatedfrom z350xt .All the samples color parameters were measured before placing inaccelerated weathering tester (time 0)then all the samples were placed in theaccelerated weathering tester for 150 h and 300h then the color parameters weremeasured from which the change in color had been measured. Statistical analysiswas performed by using ANOVA repeated measure test to see if there were anysignificant difference among the ΔE of experimental groupsResults : the results show that the z250 have the highest color stability as comparedwith other types of composite used in this study while the z350xt results show thelowest color stability also the result show that there's high significant differenceamong all groups among different time interval used in the studyConclusion: the change in color above the clinically acceptable threshold (3.3) wasseen in all types of composite used in this study and that the z 250xt shows theleast change in color.


Article
Study Fire Detection Based On Color Spaces

Authors: Hazim Gati' Dway --- Ahmed Fakhir Mutar
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal of Science مجلة علوم المستنصرية ISSN: 1814635X Year: 2018 Volume: 29 Issue: 4 Pages: 93-99
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

In this paper, the fire color feature is analysis and test on a set of color spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr, Lab, Yiq) to account the hue component and determination the best color space to represent the properties of fire and used in fire detection to increase accuracy and reduce the detection time and false alarms, four common types of fire (wood, cork, cloth, paper or cardboard ) were used to compare them with an image containing all the basic colors and analyze them and calculating Scale factor that depending on the histogram for hues value.

في هذا البحث تم تحليل واختبار خصائص لون النار واختبارها على الفضاءات اللونية (RGB, HSV, YCbCr, Lab, Yiq) ,لحساب مكون الـ (hue) وتحديد أفضل فضاء لوني لتمثيل خصائص النار واستخدامها في الكشف عن الحرائق لزيادة الدقة وتقليل وقت الكشف والإنذارات الكاذبة. وقد تم استخدام أربعة أنواع شائعة من النار (الخشب والفلين والقماش والورق اوالكرتون) لمقارنتها مع صورة تحتوي على جميع الألوان الأساسية وتحليلها من خلال حساب عامل المقياس بالاعتمادا على الرسم البياني ل قيمة اللون (hue) للأشكال.


Article
Tamper Detection in Color Image

Authors: Ali Kadhim Mousa --- Khalid Kadhim Jabbar
Journal: Journal Of AL-Turath University College مجلة كلية التراث الجامعة ISSN: 20745621 Year: 2012 Issue: 12 Pages: 157-182
Publisher: Heritage College كلية التراث الجامعة

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Abstract

في هذه الورقه البحثيه نقدم العلامه المائيه من نوع semi – Fragile Watermark كموثوقيه للصوره الملونه بعد ان يتم تضمين صوره ثنائيه (شعار) Binary logo في غطاء الصوره الملونه الاصليه(frequency domain under DCT transform) ليتم فيما بعد اكتشاف اي تلاعب مقصود في الصوره من دون الحاجه الى الصوره الاصلية ((Blind لتحديد مكان التلاعب. هذه الطريق لها القدره على التمييز بين التلاعب المقصود والتلاعب الغير مقصود من خلال تعريضها الى مختلف انواع التلاعب.تم تقييم جودة الصوره الناتجه من عملية الاخفاء بالاعتماد على قيمة (PSNR), وبالاعتماد على قيمة (MSE) في تقييم مدى التشويه الحاصل في العلامة المائية المسترجعه.

This paper present a semi-fragile watermark for image authentication and blind tamper detection under DCT (discrete cosine transform) domain, for color BMP image (DCT based). It depend on a type of attack, and the proposed method disunity between intended and un- intended attack (malicious and an malicious attack). The proposed method was tested under different attack and it was found it provides a good detection performance and it has ability for opposition the intended attack with observance of image quality. Distortion on a watermarked image and recover watermark computed by using PSNR and MSE.

