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Article
Nonlinear analysis of hollow slender reinforced concrete columns under eccentric loading

Authors: Assist Prof. Ihsan A. S. Al- Shaarbaf --- Asst. Prof. Dr. Mohammed J. Hamood --- Emad A. Abood Al- Zaidy
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: ISSN: 27066894 (Online) ISSN: 27066908 (Print) Year: 2018 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 109-129
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

In this paper the behavior of slender reinforced concrete columns with longitudinal hole under axial compression load and uniaxial bending was investigated. The specimens of the research includes the analysis of eight slender columns of dimensions (150 150 1300 mm). the nonlinear finite element analysis has been carried out using ANSYS computer program (version 16.1) to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete slender columns with longitudinal hole. Two parameters are considered (longitudinal steel ratio of the column longitudinal bars and grade of longitudinal steel reinforcement(fy)). The results showed that when the steel ratio is increased in hollow reinforced concrete slender columns, the ultimate load is appreciable increased. Four different values of steel ratios (1.6%,2.3%,3.2% and 4.2%) were used in the numerical analysis, the ultimate load is increased by(0.00%,7.14%, 17.59% and 35.51%) respectively. Also, the increase in the steel ratio resulted in decreasing the tensile steel stresses specially at the tension face of the slender column which finally leads to increase the load carrying capacity. The finite element solution revealed that the effect of using different values of yield stress was insignificant at early stages of loading and almost all the numerical columns had the same values of deflections and stresses at the same load level up to a tensile stress value in steel about 300 MPa. At stages close to ultimate load, deflections and tensile stress values were different for the considered numerical columns. , it was noted that, the selected four grades of steel (350, 450, 550 and 650) MPa led to increase the ultimate load by about (0.00%,19.98%, 31.97%, 41.12%) respectively.

تناول هذا البحث سلوك الاعمدة الخرسانية المسلحة النحيفة والمجوفة تحت تأثير حمل انضغاط محوري و عزم احادي المحور. عينات البحث تتضمن فحص ثمانية اعمدة بأبعاد (150*150*1300ملم). استعمل التحليل العددي اللا خطي بالاستعانة بطريقة العناصر المحددة بواسطة برنامج الحاسوب (ِANSYS 16.1) ليحاكي سلوك الاعمدة النحيفة الخرسانية المسلحة والمجوفة. تم دراسة متغيرين هما نسبة حديد التسليح الطولي و اجهاد الخضوع لحديد التسليح الطولي. وجد بان زيادة نسبة حديد التسليح في الاعمدة الخرسانية المسلحة النحيفة والمجوفة بالمقادير (6‚1%و 3‚2%و 2‚3%و 2‚4%) تزيد الحمل الاقصى بالنسب (0‚0%، 1‚7%، 6‚17%، 5‚35% ). وكذلك وجد بان زيادة نسبه حديد التسلح الطولي ادت الى نقصان في اجهادات حديد الشد في جانب الشد في الاعمدة النحيفة وبالتالي ادى الى زيادة الحمل الاقصى للعمود. كما وافصح التحليل العددي بان تاثير اجهاد الخضوع للحديد الطولي غير مؤثر في المراحل المبكرة للتحميل من حيث قيم الانفعالات والاجهادات المتولدة في العمود الى ان يبلغ اجهاد الشد (300 ميكا باسكال). وعند اقتراب الحمل المسلط من الحمل الاقصى عندها يبدأ اختلاف قيم الانفعالات والاجهادات. لوحظ بان الانواع الاربعة من اجهادات الخضوع للحديد (350،450 ،550 ،650 ميكا باسكال) ادت الى زيادة الحمل الاقصى بحوالي (0.0%، 20% ، 32% ، 5‚41%) بالتتابع


Article
Comparison between Sand Columns and Sand Columns Stabilized with Lime or Cement with Stone Columns Embedded in Soft Soil

