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Article
Evaluation of Brain Computerized Tomography Scan in Patients with Acute Ischemic stroke
تقييم مشاهدات مفراس الدماغ في حالات الصدمة الدماغية الأحتشائية الحادة .

Authors: Hayder Kadhum Hassoun --- Haider Najim Aubaid --- Azhar Abdul-Latief Khalil
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 259-267
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Background: Stroke remains one of the leading cause of the death in the world and despite the advance in neuroimaging, computerized tomography (CT) is still widely used in evaluation of patients with ischemic stroke in emergency unit which should be done before giving thrombolytic therapy in the first 3-4.5 hour of stroke onset .Aim of this study is to evaluate early brain CT findings among ischemic stroke which is of great help in deciding early stroke management. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done at Middle Euphrates Neuroscience center; AL-Sadder Medical City at Annajaf city – Iraq, in the period from may 2012 to December 2014. A total of 108 patients whom clinically diagnosed as stroke were referred for CT scan of brain within 48 hours of the stroke onset. Twelve patients with intracranial hemorrhages were excluded and the remaining 96 patients were studied for early brain CT findings. Results: The prevalence of ischemic infarction was 85%, with slight male predominance (male: female ratio=1.25:1) and most affected patients with ischemic type were in range of 60-69 years. The sensitivity of CT scan in detection of the ischemic changes increased linearly with time from onset of stroke. The prevalence of the hyperacute signs of middle cerebral artery infarction (insular- ribbon sign and hypodense basal ganglia) in acute ischemic stroke were seen in 33.3%, no case reported to show hyper dense middle cerebral artery sign in our study. Conclusion: CT remains the initial imaging modality of choice for the early diagnosis and management of acute stroke especially in making the diagnosis within the therapeutic window for thrombolytic therapy where the time is crucial for detectability. Specific signs of hyperacute infarction should be carefully scrutinized for early detection.

ماتزال الجلطة الدماغية من الأسباب الرئيسية للموت في العالم وهو من الأمراض السريرية الشائعة التي يستخدم فيها فحص المفراس الدماغي بصورة كبيرة لغرض تقييم المرض بالرغم من التطور الكبير لأنواع الفحوص المستخدمة حديثا.َ الغاية من هذه الدراسة هو لتقييم الدور الذي يلعبه المفراس الدماغي في الكشف المبكر عن حالات الجلطة الدماغية الاحتشائية الحادة. المرضى و طريقة العمل : من بين 108 مريض ( 60 ذكر, 48 أنثى ), مشخصين بالجلطة الدماغية تشخيصاَ سريرياً, كانو قد أحيلو إلى شعبة المفراس في مركزالفرات للعلوم العصبية في مستشفى الصدر التعليمي في النجف خلال اليومين الأولى من تاريخ الإصابة بالجلطة الدماغية, تم استبعاد 12 مريض مصابين بالنزف الدماغي و تم اجراء الدراسة علي العدد المتبقي (96 مريض) .النتائج :بالنسبة للعمر,فإن أعلى فئة عمرية كانت متعرضة للإصابة بالاحتشاء الدماغي هو العقد السادس من العمر وزيادة طفيفة في الذكور على الاناث. تزايدت حساسية المفراس في الكشف عن الجلطة بشكل خطي مع زيادة المدة الزمنية من تاريخ الاصابة. العلامات الحادة لمرضى الجلطة الدماغية بسبب إصابة الشريان الدماغي الوسطي متمثلةً بعلامة الشريط الدماغي العازل و علامة قلة وضوح العقدة القاعدية للدماغ ( في المفراز الدماغي ) شكلت نسبة 33,3% بينما لم تظهر أي حالة في الدراسة علامة ازدياد كثافة الشريان الدماغي الوسطي.الإستنتاج : يبقى المفراس الدماغي وسيلة فعالة ومهمة للتشخيص الأولي للمرضى المصابين بالجلطة الدماغية الاحتشائية. بالرغم من ندرتها , فانه بالبحث الدقيق عن علامات الجلطة الحادة المعروفة بالمفراس يمكن الكشف المبكر عن الجلطة الاحتشائية


