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Article
Biological hydroxyapatite as bone graft substitute;a preliminary report

Authors: Kothar H. Al-Naimi كوثر النعيمي --- Muhammad A. Al- Iraqi محمد العراقي --- Mahmood A. Aljumaily محمود عبد الجميلي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 7-11
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The biological calcium hydroxyapatite was isolated and purified from local cow bones in laboratories of the University of Mosul. The chemical analysis of the product shows that the purity of the biological calcium hydroxyapatite is 99%. The biological calcium hydroxyapatite was prepared locally as bone graft substitute from cheap unlimited resource. The biological calcium hydroxyapatite was implanted around induced fracture of forearm in 4 white male rabbits. The forearm fracture united thirty days after the experiment. The biological calcium hydroxyapatite was implanted inside the medullary cavity of the femur and around fracture ends in another 4 male white rabbits. The implanted biological calcium hydroxyapatite was replaced by callus around the bone and in medullary cavity of bone without any chronic inflammatory changes or foreign body reaction. We conclude that biological calcium hydroxyapatite can be used as bone graft substitute.

Key words: calcium hydroxyapatite, cow bone, bone graft substitute.


Article
IMPROVEMENT OF POLYETHYLENE MATRIX COMPOSITES USING COCONUT SHELL AND COW BONE PARTICULATES

Authors: Stephen Durowaye --- Babatunde Bolasodun --- Wasiu Ayoola --- Aishat Olarinde --- et al.
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2019 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 134-150
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Utilisation of particles of coconut shell and cow bone as reinforcing materials for the production of low density hybrid polyethylene matrix composites by stir casting method was carried out. 50 µm coconut shell and 50 µm cow bone particulates in different proportions (5 – 25 wt. %) were mixed with polyethylene and the microstructural, physical and mechanical characterisations were determined using standardised methods. The hybrid composite exhibited desirable properties in terms of water absorption (0.3 %) indicating reduced pores/voids. It also exhibited ultimate tensile strength (1.78 MPa) and hardness (12.78 HBN) at 15 wt. % filler addition. The uniform dispersion of the reinforcing particles as observed in the SEM microstructure and the strong adhesion of the particles and polyethylene matrix contributed to the enhancement of the tensile strength and hardness of the composites. Increasing the filler concentration beyond 15 wt. % caused a decrease in the average inter-particle distance/spacing thereby increasing the amount of interparticle stress concentration overlap. This led to higher levels of debonding when tensile stress was applied. This ultimately impaired the tensile strength of the composites. The strain energy stored in the matrix which could be equal to the adhesion/bonding of the particles and polyethylene matrix caused the particle-matrix interface to debond and reduced or impaired the modulus of elasticity of the composites. Generally, the hybrid composites were better than the mono-reinforced composites and unreinforced polyethylene thus showing the efficacy of added particulates. Hence, the development of this biocomposites will reduce environmental pollution and also has the potential for application in areas where low strength composites are required.

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