Keywords

Tamper --- Detection in --- Color Image


Article
THE VALUE OF ULTRASOUND AND COLOR-DOPPLER FEATURES IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SINGLE SOLID THYROID NODULE

Authors: Laith A Khalaf ليث احمد خلف --- Hussain A Abdul-Shaheed حسين عداي عبد الشهيد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 287-292
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The use of ultrasound (US) in the assessment of thyroid disease has greatly increased the detection of small thyroid nodules unrecognized at clinical examination.Objective:To determine the accuracy of the diagnosis of the nature of solitary thyroid nodule by ultrasound in comparison with histopathological findings and to correlate the different sonographic and color-Doppler (CFD) findings with the results of histopathology of resected nodules.Methods:The nodule size, echogenicity, presence/absence of calcification, lesion margins and vascular pattern of 63 patients with solitary thyroid nodule referred for US assessment).Results:Twenty four patients (38.1%) had malignant thyroid nodules and 39 patients (61.9%) had benign nodules as confirmed by histopathology. The large nodules show benign histopathological finding more than the small nodules (no significant difference; 56.5% vs. 25.4%, respectively). Histologically-confirmed malignant lesions show hypoechoic appearance and calcification more than benign nodules. The Malignant lesions presented more frequently than did benign nodules as solid hypoechoic appearance and irregular or blurred margins (52.2% vs. 47.8%;), and intranodular vascular pattern with calcification (63.3% vs. 36.4%) and the sensitivity and specificity by ultrasound in the evaluation of these nodules will be more and have highly diagnostic accuracy (58.3%, 79.49%, 71.5% respectively) in comparison to the former feature (50%, 71.79%, 63.5% respectively).Conclusion:We conclude that the typical appearance of nodules in thyroid carcinoma is irregular hypoechoic mass with internal vascularity and calcifications. Uncommon appearances of carcinoma include hyperechoic texture, intrinsic hypovascularity, and sharp regular contours. Uncommon sonographic features were found to occur more often than expected.Keywords:Thyroid nodule, ultrasound, color Doppler


Article
The effect of various staining agents on color stability of acrylic denture teeth materials. (In vitro study)

Authors: Farhan Dakhil Salman --- Raya Mohammed Jawad Al- Gaban
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 199-210
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

The aims of this study was to evaluated of effect the color stability of acrylic denture teeth when exposed to common beverages (coffee, tea and cola) with evaluate of change in the different time after [24 hour, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month] to obtain on high aesthetic of acrylic denture teeth.The color stability of acrylic denture teeth is very important factor influencing consumer's acceptability of the aesthetic. The stain solution is effecting the teeth when immersing for long time that replacement of natural color of acrylic teeth, additives has contributed in increasing the color change which result unacceptable of prosthodontic the acrylic denture teeth. In present study (128) samples were immersed into three staining drinks (coffee, tea and cola) as test groups and distilled water as a control group. Color stability measurements of teeth were performed by using a spectrophotometer device. The Color change values were determined after [24 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month] of immersion.The Result of the Color stability variable analysis differences were used ANOVA and LSD. The color stability of all denture teeth was a high significant difference (p< 0.01) affected by the immersion of stain solution period. Cola was found to be the most the color change of the denture teeth because that the composition of the cola is the phosphoric acid which lead to scratch of the enemal surface of the denture teeth, also pure agent- materials among the solutions tested (p<0.01). It was concluded that acrylic denture teeth exposed to higher degree of color change and that depended on the amount of color change in each group that increased proportionally with time.