Article
Correlation betweenComputerized Tomography Densimetry and Histomorphometry in Assessment of Bone Healing

Authors: Hazim Al-allaf --- HatimAlnuaimy --- Mahmood A Aljumaily
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 388-391
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:Assessment of fracture healing is a common problem in orthopedic practice and research. Computerized Tomography (CT) isa reliable tool for quantification of the fracture repair process in experimental animals. Histomorphometric evaluation providesa clear quantitative evidence of the bone healing process. The evaluation by micro-architectures in healing bone showed variable correlation between CT and histomorphometry.
Material and methods: open ulnar osteotomy induced in twentyyoung male rabbits under general anesthesia without internal fixation, and divided into five groups. Agroup of animals were sacrificed at end of 2nd week, 3rd week, 4th week, 5th week, and 6th week. The right ulna isolatedand the bone specimens taken for radiological examination, CT scan densimetry and histomorphometricevaluation carried out for the callus at the site of osteotomy for all animals in both group.
Results: The mean of histomorphometric evaluation of callus at the site of ulnar osteotomy at the end of second week were 2.9, and increased with duration to reach 9.3 at end of sixth week. The mean of CT densimetry of callus in site ulnar osteotomy at the end of second week were 96.2, and increased with duration to reach 723.3 at end of sixth week. The correlation coefficient between histomorphometric evaluations of callus in site ulnar osteotomy and value of CT densimetry measurements was 0.958, which considered very highly significant,(the Pvalue < 0.0001).Conclusion: The present study demonstrate that, there is strong correlation between CT scan bone densimetry of callus in site of osteotomy and the results of histomorphometric evaluation of callus. The CT scan bone densimetry of callus can be used to assess the bone healing in experimental and clinical studies, as it is noninvasive technique.


Article
Bone density determination for the maxilla and the mandible in different age groups by using computerized tomography (Part I)

Authors: Sarah M. Tewfiq سارة توفيق --- Hadeel A. Al- Hashimi هديل علي الهاشمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 164-170
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Mini implant stability is primarily related to local bone density; no studies have evaluated bone densityrelated to mini implant placement for orthodontic anchorage between different age groups in the maxilla and themandible. The present research aims to evaluate side, gender, age, and regional differences in bone density of thealveolar bone at various orthodontic implant sites.Materials and method: Fifty three individuals who were divided into two groups according to their age into: group I(ages 16-20 years) and group II (ages 21-29 years) had subjected to clinical examination, then 64-multislicecomputed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfield unit at 102 points(51 in the maxilla and 51 in the mandible), and mean alveolar bone density was calculated at each site in the CTaxial plane.Results: No significant differences in bone density between the sides and gender were found. Generally, the bonedensity measurements of group I and II were not statistically different at almost most sites. The mean bone density ofthe alveolar cortical bone was greater in the mandible than in the maxilla and showed a progressive increase fromthe anterior to the posterior area, while in the maxilla the highest bone density was at the premolars region. Themaxillary tuberosity was the region with lowest bone density. Cancellous bone had almost comparable densitiesbetween the mandible and the maxilla and its density was less than those of cortical sites.Conclusion: When mini implants are indicated, no gender and side differences affect the success rate regardingbone density; while age and area should be considered when selecting and placing mini implants for orthodonticanchorage.


Article
Diagnosis and localization of the maxillary impacted canines by using dental multi-slice computed tomography 3D view and reconstructed panoramic 2D view