Authors: Ahmed S.A. Al-Gharbawi --- Nawres A.A. Rajab
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 15 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2805-2815
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Sand and stone columns are used to improve bearing capacity of soft clayey soils… because of their stiffness which is higher than the soil was replaced, the compacted columns… produce shearing resistances which provide vertical support… for overlying structures… or embankments. Also the sand… and stone columns… accelerate the settlement… in the native surrounding soil… and improve the load settlement… characteristics… of foundation. The technique… consists of excavating… holes of specific… dimensions and arrangement… in the soft soil… and backfilling… them with either… sand or… stone particles. The present work investigates the behavior of soft soil reinforced with group of stone columns, sand columns and sand columns stabilized with lime or cement. The percentage of lime and cement used in this research, were determined previously in papers of single sand column stabilized with lime and cement, 11% by weight lime and 9% by weight cement. The model tests were carried out on a soil with undrained shear strength ranging between 16-18 kPa. The models consist of eight… columns at area replacement ratio of (0.196) in square pattern, the holes 50 mm in… diameter and 300 mm… in length were excavated… in a bed… of soft soil. The holes… were backfilled… with stone, sand and sand… stabilized with lime or cement particles. Each group… of columns was loaded… gradually through… a rectangular… rigid footing, its dimensions… 400×200 mm with 50 mm thickness, up to failure… with continuous… monitoring of the settlement. The test… results are analyzed… in terms… of bearing improvement… ratio… and settlement reduction… ratio for all… columns… and in terms… of the stress… concentration… ratio and… stiffness ratio. The results show that the improvement in bearing capacity was about 70% and 62% for sand columns stabilized by lime and cement respectively, and the improvement in bearing capacity was about 42% and 34% for sand columns stabilized by lime and cement compared with stone columns respectively.


Article
REMOVAL OF COPPER ION FROM WASTEWATER BY FLOTATION

Authors: Farah I. Abed --- Ahmed A. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 6 Pages: 1483-1491
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Several industrial wastewater streams may contain heavy metal ions, which must be effectively removal before the discharge or reuse of treated waters could take place. In this paper, the removal of copper( II) by foam flotation from dilute aqueous solutions was investigated at laboratory scale. The effects of various parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, initial copper concentration, air flow rate, hole diameter of the gas distributor, and NaCl addition were tested in a bubble column of 6 cm inside diameter and 120 cm height. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and Hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HTAB) were used as anionic and cationic surfactant, respectively. Ethanol was used as frothers and the optimal removal conditions have been established. Successful removals about (98%) and (76%) could be achieved for copper ions with SDS and HTAB, respectively. Copper removal reached about 80% under the optimum conditions at low pH; at high pH it became as high as 98% probably due to the contribution from the flotation of precipitated copper. It was found that the presence of NaCl in the solution reduced the recoveries. Adding ethanol at 1% concentration increased the removal efficiency. From the results the rate of flotation was found to be first order


Article
Bioequivalence of Two Formulations of Amoxicillin in Human Healthy Volunteers on (HPLC) Technique

Author: Alaa K. Jabbar Alhamd
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2010 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-20
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Amoxicillin is commercially available in the form of capsules and tablets containing 250mg or 500mg for oral administration. It is also available in the form of suspension containing "25mg/ml” . Amoxicillin is presently used as the most common antibiotics .Ten healthy Human volunteers were characterized respected to their pharmacokinetic and bioavailability of two formulations of Amoxicillin from two sources of industrial companies after a single dose administration was given orally. A procedure is described for determination the concentration levels of Amoxicillin in human plasma of healthy volunteers using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with reversed-phase isocratic column at low wave length of UV-visible detection "230nm". An efficient drug extraction procedure was used for the separation of Amoxicillin after simple extraction with cold methanol using ODS-C18-DB column. The pharmacokinetic 500mg of Amoxicillin capsule orally administrated treatment through 10 hours has been examined. The Amoxicillin was eluted for "10.0 minutes" at flow Rate "1.5ml/min." and Temperature equal to 298 K .The retention time of Amoxicillin was observed at 7.0 minutes. The mean absolute recovery of Amoxicillin in blood plasma of all healthy volunteers were 94.1% at 1.0ppm, 102% at 5.0ppm, 103% at 10.0ppm 102% at 20ppm, 99.3% at 40ppm and 104% at 50ppm respectively. The assay showed excellent relationships between area under the curve ratios and drug concentration levels (P>0.002) .Oral Amoxicillin administration in ten healthy volunteers gave maximum concentration peak plasma at two hours and decline through ten hours. Treatment with Iraqi formulation Amoxicillin produced higher area under the curve “AUC” and maximum concentration “C (max)” of Amoxicillin than Indian formulation.

