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Article
A study to compare the cleaning efficiency of three different irrigation devices at different root canal levels (An in vitro study)

Authors: Walid N. Al- Hashimi وليد الهاشمي --- Ali H. Alani علي هاني العاني
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 4 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Irrigation of the canal system permits removal of residual tissue in the canal anatomy that cannot bereached by instrumentation of the main canals so the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficiencyof conventional irrigation system, Vibringe sonic irrigation system and Endovac irrigation system in removing of dentindebris at three levels of root canals and to compare the percentage of dentin debris among the three levels foreach irrigation system.Materials and methods: Forty-five extracted premolars with approximately straight single root canals were randomlydistributed into 3 test groups of 15 teeth each. All canals were prepared with Protaper Universal hand files to size #F4,and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl 1ml between files and 5ml for 60 seconds as a final irrigant by different irrigationdevices; group one, by using conventional system; group two, by using Vibringe sonic irrigation system and groupthree, by using the Endovac system. After the final irrigation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographedwith a digital camera. The roots were magnified to 100X; a percentage of debris was calculated for the apical 0-3, 3-6 and 6-9 mm. The debris score was calculated as a percentage of the total area of the canal that contained debrisas determined by pixels in Adobe PhotoshopCS2. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and LSD at 5%significant level.Results: when comparing the debris remaining, both the Endovac and Vibringe groups showed significantly lessdebris than the conventional group at all three levels (p < 0.01). The Endovac group showed significantly less debristhan the Vibringe group at 3-9 mm levels while no significant difference found between the Endovac system andVibringe system at apical 0-3mm .The apical 0-3 mm showed significantly more debris than both the 3-6 and 6-9 mmfor all groups.Conclusion: the EndoVac system showed a higher cleaning capacity of the canal at all levels, followed by theprotocols that used Vibringe sonic irrigation system. The conventional irrigation system with maxi-i-probe needlesshowed inferior results. The apical three millimeters showed a greater amount of debris than the 3-9 millimetres fromthe working length, regardless of the irrigation device used.

Keywords

dentin debris --- Vibringe --- Endovac


Article
The influence of instrument application frequency on the apical extrusion of debris using rotary ProTaper, hand ProTaper and hybrid technique (An in vitro study)

Authors: Majida K. Al-Hashimi ماجدة الهاشمي --- Zaid K. Al-Doory زيد الدوري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 34-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Various kinds of hand-held or rotary instruments and techniques are used for mechanical preparationof the canal during root canal treatments. These instruments and techniques may push debris out of the canalswhich may induce inflammation within the periapical area; therefore, instrumentation technique that causes lessextrusion of debris is more desirable. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of instrument applicationfrequency on the amount of apically extruded debris.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty extracted human teeth were used in this study; all teeth wereshortened to a length of 15 mm. Each experimented root was mounted on a centrifuge tube that forced through aprecut hole in a rubber stopper of a glass vial. The roots were divided randomly into 3 groups, each group contained40 roots. Group R: prepared by rotary ProTaper, Group H: prepared by hand ProTaper, Group S: prepared by Hybridtechnique. Each group was further subdivided in to five subgroups (A, B, C, D, and E). Debris extruded from apicalforamen was collected in a centrifuge tube containing 0.5 milliliter of distilled water. Each empty centrifuge tube wasweighed before preparation by 0.0001g. sensitive weighing machine. Then at the end of canal preparation, thesecentrifuge tubes were completely dried using an incubator at 68 C° for two days and weighed again. The differencebetween the weights of tubes in two stages represented the weight of debris extruded from apical foramen duringinstrumentation.Results: No significant difference recorded for the mean weight of apically extruded debris regarding the instrumentapplication frequency within the same instrumentation technique; but there was a high significant difference for thesubgroups (A, B, C, and D) and a significant difference for subgroup E, regarding the effect of instrumentationtechniques on amount of apical extrusion of debris among tested groups.Conclusion: The hand ProTaper extruded smaller amounts of apical debris than the rotary ProTaper and largeramounts than Hybrid technique


Article
Effect of Floating Debris on Local Scour at Bridge Piers
تأثير المواد الطافية على النحر الموقعي عند دعامات الجسر