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Background: Diagnosis and treatment planning can be difficult with conventional radiographic methods as the or-thodontic-surgical management of impacted canines requires accurate diagnosis and precise localization of the impacted canine and the surrounding structures. This study was aimed to localize and evaluate weather there is any differences in the diagnostic information provided by multi-slice computed tomography three dimensional volumet-ric CT images and two dimensional reconstructed panorama images (derived from CT) in subjects with impacted maxillary canines.Materials and Methods: Thirty patients including 24 female and 6 male with mean age of 18 years with suspected unilaterally or bilaterally impacted maxillary canines were evaluated on images taken with Brilliance™ 64, Philips mul-ti-detector computed tomography. The spatial relationships of the impacted maxillary canines relative to the adja-cent structures was evaluated using linear and angular measurements, and the adjacent lateral incisor root resorp-tion was assessed with three dimensional and two dimensional visualization software.Results: The inclination of the impacted maxillary canine measured to the midline and to the occlusal plane did not differ significantly when it was evaluated using the two imaging modalities. However, there were significant differ-ences between the 3D and 2D images with respect to the impacted maxillary canine vertical height, bucco-palatal localization, and in detecting the proximity and root resorption of the adjacent lateral incisors.Conclusion: Dental CT volumetric images provide more reliable and accurate information for diagnosing the maxil-lary impacted canine position, inclination, distance from adjacent structures, and detection of lateral incisors rootre-sorption.


Article
The Measurements of Maxillary Alveolar Bone Density at 13- 15 Years Age by Using Spiral Computerized Tomography

Authors: Azhar A.Farage --- Fakhri A. Al Fatlawi فخري عبد علي الفتلاوي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 103-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Bone density is a major factor that affect mini implant primarily stability; no Iraqi studies have evaluatedbone density related to mini-implant placement for orthodontic anchorage at age 13 -15 years. The present researchaims to evaluate gender, side and site differences in the bone density at various orthodontic implant sites for themaxillary alveolar bone.Materials and methods: Twenty nine individuals (16 males and 13 females) had subjected to clinical examination,then 64-multislice computed tomography scan data were evaluated and bone density was measured in Hounsfieldunit at 21 points (9 points for each side and 3 points between the right and left central incisors) .Results: The results obtained showed that there are no significant differences in bone density between males andfemales and between the left and right sides were found. There was no significant differences in bone densitybetween the maxillary buccal cortical bone and the palatal cortical bone were generally except that at lateralincisor and canine point where the palatal side had higher bone density than buccal side. The mean bone density ofthe cancellous bone in the anterior part was higher than that in the posterior of the maxilla.Conclusions: When orthodontic, mini implant are indicated, no gender and side difference affect the success rateregarding bone density


Article
An Anatomical-Computerized Tomography (CT Scan) Study on the Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) in the brain of Iraqi Patients

Author: Nameer T. George MBChB. MScphD. د. نمير توفيق جورج
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 3 Pages: 300-303
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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SummaryBackground Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain are anomalies affecting different age groups of the population, and predisposing patients to significant neurological disability from stroke, epilepsy, or other clinical manifestations. Noninvasive modalities are revealing these lesions more frequently, and with more accuracy. Previous studies on Iraqi subjects with intracranial AVMs are scarce.Objectives The aim of the study is to correlate the CT findings of intracranial ATMs with the clinical presentations, anatomic locations, the size, and the predictable origin of the arteries feeding these lesions and their venous drainage.Patients and Methods The charts and CT scans offifty-four Iraqi patients with an AIM, 31 males and 23 females (male to female ratio 1.3: 1), ranging in age from 6-74 years (mean 37.7) who were seen at the Neurosurgical Hospital-Baghdad from October 1998 to August 2002 were reviewed.Results Supratentorial AVMs were present in 53 patients; one patient had a left cerebellar AIM. The lesion was solitary, and directly localized in a single lobe, with more in the right lobes (mainly the parietal and temporal) in the non-haemorrhagic lesions, and in the left lobes of the AVMs presented with haemorrhage. The diameter of the lesion varied from less than 2.5 cm to >6.5 cm.Conchision AIM may present symptomatically at any age .The arterial and venous components of the AIM could be explained by the site of the lesion. The size of the AIM could be evaluated as a potential factor predicting future AIM haemorrhage risk. Long-term follow-up evaluation is necessary for assessing the natural history and prognosis for such lesions.Key words: areteriovenous malformation. Computerized tomography (CT). Brain. Anatomical localization


Article
Pre-implant computed tomography and insertion torque measurement in qualitative determination of trabecular bone density

