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Article
Is any Relation between Cytogenetic types of Down's Syndrome and Congenital Heart Disease
هل هنالك علاقة بين الفحص الوراثي (الكروموسومي) لمتلازمة داون وتشوهات القلب الوراثية

Author: Sabeeha Al-Mefraji د. صبيجة المفرجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 304-307
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Abstract:Background: Down's syndrome was the first of the chromosomal trisomy to be reported in 1959, Lejeune et al, with a prevalence of 0.7% live births. Garrod in 1894 who were noted a specific association between this syndrome and heart malformation. Aim: To find any relation between cytogenetic types of Down's syndrome and congenital heart disease, and early neonatal screening for congenital heart disease since early detection, help to prevent the future complication of pulmonary hypertension in old age.Patients and methods: A descriptive study done in AL-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital Neonatatology Department during one year period between January 1996- and 1997. The study involved 9000 live born infants screened for congenital anomaliese, we found 40 Down babies after full clinical examination to check the criteria of Down's syndrome and presence of congenital heart disease, then a blood sample was aspirated in a heparinized tubes and prepared for chromosomal analysis, those with congenital heart disease (CHD) were send for elective cardiograph, chest roentenography, Doppler echocardiography.Results: Out of the 40 Down's babies studied, 26(65%) were male and 14(35%) were female out of eight cases with CHD (20%) we found 3 (37.5%) had atrio-ventricular septal defect, 3(37.5%) had atrial septal defect,2(25%) had ventricular septal defect. Chromosomal pattern for all cases with CHD was Non disjunction (ND) triosomy 21.Conclusion: our study revealed no relationship between CHD types and chromosomal pattern. Prenatal screening for CHD in DS fetus and early neonatal screening for CHD as early detection, help to prevents the future complication of pulmonary hypertension in old age ,for whom new therapeutic option are available.Key words: cytogenetics, congenital heart disease.

الملخـص:تمت دراسة 9000 طفل حديث الولادة في مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي ,كمسح شامل لمعرفة حالات التشوهات الخلقية, وجد 40 طفل مصاب بمتلازمة داون بعد الفحص ألسريري لهم, وجد 8 منهم مصابين بتشوهات القلب، تم فحص الكر وموسومات لهم ,وجد كل الأطفال المصابين لديهم نفس النتيجة ,نستنتج لا توجد علاقة بين نوع فحص الكروموسومات وتشوهات القلب لدى الأطفال المنغوليين.لذا ينصح بأجراء فحص قبل الولادة للاجنه التي تحمل متلازمة داون للكشف عن تشوهات القلب أو فحص بعد الولادة مباشرة كلما يتم الكشف مبكر كلما نمنع مضاعفات ارتفاع ضغط الشريان الرئوي في الكبر حيث تتوفر وسائل علاجيه جديدة لذلك.


Article
Pattern of congenital heart disease in newborn in Al-Diwaniyah maternity and children teaching hospital

Authors: Abbas Muhammed Hussain عباس محمد حسين --- Adel Jabbar Hussain عادل جبار حسين --- Qahtan Kayon Hmood قحطان خيون حمود
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 15 Pages: 202-211
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background:CHD in the newborn is a problematic disease that need thorough investigation and may need urgent intervention.Objective:To review the pattern of CHD in newborns in Al-Diwaniyah city and to establish the relationship between CHD and certain parameters like sex,and consanguinity Patients and Methods: The study started at 1st of June 2008 till the 1st of January 2010 ,all newborn babies with suspected CHD were included in this study and undergo thorough history with specific attention on prenatal ,natal and postnatal history also questionnaire including sex ,full term or preterm delivery ,any previously affected sibling with CHD, the degree of consanguinity between the parents ,order of the patient in his family , then perfect general and cardiovascular system examination were performed to detect any other congenital or evidence of chromosomal abnormalities .Sixty seven neonates were enrolled in this study (7 of them were excluded because of prematurity)and 60 neonate were evaluated by chest X-ray, electrocardiograph, and echocardiography which done by expert pediatric cardiologist.Results :In this study we found that acyanotic CHD is more common than cyanotic type with VSD is accounting about 35% of cases followed by PDA 26.6% and then ASD 8.3% and TOF 8.3% ,also the study show that asymptomatic murmur is the commonest presentations of CHD in the newborn and consanguinity may be a risk factor.Conclusion: Early detection of CHD is very important for proper management so proper clinical examination and expert echocardiography is considered a gold standard for the diagnosis of CHD .Two dimensions echocardiography is also essential for the diagnosis special cardiac center should be established in our region (AL-Diwaniah)in order to manage the patient effectively without delay that may affect the out- come of the disease