Authors: Mahmoud Saleh. Al-Khafaji --- Ali S. Abbas --- Rusul I. Abdulridha
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 356-367
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This research studied the effects of dimensions and shapes of debris accumulations on river’s bed scour at bridge piers by preparing and operating physical model and compared the results with that of applying a one-dimensional steady flow mathematical model using HEC-RAS software to the same geometry and boundary conditions of the physical model. TheResults of studying three shapes of accumulation floating debris (wedge, rectangular and trapezoidal) on bridge pier using physical model show that the dimensions and shapes of accumulation debris have a clear effect on the patterns of bed scour and the maximum scour depth at the pier.There is a big difference between the measured and computed scour depths using the physical and the HEC-RAS models where the software exaggerates in the calculation of the scour depths and the widths of scour hole without taking into consideration the effect of debris shape on the shape of scour hole.

في هذا البحث تم دراسة تأثير أشكالوأبعادالأنقاض المتجمعة عند دعامات الجسر على أعماقوأنماط نحر قاع النهر عند دعامات الجسر من خلال إعداد وتشغيل نموذج فيزيائي ومقارنة النتائج مع نتائج نموذج رياضي للجريان ذات البعد الواحد باستخدام برنامج HEC-RAS لنفس الأبعاد وشروط الجريان للموديل الفيزيائي.بينت نتائج دراسة ثلاث أشكال ذات أبعاد مختلفة من الأنقاض المتجمعة (وتد و مستطيل و شبه منحرف)عند دعامة الجسر باستخدام النموذج الفيزيائي أن هناك تأثيرات واضحة لأشكالوأبعادالأنقاض المتجمعة على أعلى عمق للنحر وأنماط النحر عند دعامة الجسر.هناك فرق كبير بين أعماق النحر المقاسة باستخدام النموذج الفيزيائي و أعماق النحر المحسوبة باستخدام نموذجHEC-RAS حيث يبالغ البرنامج في حساب أعماق النحر و أبعاد حفرة النحر حتى من دون وجود الأنقاض . هذا النموذج يزيد من عمق النحر دون الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار تأثير شكل الأنقاض على شكل حفرة النحر.


Article
A study to compare the cleaning efficiency of different irrigation systems for macro debris removal in instrumented canals (An in vitro study)

Authors: Hussein A. Hussein --- Mohammed R. Hameed محمد رشيد حميد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 11-16
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Irrigation of the canal system permits removal of residual tissue in the canal anatomy that cannot bereached by instrumentation of the main canals so the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficiencyof conventional irrigation system, endoactivator sonic irrigation system,P5 Newtron Satelec passive ultrasonicirrigation and Endovac irrigation system in removing of dentin debris at three levels of root canals and to comparethe percentage of dentin debris among the three levels for each irrigation system.Materials and methods: Forty extracted premolars with approximately straight single root canals were randomlydistributed into 4 tested groups of 10 teeth each. All canals were prepared with Protaper Universal hand files to size#F4, and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCI 1 ml between files and 5ml for 60 seconds as a final irrigant by different irrigationdevices; group one, by using conventional system; group two, by using Endoactivator sonic irrigation system, groupthree, by using Satelec Passive Ultrasonic irrigation and group four by using the Endovac system. After the finalirrigation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a digital microscope. The roots were magnifiedto 100X; a percentage of debris was calculated for the apical 0-3, middle 3-6 and coronal 6-9 mm. The debris scorewas calculated as a percentage of the total area of the canal that contained debris as determined by pixels inAdobe PhotoshopCS5. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and LSD at 5% significant level.Results: when comparing the debris remaining, the Endovac, Endoactivator and Satelec groups showed significantlyless debris than the conventional group at all three levels (p < 0.01). The Endovac group showed significantly lessdebris than the Endoactivator group at middle and coronal levels while no significant difference found between theEndovac system and Endoactivator system at apical level. The apical 0-3 mm showed significantly more debris thanboth the middle and coronal level for all groups.Conclusion: The EndoVac system showed a higher cleaning capacity of the canal at all levels, followed by theprotocols that used Endoactivator sonic irrigation system. The conventional irrigation system with maxi-i-probeneedles showed inferior results. The apical three millimeters showed a greater amount of debris than the 3-9millimetres from the working length, regardless of the irrigation device used