يتوفر الاموكسيلين تجاريا على شكل كبسولات و حبوب تحتوي الاولى على 250 ملي غرام والثانية على 500 ملي غرام كماويتوفر على شكل محلول عالق بتركيز 25 ملي غرام / ملي لتر حيث توخذ الجرعة عن طريق الفم ويعتبر الاموكسلين المضادالحيوي الاكثر أستخداما . درست حركية الدواء والتوافر الحيوي على توليفتين من كبسولات الاموكسلين لشركتين مختلفتين طبقتعلى عشرة من الناس الاصحاء المتطوعين بجرعة 500 ملي غرام اخذت عن طريق الفم . توضح الطريقة التي حسبت فيها مستوياتتراكيز الاموكسيلين في بلازما الدم لعدد من الناس الاصحاء والمتطوعين باستخدام جهاز كروموتوغرفيا السائل ذات الاداء العالي.( ODS-C18-DB) على نماذج بلازما الدم استخلص منها الاموكسيلين بالميثانول المبرد على عمود من نوع (HPLC)عينت مستويات تراكيز الاموكسيلين على جهاز كروموتوغرافيا السائل ذات الاداء العالي بزمن قدره عشر دقائق وبسرعة طورمتحرك 1.5 ملي ليتر / دقيقة وبمحيط حراري 298 درجة كلفن و وقت الاحتجاز للاموكسيلين 7 دقائق , حسبت النسبة المئوية, 99.3 , 102 , 103 , 102 , 50 بي بي أم )على التوالي ( 94.1 , 40 , 20 , 10 , 5 , للاسترجاع في بلازما الدم للتراكيز( 1اشارت النتائج بان اعلى تركيز في بلازما الدم تكون خلال ساعتين من وقت الجرعة المأخوذة ( P> %104 ) بمستوى ثقة ( 0.002عن طريق الفم ثم يبدأ التركيز بالنزول حتى الساعة العاشرة من وقت الجرعة كما وان النتائج اشارت بان سلوك التكافوء الحيويللتوليفتين غير مشابه والاختلاف في المساحة والتركيز الاعلى للتوليفتيين لان التوليفة العراقية اعلى توافر حيوي من التوليفة الهندية .


Article
Rate-Based Model In Bubble-Cup Batch Distillation Column
النمذجة المعتمدة على معدل انتقال المادة و الطاقة لعمود تقطير الدفعات ذو الصواني الفقاعية