تشكل امراض القلب الولاديه في حديثي الولاده مشكله مرضيه بحاجه الى فحوصات مستفيضه وربما تحتاج الى تداخلات علاجيه عاجله. من أجل مراجعة طبيعة امراض القلب الوراثيه في حديثي الولاده في مدينة الديوانيه ومن اجل توضيح العلاقه بين امراض القلب الولاديه وبعض المتعلقات مثل الجنس ودرجة القرابه. بدأت الدراسه في الاول من حزيران لعام2008 حتى الاول من كانون الثاني لعام 2010.تم شمول كل حديثي الولاده المشتبه لكونهم يعانون من امراض القلب الولاديه في هذه الدراسه وقد تم اخذ تاريخ المرض مع تاكيد على تاريخ ماقبل واثناء وبعد الولاده‘وكذالك تم السؤال عن الجنس وعن الطفل هل كان كاملا او مبتسرا اثناء الولاده،وهل يوجد طفل في العائله مصاب سابقا بامراض القلب الولاديه،وماهي درجة القرابه بين الاب والام ،وتسلسل الطفل في عائلته. وبعد ذالك اجري فحص سريري دقيق عام وخصوصا لجهاز الدوره الدمويه لتحديد وجود اي امراض ولاديه اخرى او علامات لخلل الكروموسومات. أدخل سبعه وستون وليد في هذه الدراسه,سبعه منهم استثنوا من الدراسه بسبب انهم كانوا مبتسرين ,وستون وليدا تم تقيمهم بواسطة اشعة الصدر وتخطيط القلب وفحص القلب بجهاز الايكو الذي اجري لهم من قبل طبيب متخصص بامرض القلب. وجد في هذه الدراسه بان امراض القلب الولاديه غير الازرقاقيه اكثر من امراض القلب الولاديه الازرقاقيه.وكانت الفتحه بين البطينين تشكل 35% من الحالات,وناسور القناة الشريانيه26,6%,والفتحه بين الاذنين8,3%,ورباعية فالوت8,3%.وكذالك اثبتت الدراسه ان النفحه غير المصاحبة بأي أعراض هي العرض الطبي الوحيد لاكثر امراض القلب الولاديه عند الولاده.وكذالك اثبتت الدراسه ان درجة القرابه القريبه تعتبر من عوامل الخطوره. التشخيص المبكر لامراض القلب الولاديه مهم جدا من اجل العلاج المثالي وان الفحص السريري وفحص الايكو الدقيق تعتبران اهم دعامات تشخيص امراض القلب الولاديه.ايكو القلب ذو البعدين كذالك مهم في التشخيص.وكذالك ضرورة انشاء مركز قلب تخصصي في مدينتنا من اجل المعالجه السريعه والدقيقه لامراض القلب الولاديه حتى تعطي نتائج علاجيه أفضل.


Article
Electro Cardiographic Features of PtientsWith Tetralogy of Fallot

Authors: Dhia’a Hassan --- Fadhil Al-Rubaiy --- Sadiq M. Al-Hamash
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 19-22
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: For many decades, the ECG was the workhorse of non-invasive cardiac test and today although other techniques provide more details about the structural anomalies in congenital heart diseases, ECG is likely to be part of clinical evaluation of patients with such diseases because it is inexpensive, easy to perform and in certain situations may be both sensitive and specific.
Objective: this study carried out to identify the pattern of ECG study in patients with TOF.
Methods: this is a retrospective study of 200 patients with TOF, referred to Ibn Al-Bitar cardiac center from April 1993 to May 1999. The diagnosis of TOF established by echocrdiographic, catheterization and angiographic study. For each patient, the ECG tracing had been analyzed for rhythm, p-wave, P-R interval, QRS axis, duration and T-wave in V1 and any chamber enlargement.
Results: The ECG analysis revealed that all patients had sinus rhythm, normal P-R interval and normal p-wave duration and amplitude, and normal QRS duration. All studied patients had one criteria of RVH and 95% of them had two or more of such criteria.
Conclusion: we found that in the absence of RVH criteria, the diagnosis of TOF is unlikely and the present of northwest axis should indicate canal type VSD.
Key words: ECG, TOF, congenital heart disease