Article
Comparative Study of The Amount of Apically Extrusion Of Debris During Root Canal Preparation Using Wave One™, Trushape 3D™, Hyflex™ CM and One Shape™ Instrumentation Systems (An In Vitro Study)

Authors: Ali W. Hadi --- Mohammed R. Hameed محمد رشيد حميد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Many types of instruments and techniques are used in the instrumentation of the root canal system. These instruments and techniques may extrude debris beyond the apical foramen and may cause post-instrumentation complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris resulted by using 4 types of nickel-titanium instruments (WaveOne, TRUShape 3D conforming files, Hyflex CM, and One Shape files) during endodontic instrumentation.Materials and methods: Forty freshly extracted human mandibular second premolar with straight canals and a single apex were collected for this study. All teeth were cut to similar lengths. Pre-weighted glass vials were used as collecting containers. Samples were randomly divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group: Group A instrumentation by WaveOne reciprocating file, Group B instrumentation by TRUShape 3D rotating files, Group C instrumentation by Hyflex CM rotating files and Group D instrumentation by One Shape rotating file. A total volume of 7 ml of sodium hypochlorite was used for irrigation in each sample. Apical patency confirmed and maintained by a size #15 K-File. All canals were instrumented up to a size #25. After completion of endodontic instrumentation, vials were then stored in an incubator for 5 days at 68o C for dryness. Then vials are weighted again, and the pre-weight subtracted from the post-weight, the weight difference resembled the amount of apically extruded debris from the apical foramen during root canal instrumentation. Data obtained were statistically analysed by using ANOVA and LSD tests.Results: The results showed that the Hyflex CM Group (C) has statistical significant lowest apically extruded debris as compared to other groups of this study (P ≤0.05), while the TRUShape Group (B) has statistical significant lowest apically extruded debris as compared to One Shape Group (D) and WaveOne Group (A), while the WaveOne Group (A) showed the highest value of apically extruded debris (p ≤0.01). The result showed that all groups resulted in apical extrusion of debris.Significance: Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file system


Article
A study to compare the efficiency of different instrumentation systems for cleaning oval-shaped root canals (An in vitro study)

Authors: Tay H. Kadhom طي كاظم --- Walid N. Al-Hashimi وليد الهاشمي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 49-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Proper cleaning and shaping of the whole root canal space have been recognized as a realchallenge, particularly in oval-shaped canals.This in vitro study was conducted to evaluate and compare theefficiency of different instrumentation systems in removing of dentin debris at three thirds of oval-shaped root canalsand to compare the percentage of remaining dentin debris among the three thirds for each instrumentation system.Materials and methods: Fifty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with single straight oval-shaped distal rootcanals were randomly divided into five groups of ten teeth each. Group One: instrumentation with ProTaperUniversal hand instruments, Group Two: instrumentation with ProTaper Universal rotary instruments, Group Three:instrumentation with Revo-Srotary instruments, Group Four: instrumentation withTwisted rotary files and Group Five:instrumentation with Self-Adjusting Files (SAF). Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as an irrigant for all groups. Aftercanals preparation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a professional digital camera. Theimages of root sections were then magnified to 100x and the percentage of remaining dentin debris calculated forthe apical, middle and coronal thirds by dividing the pixels occupied by debris at each third by the total pixelsrepresenting the entire area of the canal using Adobe Photoshop CS6. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVAand LSD at 1% and 5% significant levels.Results: Both ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary files resulted in significantly cleaner canals than Revo-S and Twistedrotary files at the middle and coronal thirds. The Self-Adjusting Files produced significantly cleaner canals at thethree thirds than all the other groups. The coronal and middle thirds showed a greater amount of remaining dentindebris than the apical third for all groups except a non-significant difference found between the apical and middlethirds in SAF group.Conclusion: The Self-Adjusting Files allowed more efficient cleaning of oval-shaped root canals than hand androtary instruments


Article
Riverbed Scour Due to Accumulation of Floating Debris on Al-Msharah Bridge Piers
نحر قاع النهر بسبب تراكم الانقاض عند جسرالمشرح

Authors: Zahraa Abdulhussain زهراء عبد الحسين --- Ala Hassan Nama الاء حسن نعمت
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2015 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-25
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