Authors: Nada B. Nakkash --- Neran K. Ibrahim --- Salah S. Ibrahim
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 14 Pages: 2566-2583
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present work concerned with studying the behavior of batchmulticomponent plate distillation tower using Rate-Base model (Non-Equilibrium model) theoretically and experimentally. The experimental work was performed by using a batch distillation column consisting of eight bubble-cup trays. A zeotropic (nonazeotropic) system of Benzene, Toluene, and Ethylbenzene (B-T-EB) has beenused. In the experimental work the effect of reflux ratio, heat duty, and initial charge composition on the batch distillation process have been studied. The range of reflux ratio was 1 - 4, heat duty was 222 and 336 Watt, and the initial charge composition was 0.2 - 0.5 mole fraction of the light component (benzene) and for the heavy component (ethylbenzene). The theoretical work was performed through several steps in order to construct and develop a model based on simultaneous heat and mass transfer between vapor and liquid phases called “Nonequilibrium or Rate-Based model”, which is based on MERSHQ equations (Material, Energy balances, Rate of mass and heat transfer, Summation of composition Hydrodynamic equation of pressure drop, and eQuilibrium relation The performance and validity of the developed non-equilibrium-based model gave a good agreement with the experimental work on Benzene-Toluene- EthylBenzene system.

تم دراسة سلوكية عمود تقطير الدفعات ذو الصواني لخليط متعدد المكونات عملياً و نظرياً. الدراسة العملية أنجزت من خلال إجراء التجارب باستخدام عمود لتقطير الدفعات يتألف من ثمان صواني فقاعية. تم استخدام نظام اعتيادي (غير ايزوتروبي) مؤلف من البنزين والتلوين والاثيل بنزين. الدراسة العملية تضمنت دراسة تأثير نسبة الراجع و الحمل الحراري والتركيب الابتدائي المشحون في إناء الغلاية على عملية التقطير ذوالدفعات .نسبة الراجع التي تم دراستها كانت من 0.5- 4 -1 والحمل الحراري كان 222 و 336 واط أما التركيب الابتدائي المشحون فكان 0.2 كسر مولي بالنسبة لكل من المادة الخفيفة (البنزين) والمادة الثقيلة ا(لاثيل بنزين) . الدراسة النظرية أنجزت من خلال عدة خطوات لغرض إنشاء و تطوير موديل معتمد على أسلوب النمذجة المعتمدة على انتقال الكتلة والطاقة المترادفة بين الأطوار والتي تدعى "النمذجة المعتمدةوهي مختصر MERSHQ على عدم التوازن أو (معدل الجريان)" والتي تعتمد على معادلات لانتقال المادة والطاقة ومعدل جريان المادة والطاقة مع جمع التراكيب وكذلك المعادلة الهيدرودينميكية لهبوط الضغط بالإضافة إلى علاقات التوازن. أداء الموديل أعطى توافق جيد مع النتائج العملية.


Article
Experimental Behavior of Circular Steel Tubular Columns Filled with Self-Compacting Concrete under Concentric Load
السلوك العملي للاعمدة الفولاذیة الانبوبیة الدائریة و المملؤة بالخرسانة ذاتیة الرص تحت تأثیر حمل محوري

Authors: Saad N. Sadik --- Wael S. Abdul-Sahib --- Ammar A. Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 14 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2760-2772
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper presents an experimental study on the behavior of circular, concretefilled,steel tube (CFT) columns concentrically loaded in compression to failure. Selfcompactingconcrete (SCC) is used here as a filler in order to increase homogeneity ofthe core and reduce segregation problems. Total six column specimens with differentlengths (0.4 m – 1.5 m) of constant diameter of 160 mm and wall thickness of 2.8 mmwere tested. The purpose here is to investigate the ultimate capacity and thedeformation behavior of different slenderness ratio columns. The behavior of thesecolumns in confinement was discussed.Experimental results indicate that the compression force capacity is affected byslenderness ratio of the column. For slender column the overall buckling was observedwhile for the short columns the crushing and the local buckling is the dominant failureshape.