Keywords

ECG --- TOF --- congenital heart disease


Article
Prevalence and Risk Factors for Congenital Heart Anomalies Among Hospital Attendees in Mosul City

Author: Eman Ghanim Sheet Al-Hyali
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 229-236
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND : Congenital heart disease (CHD) define as abnormalities of heart structure that originate before birth, they are responsible for more deaths in the first year of life than any other birth defects.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the identifiable CHDs and to identify risk factors that may predispose for its occurrence . METHODS: This is a case series hospital based study carried out in IB- IN- Al-Atheer teaching hospital of pediatric in Mosul city. during the period from April 2013 to April 2014 . 460 cases with CHD were compared with an equal number of controls selected from the general population and individually matched for age, sex, and family practitioner Information was obtained by Questionnaire sheets ,medical examination and investigations. RESULT: Out of 75320 attendants, 680 cases were referred to echocardiography unit where 460 cases of CHD were detected, the prevalence was (6.1/1000 patients). Atrial septal defect (42. %), ventricular septal defect was detected (30%) and Patent ductus arteriosus (9.3%) are the most common CHD detected. More than half of cases of CHD (86%) are detected at infancy with female- male ratio of 1.4:1 An association was found between family history, consanguinity and occurrence of CHD. Also an association was found between maternal risk factors such as mothers disease ,drug intake, obesity, smooking during pregnancy.CONCLUSION: CHD is a public health problem among infants and young children and there are many risk factors showed a significant effect on its occurrence such as positive family history, consanguinity and material risk factors during pregnancy So proper and timely counseling, regular antenatal care. folate supplementation especially during the most sensitive period of embryogenesis is essential to avoid congenital heart malformation


Article
Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease a Hospital-Based Study

Author: Sadiq Mohammed Al-Hamash
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The congenital heart disease occurs
in 0,8% of live births and they have a wide spectrum
of severity and about 30-40% of patients with
congenital heart disease are symptomatic during the
1st year of life, and these disease still one of the
frequent cause of morbidity and hospital admission
among the pediatric age group.
Objective: This study was carried out to identify
the specific types of CHD, sex and age distribution
and the most common pattern of presentation among
hospitalized patients.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of 89
patients with congenital heart disease admitted to the
fifth unit in Child Welfare Hospital in Baghdad from
January 2003 to January 2004. The diagnosis was
established by two dimensional and Doppler
echocardiography examination. The pattern of
congenital heart disease, mode of presentation, male
to female incidence, and the effect of different
lesions on the growth parameters had been studied.
Results: Out of 1023 patients, 89 patients 8.6%
had congenital heart disease. The most common
congenital heart disease were ventricular septal
defect 51.8%, Tetralogy of Fallot 17.9%, Patent
ductus arteriosus (13.5%), Transposition of great
arteries 8.9%, Pulmonary stenosis 4.4%, and Atrial
septal defect 3.4%. The most common presentation
was respiratory infection and heart failure in a
cyanotic patients and cyanosis in cyanotic groups.
Conclusion: Patent ductus arteriosus and atrial
septal defect defects were more common in female
while all other lesions had equal male to female
incidence or slightly more common in male.
Key Words: Congenital heart disease; hospital
based-study.