الهدف من هذه الدراسة تقييم تاثير ثباتية اللون للاسنان الاكريكلية عند غمرها بالسوائل التالية وهي( القهوة، الشاي والكولا)مع تقييم التغير في الاوقات المختلفة وهي( 24 ساعة، اسبوع واحد، اسبوعين والشهر واحد) للحصول على اعلى جمالية للاسنان الاكريكلية. ثباتية اللون للاسنان الاكريكلية مهمة جدا كعامل مؤثر على جمالية الاسنان، سوائل الصبغات مؤثرة على الاسنان عند غمرها لمدة طويلة وبالتالي تؤدي الى تعويض اللون الطبيعي للاسنان الطبيعية. السوائل تشترك بالزيادة التغير اللون الطبيعي وتعطي تعويضات غير مقبولة للاسنان الاكريكلية.في هذه الدراسة تم استخدام (128) غمرت في ثلاث انواع من السوائل الملونة وهي( القهوة، الشاي والكولا) كمجاميع للفحص وبالاضافة الى المجموعة القياسية وهو الماء المقطر. ثباتية اللون تم قياسه للاسنان الاكريكلية بواسطة جهاز(spectrophotometer). التغير باللون تم قياسه للاوقات التالية وهي( 24 ساعة، اسبوع واحد، اسبوعين والشهر واحد) بعد الغمر بالسوائل المستخدمة في هذه الدراسة.اظهرت النتائج من خلال استخدام المتغيرات المعتمدة في كل الفحوصات ان هناك اختلاف كبير بين المجاميع في التحليل الاحصائي باستخدام الاختبار(ANOVA) و(LSD) ما عدا الكولا وجد بانه اكثر متغير من المحاليل وذلك لانها تتكون من مواد حامضية وهو حامض الفسفوريك التي تؤدي الى تاكل سطح السن وايضا صبغة نقية اكثر من المحاليل الاخرى. يمكن الاستنتاج بانه الاسنان الاكريكلية اكثر عرضة الى تغير اللون ويعتمد كمية تغير اللون في كل مجموعة زيادة بالشكل تناسبي مع زيادة الوقت.


Article
The value of ultrasound and color doppler ultrasonography in the evaluation of periapical lesions in comparison to histopathological and/or surgical findings

Authors: Mithaq A. Zebun --- Ahlam A. Fattah احلام فتاح
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 59-66
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Imaging techniques play a very important role in the specialty of endodontic. The ultrasonographictechnique is non-expensive procedure, safe, and reproducible. The aim of the study was to determine the sensitivity,specificity, and accuracy of ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasonography in evaluation of periapical lesions (cyst,granuloma, mixed lesion “cyst within graulomas mass”, and abscess.Subject, Material and method: The sample consists of prospective study for 64 Iraqi participants who attendedKarbalaa Specialized Center for Dentistry (males & females).Those patients were diagnosed clinically and radiographically as having periapical lesions of dental origin. They wereexamined by real time ultrasound and color Doppler ultrasonography with echographic predilection about the typeof the lesion based on three parameters measured by ultrasound including: content, outline, and the vascularity. Theechographic diagnosis was compared to the final histopathological and /or surgical findings obtained from theperiapical surgeries.Results: The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound diagnosis were respectively as follow: for periapicalcyst, they were 92.3%, 96.1%, and 95.3%. While for periapical granulomam, they were 87.0%, 92.7%, and 90.6%. Formixed lesions, they were 66.7%, 98.4%, and 96.9% and lastly for periapical abscess, they were 92.0%, 97.4%, and 95.3%.The ultrasound diagnosis in our study had an overall agreement of 89% between ultrasound diagnosis and finaldiagnosis based on histopathological and/ or surgical findings.Conclusion: Ultrasound is a non- invasive, low cost, and complementary method for examination and diagnosis ofperiapical lesions and there is correlation of ultrasonographic findings with histopathological and /or surgical findingsfor final diagnosis.


Article
Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch-wires after Immersion into Different Types of Mouthwashes (In Vitro Study)

Authors: Lubna Maky Hussein لبنى مكي حسين --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 100-105
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Because of the demands for aesthetic orthodontic appliances have increased, aesthetic archwires have been widely used to meet patient's aesthetic needs. The color stability of aesthetic archwires is clinically important, any staining or discoloration will affect patient’s acceptance and satisfaction. This study was designed to evaluate the color stability of different types of aesthetic archwires after immersion into different types of mouth washes.Materials and methods: Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires: Epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H) and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit) were evaluated after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks of immersion into two types of mouthwashes (Listerine with alcohol and Listerine without alcohol). Color change measurements were performed by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to the commission Internationale de I’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system.Results: The results of this study showed that there were highly significant differences in color change values among all brands of aesthetic archwires at various immersion media. On the other hand, a significant difference was found between Dany and Orthotechnology aesthetic archwires at 1 week immersion in distilled water. Listerine with alcohol mouthwash produced more color changes of aesthetic archwires and color change value increases with the time of immersion.Conclusions: All brands of aesthetic archwires showed different degrees of color changes but most of these changes were not visible or clinically acceptable

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