Keywords

circular --- column --- steel --- SCC --- slenderness


Article
Structural Behavior of Confined Concrete Filled Aluminum Tubular (CFT) Columns Under Concentric Load
السلوك الإنشائي للأعمدة الخرسانية الدائرية والمحاطة بالألمنيوم تحت تأثير حمل محوري

Author: Ahmad Jabbar Hussain Alshimmeri احمد جبار حسين الشمري
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 8 Pages: 125-139
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper introduces an experimental study on the behavior of confined concrete filled aluminum tubular (CFT) column to improve strength design, ductility and durability of concrete composite structures under concentrically loaded in compression to failure. To achieve this: seven column specimens with same concrete diameter 100mm and without steel reinforcement have been examined through experimental testing, which are used to study the effects of the thickness of the aluminum tube encased concrete ( thickness : 0mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4mm and 5mm with same length of column 450mm), length of column (thickness 5mm and length of column 700mm) and durability (thickness 5mm and length of column 450mm) on the structural behavior of (CFT) columns. It is concluded from this work that the compression force capacity is affected by thicknesses of the aluminum tube with respect to reference specimen. Where the used of aluminum tube thicknesses in column specimens led to increased in load carrying capacity in range (16% for C2 -224% for C5 ). The specimen has a length of 700mm with 5mm thickness the decreased of strength was 0.06% than the specimen with 5mm thickness and length 450mm. For slender column the overall buckling was observed while the local buckling for the short column is the dominant failure shape. Regarding durability, no apparent difference has been found between the structural behavior of the specimen that immersed in aggressive solution and specimen in air.

يقدم هذا البحث دراسة عملیة لتصرف الأعمدة الدائریة المكونة من انبوب الألمنيوم ذو املاء خرساني لتحسين المقاومة التصميمية , المطيلية و الديمومة تحت حمل انضغاط محوري. لتحيق ذلك تم فحص سبع عينات مختبريا بقطر خرساني ثابت 100ملم وبدون حديد تسليح لدراسة تأثيرات سمك انبوب الألمنيوم المغطي للخرسانة (سمك :0 ملم , 2 ملم ,3 ملم ,4 ملم و 5 ملم بطول ثابت 450 ملم) , طول العمود (سمك 5 ملم وطول 700 ملم) والديمومة (سمك 5 ملم وطول 450 ملم) على التصرف الإنشائي للأعمدة. النتائج المختبریة بینت أن مقاومة الأعمدة للانضغاط تعتمد على سمك أنبوب الألمنيوم، حيث عند استخدام سمك انبوب الالمنيوم الاقل 2 ملم لعينات العمود أدى إلى زيادة في التحميل بمقدار من 16% وعند استخدام سمك انبوب الالمنيوم الاعلى 5 ملم لعينات العمود أدى إلى زيادة في التحميل بمقدار 224% . العينة التي طولها 700ملم و ذات السمك 5ملم انخفضت القوة بمقدار 0.06% عن العينة التي يبلغ طولها 450ملم و ذات السمك 5ملم.تم ملاحظة أن العمود النحیف یكون الفشل فیھا بانبعاج كلي بینما العمود القصیر يعاني من انبعاج محلي. وفي ما يتعلق بالديمومة, لم يظهر فرق بين التصرف الإنشائي للعينة المغمورة في المحلول الملحي القاسي والعينة في الهواء.

Keywords

circular --- column --- aluminum --- CFT --- confinement


Article
Dynamic Analysis of Absorption Column
التحليل الديناميكي لعمود الامتصاص

Author: Maryam Yousif Ghadhban
Journal: University of Thi-Qar Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 26645564/26645572 Year: 2016 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-119
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The absorption column is one of the essential separation processes in industrialoperation, so the need arises to control absorption column by process simulation and also toanalyze system by method called frequency response using MATLAB8. This work dealt withgas-liquid (air-water) absorption packed column which is analyzed by bode plot and frequencyresponse to determine the stability of the system with or without Proportional Controller (P),Proportional Integral Controller (PI) or Proportional Integral Derivatives Controller (PID).Thefrequency response gives the transient response information, by defining such frequencyresponse quantities as gain margin and phase margin. This work presents dynamic analysis ofabsorption column which is single input/single output (SISO) using feedback control (P, PI andPID) with the parameters of Cohen-Coon, Ziegler Nichols and Internal Model control andcompares between them.