Article
E ffect of Ventricular Septal Defect on the Growth Pattern of Children

Author: Qusay A. Al- Rahim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 8-13
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:VSD is the most common cardiac malformation accounting for 25% of congenital heart disease. The VSDs are classified according to its haemodynamic effect into small, moderate and large. The VSD can affect the growth, which is defined as a progressive increase in size of the body as a whole or of its separate parts and can result in failure to thrive in affected patients.AIM OF THE STUDY:This study was done to demonstrate the effects of the VSD on weight, height and occiptofrontal circumference (OFC) of children as parameters of growth.METHODS:This is a prospective study of 50 patients with isolated VSD done in welfare Teaching hospital and Ibn Al-Bitar cardiac center during the period from January to July 2005. The diagnosis of VSD was done by clinical picture and confirmed by echocardiographic examination to study the effect of malnutrition and other factors on the growth another 50 patients without VSD were included as control group. For each patient the growth parameters (weight, height and head circumference) were measured.RESULTS:The age of the patients with VSD ranged from (14 days to 14 years). The male to female ratio was 1.1 to 1. In patients with VSD the weight of 20 patients (40%) were below 3rd centile in comparison with 3 patients in the control group and this is statistically significant (P<0.001), while the differences in the height of both groups was not statistically significant. The head circumference of 14 patients (28%) were below 2%, while, 3 patients (6%) only in control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.005). The effect of VSD on the growth parameters depended on the size of the VSD. There was a significant effect of moderate and large VSD on both weight and head circumference while small VSD had no such effect.CONCLUSION:From this study, we conclude that the weight is the most sensitive parameter for studying the effect of VSD on the growth parameters. The patients with moderate VSD, should be managed as serious as large VSD because of its adverse effect on growth.


Article
Prevalence of Congenital Heart Disease in Fallujah General Hospital , western of Iraq ( 2007-2011)
دراسة انتشار التشوهات القلبية الولادية في مستشفى الفلوجة العام غرب العراق للفترة بين 2007 -2011

Authors: Mohammed Tafash Dagash محمد طفش دغش --- Ismael shallal إسماعيل شلال --- Saleh Kamal Saleh صالح كامل صالح
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2015 Volume: Vol.12 Issue: 1 Pages: 83-95
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Background: Congenital heart diseases (CHD) comprise the most common group of congenital malformations. Despite recent developments in interventional and surgical techniques, heart disease in children continues to be an important cause of morbidity & mortality .( 1 ) Aim of study : Our aims were to assess the prevalence, age-wise distribution,& clinical spectrum of congenital heart disease , among children in the Fallujah district region in Iraq, during the years 2007 , 2008, 2009 ,2010 & 2011 ,referred to FGH . Methods: This is a hospital based descriptive study based on retrospective & prospective collecting all cases referred to Fallujah General Hospital (FGH) to identify all patient with CHD ,born between the 1st of January 2007 & December 31, 2011 ,in FGH. 2nd of big referral hospital in Anbar Governorate ,Iraq .Ethical approval was granted by the scientific committee in Fallujah hospital & Anbar medical college . Live newborns delivered in this hospital are 2414 , 4753 , 5551 , 7011 & 7320 in 2007,2008,2009,2010,& 2011 respectively ( total 27049 ) excluding live newborns that occur outside the FGH . During the study period ,new born & children was done examined & screened for CHD & follow –up for this 5 years. Clinical examination, 2D echocardiography and color Doppler and sometime cardiac catheterization either in Baghdad or later on in FGH were considered as definitive tools for diagnosis of CHD. Result :Out of the 533 cases of CHD there were 281 males ( 52.72 % ) & 252 females (47.27 % ) (Fig.1).Out of the 533 cases of CHD there were 59 ( 11.06% ) cases in 2007 ,44 (8.25% ) cases in 2008 , 49 (9.19 %) cases in 2009 ,167 ( 31.33% ) cases in 2010 & 214 ( 40.15% ) cases in 2011 ( Fig .2 ). The overall prevalence of CHD live births during this 5-year period was 19.7 / 1000 live births. CHD was found to be slightly more common in male than female births (10.38 versus 9.31 per 1000). ASD was the commonest lesion 193 , followed by , VSD 164 , other (various types of CHDs existing together including rare type of CHDs. ) 52 , PDA 34 , VSD +ASD 31 , PFO 28 , TOF 18 and PS 13 . Fig.( 3 ) . The rate of CHD was 24.44 per 1000 live birth in 2007 , 9.25 per 1000 live birth in 2008, 8.82 per 1000 live birth in 2009 , 23.81 live birth in 2010 & 29.23 per 1000 live birth in 2011. Figures 4,5.6.7,& 8.In 2007 & 2008 VSD was the commonest CHD , & PS lowest rate in 2008. Fig ( 4,5).While ASD was the commonest CHD in 2010 & 2011 Fig ( 6,7,& 8 ) Depend on geographical distribution ,the highest rate of CHD was in center of the city 223( 41.83 %) cases ,followed by other ( villages at the city boundaries) 125 (23.45 %) , then eastern region ( Karma ) 97( 18.19%) , Amria 57 ( 10.69%) & lowest rate was in western region Saqlawya 31 ( 5.81%) . Fig. ( 9 ) 167 ( 31.33 % ) of the affected newborns had a positive family history of abortion , & 88 ( 16.51 % ) had a maternal history of drugs & X-ray radiation .Fig. ( 11 ). Conclusion : 1. The present study shows, for the first time, the prevalence and pattern of CHD in Fallujah region in western Iraq. 2. These findings will help establish a database for future studies, which will focus on etiology and ethnic disparity of CHD in the region. 3.The findings can help to establish valuable changes in health policies for the improvement of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities.4. The present high prevalence rate of CHD in Fallujah need advance research & registration system to apply in Al-Anbar & Iraqi medical offices .5. The catastrophic successive wars imposed on Iraq undoubtedly have played some role in this problem .6. The overall pattern of CHD is similar to the finding in other countries