Authors: Mahmood J. Hamzah محمود حمزة --- Jamal A. Al-Taei جمال الطائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 56-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Bone density is a very important factor in the successful plan of implant treatment. The aim of the studyis to evaluate the trabecular bone density of potential dental implant sites in different region of the jawbone by usingComputerized Tomography (CT) , and the relationship between bone density and insertion torque.Materials and method: In this clinical study 64 patients were treated with 120 Xive FRIADENT DENTPLY system implants.The implant recipient sites were divided in two groups according to gender; 60 in males and 60 in females and eachgroup was divided into subgroups according jaw (maxilla and mandible) and region (anterior and posterior). Thebone density of each implant recipient site was recorded in Hounsfield units (HU) using CT. The maximum insertiontorque (Ncm) values were recorded with torque controlling motor.Results: There was a significant correlation between bone density and insertion torque in males (r=0. 983, p <0.001)and females (r=0.955, p <0.001).The trabecular bone density values were (682±98 HU, 481±104 HU, 413±92 HU, and263±67 HU) values in the anterior mandible, posterior mandible, anterior maxilla, and posterior maxilla, respectively.Trabecular bone density was higher in males in comparison to females and the bone quality was higher for themandible than for the maxilla, and higher for the anterior region than for the posterior region of these bones. Infemales there is no significant difference in bone density (p<0.05) between the posterior mandible and anteriormaxilla and between males and females at posterior maxilla (p<0.001).Conclusion: Trabecular bone density is a key determinant for clinical success; CT is a useful tool for assessing thebone density


Article
The role of spiral Computerized Tomography in diagnosis of stroke
تقييم كفاءة المفراس الحلزوني في تشخيص الجلطة الدماغية

Author: Eman I. Mohammed
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 123-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the role of spiral Computerized Tomography in the diagnosis and detection the types of stroke.Methodology: One hundred sixty two patients (162) (99 males and 63 females) their ages ranging from (13 – 80) year, all of them are suffering from stroke. They were collected randomly from spiral Computerized Tomography unit in Baquba Teaching hospital during the period from November / 2010 to December / 2011 .All the patients were examined clinically and then done spiral Computerized Tomography examination.Results : The results of this study showed that the stroke effected different age groups and both sex but males is more affected than the females .The results of spiral Computerized Tomography examination were 97 patient ( 59.9 % ) have ischemic stroke and 65 patient ( 40.1 % ) have hemorrhage stroke .Recommendation: The study recommended that great focusing to do the examination by spiral computerized tomography if the patients have no contraindications for during examined with it because it has high accuracy and efficiency in diagnosis of the stroke, also recommended to do an educational programs to improve awareness of society about the risk factors and early clinical features to help of early diagnosis and management of stroke.

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى معرفة كفاءة المفراس الحلزوني في تشخيص وتحديد أنواع الجلطة الدماغية .المنهجية : تم فحص ( 162 ) مريضا ( 99 من الذكور و 63 من الإناث ) وكانت أعمارهم تتراوح بين ( 13 – 80 ) سنة وجميعهم كانوا يعانون من الجلطة الدماغية . جمعت العينات بطريقة عشوائية من وحدة المفراس الحلزوني في مستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي خلال الفترة من نوفمبر 2010 – ديسمبر 2011 وتم فحص جميع المرضى سريريا" ومن ثم اجري الفحص بواسطة جهاز المفراس الحلزوني . النتائج : من خلال هذه الدراسة تم التوصل الى نتائج تفيد إن الجلطة الدماغية تصيب مختلف العمرية وكلا الجنسين ولكن الذكور أكثر عرضة للإصابة بالجلطة الدماغية من الإناث . اظهرت نتائج الفحص بواسطة جهاز المفراس الحلزوني ان 97 مريضا ( 59,9 % ) مصاب بالجلطة الخثرية و65 مريضا ( 40,1 % ) مصاب بالجلطة النزفية . التوصيات : أوصت الدراسة بالتأكيد على إجراء الفحص بواسطة جهاز المفراس الحلزوني إذا لا توجد أية خطورة على المريض عند الفحص لأنه ذو دقة وكفاءة عالية في تشخيص الجلطة الدماغية وكذلك أوصت الدراسة بضرورة اعداد برامج توعية لتحسين معلومات الأشخاص حول عوامل الخطورة والعلامات السريرية المبكرة للجلطة الدماغية لكي تساعد في التشخيص والعلاج في وقت مبكر .