عمود الامتصاص هو واحد من عمليات الفصل الاساسية فى الصناعات البتروكيمياوية ،لذلك دعت الحاجة للسيطرةعلى عمود الامتصاص بواسطة عملية المحاكاة وايضا عن طريق تحليل النظام بطريقة تدعى استجابة التردد باستخدام برنامجتم في هذا العمل إستخدام عمود الإمتصاص المحشو ذو نظام غاز-سائل )ماء – هواء( الذي حلل بواسطة .MATLAB8وإستجابة التردد لحساب إستقرارية النظام مع او بدون السيطرة. إستجابة التردد تعطى معلومة الاستجابة )Bode( طريقة الهذا العمل يقدم التحليل .Phase Margin And Gain Margin العابرة بواسطة تعريف بعض كميات استجابة التردد مثل(P,PI, باستخدام سيطرة التغذية الارجاعية (SISO) الديناميكى لعمود الامتصاص والذى هو احادى المدخل احادى المخرجوالمقارنة بينهم. (Ziegler - Nichols, Cohen - Coon And Internal Model Control) مع معاملات and PID)

Keywords

absorption --- control --- gas --- liquid --- column


Article
Behavior of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Hollow Circular Short Columns under Axial Loads

Author: Ghzwan Ghanim Jumah
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 3 Pages: 95-102
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This work deals with investigating the capacity of highstrength columns, under axial compression loads. A total ofnine circular column with 600 mm length and 150 mm outerdiameter were tested, three of them were solid as a reference,the remaining six columns were with internal hole of 50 and75 mm dimeter. The effect of hole size as well as area oflongitudinal steel reinforcement was studied. Area of steelused where 0, 301 and 471 mm2and two hole size were 50and 75 mm. The results showed that the increasing oflongitudinal reinforcement ratio from 0 % (plain) to 2.67%(steel reinforcement area of 471 mm2) for solid column causean increase in the ultimate strength by 33.6%, while forhollow columns with 75 mm internal hole the ultimatestrength increased up to 33.2 %. Increase in hole dimeterfrom 50 to 75 mm caused a reduction of columns capacity inall cause, the decrease was up 33 % for columns with 301mm2steel area was up to 32 %, for columns with 417 mm2.


Article
ESTIMATION OF MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS IN A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN USING BATCH MODE

Authors: Mohammed D. Selman --- Adil A. Al-Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2011 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This research adopts the estimation of mass transfer coefficient in batch packed bed distillation column as function of physical properties, liquid to vapour molar rates ratio (L / V), relative volatility (α), ratio of vapour and liquid diffusivities (DV / DL), ratio of vapour and liquid densities (ρV / ρL), ratio of vapour and liquid viscosities (µV/ µL). The experiments are done using binary systems, (Ethanol Water), (Methanol Water), (Methanol Ethanol), (Benzene Hexane), (Benzene Toluene). Statistical program (multiple regression analysis) is used for estimating the overall mass transfer coefficient of vapour and liquid phases (KOV and KOL) in a correlation which represented the data fairly well.KOV = 3.3 * 10-10 α-0.7 (DV / DL) 0.65 (L / V) 3.5 (ρV / ρL) 1.25 (μV / μL) -5.0KOL = 2.8 * 10-6 α-0.95 (DV / DL) 0.03 (L / V) 1.15 (ρV / ρL )0.077 (μV / μL) -0.9 In this research a method where the resistances to mass transfer in both phases are accounted for separately through the use of HTU-NTU model for each phase Z=HTUOV.NTUOV and Z=HTUOL.NTUOL Results show that both overall vapour and liquid mass transfer coefficient are increased with liquid to vapour molar rates ratio, vapour to liquid diffusivities ratio and vapor to liquid densities ratio, but decreased with increasing the relative volatility and vapour to liquid viscosities ratio.

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