الخلفية : تعتبر أمراض القلب الولادية من أكثر التشوهات الولادية شيوعا وعلى الرغم من التطور الحاصل في التداخلات القسطارية والجراحية لاتزال سببا مهما من الأسباب المرضية والموت في العالم.الهدف من الدراسة: تقييم معدل انتشار التشوهات القلبية وأنواعها بين أطفال منطقة الفلوجة غرب العراق خلال السنوات الخمسة منذ 2007 ولغاية 2011 الذين ولدوا في مستشفى الفلوجة.طرق العمل: دراسة وصفية مستندة على جمع المعلومات بأثر رجعي ومستقبلي لكل حالة من التشوهات القلبية الولادية للذين ولدوا في مستشفى الفلوجة للفترة من الأول من كانون الثاني لسنة 2007 ولغاية 31 كانون الأول لسنة 2011 وهو ثاني اكبر مستشفى في محافظة الانبار غرب العراق .كان عدد المواليد في مستشفى الفلوجة لسنوات الخمسة 27049 مولود حي من 2007 ولغاية 2011 وهو العدد الذي ادخل في الدراسة والتحري عن التشوهات القلبية في هذا البحث. تم أجراء الفحص السريري والايكو والدوبلر الملون و في بعض الحالات الفحص القسطاري في بغداد أو مستشفى الفلوجة شعبة القسطرة كفحوصات جازمة لتشخيص حالة تشوه القلب الولادي وتضمنت المعلومات عن جنس المولود ونوع التشوه و عمر الأم والأب والتاريخ المرضي في العائلة وفي فترة الحمل فيما إذا تعرضت الأم للأشعة السينية . وتم اخذ الموافقة العلمية لإجراء البحث من اللجنة العلمية في مستشفى الفلوجة وفي كلية طب الانبار ثم تم استخراج معدل انتشار التشوهات القلبية لكل 1000 مولود حي .النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة عدد الذكور المصابين بالتشوهات القلبية هم الأكثر 281 (52.72% ) من مجموع 533 .وأظهرت الدراسة معدل انتشار التشوهات القلبية في حدود 19.7 | 1000 وهي نسبة عالية بالقياس لدول المجاورة والكثير من دول العالم الأخرى .وبالرغم من كون سنة 2007 هي قليلة من حيث تسجيل حالات التشوهات القلبية حيث تم تسجيل 59 حالة ولكن أظهرت أعلى نسبة في معدل الانتشار بنسبة 24.44 | 1000 ربما يعود لقلة الولادات المسجلة في تلك السنة حيث بلغت2414 ولادة حية مسجلة في مستشفى الفلوجة .وكانت اعلي الحالات قد سجلت في مركز مدينة الفلوجة 223 (41.83 % ) حالة .الاستنتاج والخاتمة: 1. أظهرت الدراسة ولأول مرة معدل ونمط انتشار التشوهات القلبية في منطقة الفلوجة غرب العراق.2. هذه الدراسة ستساعد على تأسيس قاعدة بيانات للدراسات المستقبلية من حيث التركيز على أسباب ونمط التشوهات القلبية في منطقة الفلوجة شرق الانبار . 3. ممكن أن تغير نتائج الدراسة السياسات الصحية لتحسين الوسائل التشخيصية والعلاجية في غرب العراق خاصة والعراق عامة .4. نسبة الانتشار العالية في التشوهات القلبية تظهر حاجة المدينة والعراق إلى نظام تسجيل ومكاتب طبية متقدمة لتسجيل والإحصاء الطبي .5 . الحروب المتعاقبة الهائلة التي فَرضتْ على العراق لَعبتْ بَعْض الدورِ بلا شك في هذه المشكلةِ.6. أظهرت الدراسة أن النمط العام لتشوهات القلبية مشابه لما موجود في البلدان الأخرى