Article
Effect of smoking on hard palate bone density
تأثير التدخين على كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب

Author: Zahraa M. Al- Fadily
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 112-119
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: The bone density of hard palate is key factor for success of palatal mini-implant. Smoking is an important determinant of osteoporosis.Materials and method: Sixty males were selected with age range 20-39 years and divided into two groups according to smoking; smokers group (30), and nonsmokers (control) group (30). The measurements of hard palate bone density by HU (unit used to measure radiodensity of bone on CT scan) were made at 20 sites at the intersection of five anterioposterior and four mediolateral reference lines using Philips, Brilliancetm, 64-multislice computed tomography scanner software.Results: The results that were obtained showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in bone density at most areas of hard palate. The comparison between the two groups in the overall cortical bone density showed a highly statistically significant difference. The comparison between the two groups in the overall cancellous bone density showed a statistically significant difference.Conclusion: Hard palate bone density decreased by smoking. In spite that, orthodontic mini-implants can be safely used for smoker persons in hard palate.

الخلفية: كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب عامل مهم لنجاح الزرعات التقويمية الحنكية. التدخين مسبب رئيسي لهشاشة العظام.المواد والادوات: شملت العينة 60 ذكر تتراوح أعمارهم بين٢٠- 3٩ سنة. قسمت العينة الى مجموعتين, المدخنين (30) وغير المدخنين (30). كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب قيست ل٢٠ موقع عند تقاطع خمس خطوط إشارة أمامية خلفية مع أربع خطوط إشارة قريبة بأستخدام برامجيات المفراس الحلزوني ٦٤- متعدد المقاطع لشركة فلبس المتألقة. النتائج: النتائج أظهرت أن هنالك فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب بين المدخنين وغير المدخنين في معظم المناطق. مقارنة كثافة العظم القشري الكلية بين المجموعتين بينت فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية عالية . مقارنة كثافة العظم الإسفنجي الكلية بين المجموعتين بينت فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية. الاستنتاج: كثافة عظم الحنك الصلب تتناقص بالتدخين. بالرغم من ذلك, الزرعات التقويمية من الممكن وضعها للمدخنين في عظم الحنك الصلب.


Article
A Clinical Method for Prediction of Alveolar Bone Mineral Density in the Area between the Second Premolar and First Molar in Iraqi Adults with Class I Occlusion

Authors: Maha Ali Hasan Al-Juboori مها علي حسن الجبوري --- Hadeel A. Al-Hashimi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 161-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Orthodontic mini-implants are increasingly used in orthodontics and the bone density is a veryimportant factor in stabilization and success of mini-implant. The aim of this study was to observe the relationshipamong maximum bite force (MBF); body mass index (BMI); face width, height and type; and bone density in anattempt to predict bone density from these variables to eliminate the need for CT scan which have a highly hazardon patient.Materials and Methods: Computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained for 70 patients (24 males and 46females) with age range 18-30 years. The maxillary and mandibular buccal cortical and cancellous bone densitieswere measured between 2nd premolar and 1st molar at two levels from the alveolar crest (3 and 6 mm). Face heightand width were measured from CT. Clinically; Maximum bite force was measured on first molar region unilaterally bya digital device. The sample was divided into two groups according to the body mass index into; normal andoverweight.Results: The results obtained showed that there were no statistical significant differences in MBF or bone density inboth genders. Only the cortical bone density in maxilla in overweight group tended to be higher than normal BMIgroup. The face width and height correlated significantly negatively with MBF which correlated significantly positivelywith cortical bone density.Conclusions: It was concluded that a prediction of cortical bone density of preselected areas can be made frommaximum bite force, body mass index and inter-zygomatic width

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