This paper aims to implementing and run a study hydraulic simulation model by using the HEC-RAS software to simulate the flow in AL-Msharah River and studying the effect of floating debris accumulation on Al-Msharah Bridge piers on the flow conditions upstream the bridges and estimating the scour development according to this effect.All the required geometric, hydrological and riverbed material data were provided by Ministry of Water Resources, Iraq. These data were adopted for implementing the hydraulic simulation model. The effects of debris accumulation at the bridge piers were studied according to the present state of the river through considering six inflow discharge 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 m3/sec each with a range of floating debris dimensions (width, m × depth, m) up to (2m×2m).Results of applying the implemented hydraulic model showed that accumulation of debris on the bridge piers for more than 1m×1m increase the water surface elevation upstream the bridge to about 1m with the case of maximum discharge of 30m3/sec and debris of 2m×2m and increase the flow velocity and changing the flow velocity distribution within the bridge cross-section by about 15 to 20%.The total main channel scour depth increase from 0.77 m for the case of no debris with minimum discharge, 5 m3/sec, to 1.9 m for the case of 2m×2m debris with maximum discharge, 30 m3/sec.According to these results it is recommended that accumulated debris on AL Msharah Bridge piers must be carefully monitoring when its dimensions became more than 1m×1m and it must be removed from the bridge piers when its dimensions become more than 2m×2m because the resulted scour damage the bridge.

يهدف هذا البحث إلى اعداد وتشغيل نموذج محاكاة هيدروليكي باستخدام برنامج HEC-RAS لمحاكاة الجريان في نهر المشرح ودراسة تأثير تراكم الحطام العائمة على اعمدة الجسر تحت ظروف الجريان في مقدم ومؤخر الجسر وزيادة النحر وفقا لهذا التأثير.كل البيانات الخاصة بالشكل الهندسي والبيانات الهيدروليكية وخصائص مواد قاع النهر تم تجهيزها من قبل وزارة الموارد المائية،العراق. وقد اعتمدت هذه البيانات لتنفيذ نموذج المحاكاة الهيدروليكي للجريان الثابت احادي البعد.تم دراسة تأثير تجمع المواد الطافية على دعامات الجسر وفقاً للحالة الحالية للنهر من خلال دراسة ستة حالات من التصاريف 5 و 10و 15 و 20 و 25 و 30 م3/ثا كل تصريف تم دراسته مع مدى من ابعاد المواد الطافية المتجمعة (عرض, م × طول, م) لغاية (2×2).بينت نتائج تطبيق النموذج الهيدروليكي المعد ان تجمع المواد الطافي على دعامات جسر المشرح بابعاد اكثر من 1م ×1م يؤدي الى زيادة منسوب سطح الماء في مقدم الجسر حوالي 1م عند حالة التصريف الاقصى 30م3/ثا وابعاد مواد طافية 2م×2م ويزيد من سرعة الجريان ويغير توزيع سرع الجريان عند مقطع الجسر بحوالي 15 الى 20%.كما ان نتائج تطبيق النموذج بينت ان عمق النحر في القناة الرئيسية يزداد من و 0.77م في حالة عدم وجود مواد طافية مع حالة اقل تصريف, 5م3/ثا, الى 1.9م لحالة وجود مواد طافية بابعاد 2م×2م مع حالة التصريف الاعظم, 30م3/ثا. وفقاً لهذهِ النتائج تم التوصية بان يتم مراقبة تجمع المواد الطافية عند دعامات جسر المشرح بعناية وخاصة عندما تصبح ابعادها اكثر من 1م×1م ويجب ازالة المواد الطافي المتجمعة من دعامات الجسر عندما تصبح ابعادها اكثر من 2م×2م لان عمق النخر في هذهِ الحالة قد يكون كبيراً الى درجة تدمير الجسر.