Article
Quality Of Life For Caregivers` Of Children With Congenital Heart Disease In Surgical Specialty Hospital – Cardiac Center Kurdistan Region/Iraq

Authors: Kareema Ahmad Hussein --- Nazar Ramadhan Authman
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 148-161
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: The study aims to assess quality of life for caregivers who have children with congenial heart disease in Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center in Erbil city.Methods: Descriptive design of study was carried out in Surgical Specialty Hospital - Cardiac Center in Erbil city from first of July 2009 to end of September 2010. A purposive sample of (200) caregivers for children with congenital heart disease were selected. The tool is consisting of three parts questionnaire format (Socio-demographical characteristic and medical data) of caregivers and children, and tool for assessment the quality of life adapted from WHO was used for data collection, (WHO-QOL,1998).A few modifications were done with the tool, The validity of the study questionnaire was determined initially through a panel of (21) experts. Determination of reliability of the total QOL Alpha correlation coefficient was computed and indicated was (0.912).The data were analyzed through using by Excel and SPSS version17 programmed.Results: The findings of the study indicate that the caregivers had been affected in all domains of quality of life and there is a significant association between socio-demographic characteristics (main caregivers, age, marital status, occupation, residential area, socio-economic and severity of disease) with quality of life domains, but there were no association between level of education and quality of life domains. Conclusions: Most of the caregivers were mothers and housewives, their age groups were between (26-35) years old, were from urban areas, have ≤ 3 years of formal education and from low socio-economical level. And the majority of caregivers were suffering in (physical, psychological, social and spiritual) domains.Recommendation: The study recommends to establish the psychological unit, Implementation of an educational program for those caregivers of children with CHD.

الهدف: تهدف الدراسة لتقييم جوانب نوعية الحياة (بدني , إجتماعي ,نفسي وروحي) لمقدمي الرعاية الذين لديهم أطفال يعانون من التشوهات الخلقية القلبية وعلاقتها ببعض المتغيرات في المستشفى الجراحة التخصصية-مركز القلب/ إقليم كردستان/العراقالمنهجية :أجريت دراسة وصفية في المستشفى الجراحة التخصصية-مركز القلب/ إقليم كردستان/العراق للفترة ما بين (الأول –تموز -2009 ولغاية لنهاية أيلول -2010 ) اختيرت عينة غير احتمالية (غرضيه)( (200من مقدمي الرعاية للأطفال المصابين بإمراض القلب الخلقية أعدت استمارة أستبيانية تضمنت ثلاثة أجزاء(المعلومات الديموغرافية الاجتماعية ، المعلومات الطبية ) لمقدمي الرعاية و أطفالهم ،وأسئلة تم إعدادها من قبل (منظمة الصحة العالمية٬1998 لتقييم نوعية الحياة المصابين بالحالات الحرجة. تم تحديد الثبات والمصداقية للأسئلة من خلال حساب عامل الارتباط الفا (0,912) والتي اجريت ل(10)ا من مقدمي الرعاية ولتحقيق المصداقية للأسئلة فقد تم تحقيقها من خلال مجموعة من الخبراء ذوي الاختصاص وعددهم (21) خبيرا˝. تم تحليل البيانات باستخدام التحليل الإحصائي الوصفي (التكرارات،النسبة المئوية،الوسط الحسابي) والتحليل الإحصائي الأستنتاجي (مربع كآي).النتائج : شارت الدراسة ان الأطفال المصابين بالتشوهات الخلقية القلبية لهم تأثير كبير على كل جوانب نوعية حياة لمقدمي الرعاية بوجود علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائية ما بين الخصائص الديموغرافية الاجتماعية لمقدمي الرعاية للأطفال المصابين بالتشوهات الخلقية القلبية ونوعية حياتهم ك(المربي الرئيسي للطفل، العمر،الحالة الزوجية ، المهنة، الحالة الاجتماعية، شدة إصابة بالمرض).الاستنتاج: : استنتجت الدراسة بأن غالبية مقدمي الرعاية هن أمهات وربات البيوت،تتراوح أعمارهن ما بين (26 -35) سنة، من المناطق الحضرية، لديهن ≤ 3 سنوات من التعليم الابتدائي ومن المستوى الاجتماعي والاقتصادي المنخفض. وكانت غالبية مقدمي الرعاية يعانون من كافة جوانب نوعية حياة لمقدمي الرعاية (المادية والنفسية والاجتماعية والروحية)التوصيات :أوصت الدراسة ببناء وتطبيق برنامج تثقيفي لمقدمي الرعاية الأطفال المصابين بالتشوهات الخلقية القلبية وقيام بدراسة أوسع حيث لتشمل عدد اكبر من لمقدمي الرعاية لتحديد مشاكلهم والإسهام في التحسين نوعية حياتهم من خلال تحسين الرعاية.


Article
Impact Of Congenital Heart Disease Upon Children Physical Growth Pattern In Cardiac Center –Erbil/ Kurdistan

Authors: Kareema Ahmed ussein --- Nazar Ramadhan Othman
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 177-183
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective :The study aimed to assess the impact of congenital heart disease upon children's physocal growthpattern with some variables in Surgical Specialty Hospital/ Cardiac Center in Erbil/Kurdistan Region/Iraq.Methods: A descriptive correlation study was conducted in Surgical Specialty Hospital/ Cardiac Center inErbil/Kurdistan Region/Iraq from first of March 2010 to the end of September 2011. A purposive sample of(200) children with congenital heart disease were selected. The tool is consisting of three parts questionnaireformat Socio-demographical characteristic , medical data of children, and tool and physical growth measurementquestions. The validity of the study questionnaire was determined initially through a panel of (21) experts.Determination. Data were collected by the mothers' interview and the data were analyzed through using byExcel and SPSS version17 programmed.Results: The present study indicated that the most of children (51.5%) were male, (59%) were coming fromurban areas, (39%) were living in Hawler Governorate , (51.5%) were from low socioeconomic status, and(51.5%) was diagnosis before three years. The findings of the study indicate that the Congenital Heart Diseasehad been affect growth pattern and there is a statistically significant association between socio-demographiccharacteristics (age, gender, residential area, and severity of disease) and their growth pattern .Conclusion: The study indicated that there is a high significant association between the children sociodemographic data and growth pattern .Recommendation. 1-Mass media, TV and radio, lectures in different community associations or in healthcenters regarding risk factor, prevention of CHD. 2-Nurses should have special training to give effective care tothe children.3-Further studies are necessary to be conducted with large sample size to improve the interventionthe disease .