Article
Evaluation of The Cleaning Effciency of Oneshape, Waveone, Reciproc and Protaper Systems Using Digital Image Morphometric Analysis (An in vitro study)

Authors: Luma A. Al-Dulaimi --- Hikmet A. Al-Gharrawi
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2017 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-183
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Background Complete removal of debris during the process of root canal therapy is of paramount importance in order to achieve the objectives of endodontic treatment.Objectives This in vitro study was conducted to compare the effciency of four different rotary instrumentation systems in removing dentin debris at three levels of root canals. Materials and methods Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular premolar with single straight root canals were selected and randomly divided into four groups of fهfteen teeth each; Group I: prepared by rotary ProTaper system (Full rotary technique), Group II: prepared by single fle Reciproc system (Reciprocating technique), Group III: was prepared by single fle WaveOne system (Reciprocating technique), and Group IV: was prepared by single fle OneShape system (Full rotary technique). These groups were prepared to an apical preparation corresponding to size 25 K-fle. Sodium hypochlorite (3%) was used as an irrigant in all cases. After canals preparation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a professional digital camera. The images of root sections were then magnifed to 100x and the percentage of remaining dentin debris was calculated for the apical (0-3 mm), middle (3-6 mm) and coronal (6-9 mm) levels through dividing the pixels occupied by debris at each level by the total pixels representing the entire area of the canal using Adobe Photoshop CS6. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and LSD tests. Results Reciproc, WaveOne and OneShape systems showed signifcantly better cleaning effciency than Protaper system in the apical and coronal levels (p < 0.05). While in the middle level, no signifcant differences were obtained among all systems (p ≤ 0.05).Conclusion Under the conditions of this study, the use of OneShape, WaveOne and Reciproc systems was signifcantly more effective than ProTaper system in eliminating debris from root canals at all levels.


Article
Incidence and severity of pain following the usage of three different root canal instrumentation systems

Authors: Jamal A. Mehdi --- Ahmad H. Oubaid
Journal: Journal of Oral and Dental Research مجلة طب الفم والاسنان ISSN: 23106417 Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-27
Publisher: Iraqi Association for Oral Research الجمعية العراقية لبحوث طب الفم

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Abstract

Introduction: Post-Operative pain is one of the most common issue that might happened during and after endodontictreatment, this prospective randomized clinical trial evaluated the incidence and severity of Post-Operative painfollowing root canal instrumentation using ProTaper Universal System, ProTaper Next system and WaveOne system.Methods: Ninety patients with asymptomatic irreversible pulpitis on their permanent molar teeth selected and distributed randomly into three different groups of 30 patients each, to have access opening and instrumentation at same visit, those patients were fitted with inclusive criteria that we put for this study. Group 1 instrumented with ProTaper system, Group 2 instrumented with ProTaper Next system and Group 3 instrumented with WaveOne system, all systems strictly followed manufacturing instruction. The assessment of Post-Operative pain carried out at day 1, 2, 3 and 7, using Verbal Rating Scale (4-point scale). Verbal Rating Scale pain score compared and analyzed using Chi-Square test. Result: total score for Verbal Rating scale (scores recorded for 4 days) showed significant difference among the groups (P < 0.05), there was a significant difference between ProTaper Next group and the other two group (ProTaper group and WaveOne group) (P < 0.05), while there was Non-significant difference between ProTaper System and WaveOne System (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: ProTaper next system caused the lowest incidence and severity of Post-Operative pain, WaveOne system caused the highest incidence and severity of Post-Operative pain.


Article
Comparison of apically extruded debris of different nickel titanium instruments

Author: Dr. Diyar Kh. Bakr, B.D.S., M.Sc., Ph.D.* د. ديار بكر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-23
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background and objective: During root canal instrumentation irrigants, necroticpulp tissue, microorganism and dentin debris may be extruded beyond the apexinto the periradicular tissue. These extrusions may cause flare-up. The purpose ofthis study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris with three rotaryNickel titanium instruments.Methods: Sixty single rooted, single canalled premolars were selected. The rootswere divided randomly into three groups; (n = 10) according to the type ofinstrumentation system used, group 1“ProTaper Next” system, group 2 “OneShape” system and group 3 “Mani Silk” system. The Debris extruded during theinstrumentation was collected and dried in preweighed vials and the amount ofextruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance.Result: results showed that the Mani silk system extruded significantly less debristhan the ProTaper Next and One shape systems (P < .05), and there is nosignificant difference in apically extruded debris between ProTaper Next groupand One Shape group but the One Shape produced more debris than ProTaperNext.Conclusion: the Mani silk file instrument was behaved well during instrumentationand extruded less debris than the other groups.

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