الھدف: تھدف الدراسة إلى تقییم تأثیر أمراض القلب الخلقیة على نمط النمو الجسماني لھؤلاء الأطفال وعلاقتھا ببعض المتغیرات في المستشفىالجراحة التخصصیة-مركز القلب اربیل / إقلیم كردستان/العراقالمنھجیة :أجریت دراسة وصفیة في المستشفى الجراحة التخصصیة- مركز القلب اربیل/ إقلیم كردستان/العراق للفترة ما بین (الأول - اذار - 2009ولغایة لنھایة أیلول - 2010 ) اختیرت عینة غیر احتمالیة (غرضیھ) ( 200 ) من الأطفال المصابین بإمراض القلب الخلقیة أعدت استمارةأستبیانیة تضمنت ثلاثة أجزاء(المعلومات الدیموغرافیة الاجتماعیة ، المعلومات الطبیة ) الأطفال المصابین بإمراض القلب الخلقیة ، وأداة لقیاسالنمو الجسماني. تم تحدید صلاحیة الاستبیان من خلال لجنة من ( 21 ) خبیرا. تم جمع البیانات عن طریق ملئ استمارات أللاستبیان ومقابلةالمبرمجة SPSS version و 19 Excel الأطفال المصابین بإمراض القلب الخلقیة تم تحلیل البیانات بواسطة استخدامالنتائج : بینت الدراسة الحالیة أن معظم الأطفال المصابین بإمراض القلب الخلقیة كانوا بنسبة 51.5 % من الذكور، 59 % قادمین من المناطقالحضریة، 39 % من محافظة ھولیر، 51.5 % كانوا من المستوى الاجتماعي والاقتصادي المنخفض، و % 51.5 تم تشخیص حالتھم المرضیةقبل ثلاث سنوات،الاستنتاج: أشارت الدراسة أن ھناك علاقة ذات دلالة إحصائیة عالیة بین البیانات الدیموغرافیة والاجتماعیة الأطفال و نمط النمو الجسماني لھمالتوصیات :أوصت الدراسة بضرورة استخدام و سائل الإعلام والتلفزیون والإذاعة، والفاء المحاضرات في مختلف الجمعیات الأھلیة أو فيالمراكز الصحیة بشأن التعرف على العوامل الخطرة والوقایة من أمراض القلب الخلقیة تدریب الممرضات على كیفیة العنایة بالأطفال وأجراءدراسات مستقبلیة بحجم عینة اكبر لمساعدة ھؤلاء الأطفال على أن یعیشوا حیاة أفضل


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs in relation to nutritional status among children with congenital heart disease

Authors: Marwa Jamal Al-Haidary --- Nada J. Radhi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 108-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Congenital heart disease is one of the most common developmental anomalies in children. Thesepatients commonly have poor oral health that increase caries risk. Dental management of children with congenitalheart disease requires special attention, because of their heightened susceptibility to infectious endocarditis. Theaims of this study were to assess the severity of dental caries of primary and permanent teeth and treatment needs inrelation to nutritional indicator (Body Mass Index) among children with congenital heart disease.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, case group consisted of 399 patients aged between 6-12 years oldwith congenital heart disease were examined for dental status in Ibn Al-Bitar specialized center for cardiac surgery inBaghdad/Iraq. A case-matched group (healthy control) of 485 children was also examined from primary schools inBaghdad city. Diagnosis and recording of dental caries and treatment needs were recorded according to thecriteria of WHO (1997). The assessment of nutritional status (BMI) was performed following Centers for Disease Controland Prevention growth chart (2000). All data were analyzed using IBMSPSS version 23.Results: Results recorded the highest mean rank value of (DMFS)and (dmfs) were among CHD cases than controlgroup with statistically high significant difference. Results revealed the mean rank values of (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) werehigher at age group 6-7 years among CHD cases, while the mean rank values of (DS, MS, FS and DMFS) were higherat age group 12 years with statistically high significant difference among age group. The mean rank values of alltypes of treatment needs were recorded to be higher among CHD cases than control group, except for children notreatment needs, these differences were statistically highly significant. Also this study found that the mean rankvalues of caries experience (ds, ms, fs and dmfs) were higher among wasted than well nourished CHD cases withstatistically highly significant for dmfs. Moreover, the mean rank values of all types of treatment need required werehigher among wasted CHD cases than well nourished; however, the differences were statistical highly significant.Conclusion: The study revealed that these children are “at risk” from dental disease and malnourished, the primaryfocus should be on oral hygiene instructions, the awareness of infective endocarditis and they required adevelopment of preventive programs.

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