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Article
Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among neonates with hyperbilirubinaemia in western Iraq

Author: Sahar J Al-Hiali
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 431-434
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Glucose -6-phosphate (G6PD) deficiency seems to be a major cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among icteric neonates in western Iraq and to evaluate its association with hemolysis in neonatal jaundice.
Patients and Methods: All icteric neonates admitted to Al-Ramadi Maternity and Paediatrics hospital, Al-Anbar governorat, for the period from 1st Feb. to 1st Dec. 2006 were included in the study. Data collected from case records and includes age, sex, total serum bilirubin hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, blood group and Rh of the mothers and neonates, direct coomb's test and peripheral smear. G6PD enzymewas measured also.
Results: eight out of 100 icteric neonates had G6PD deficiency, with male to female ratio of 7:1. A significant higher total serum bilrubin (TSB) level was among G6PD deficient icteric neonates than that among non deficient icteric neonates. Reticulocytes count and haemoglobin level was not significantly differ between G6PD deficient and non deficient icteric neonates.
Conclusion: Neonatal screening for G6PD deficiency is a need in order to control genetic blood diseases.

Keywords

G6PD deficiency --- haemolysis --- TSB


Article
Histological changes in tongue of rabbits with iron deficiency state

Author: Ban Abd – Al Ghani بان عبد الغني
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-55
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Many oral symptoms can be contributed to iron deficient state. The present study was designed to show the effect of iron deficiency in histological feature of tongue.Materials and methods: Fifteen rabbits were used, 9 of them were given carrot only for duration of 2 months, they represent experimental group. Six of fifteen of rabbits were given normal food with all nutrient and vitamin supplement, for 2 months duration too, they represent the control group.Results: The result shows histological changes in tongue including atrophy and depapillation of experimental group.Conclusion: Iron element is important in epithelization of tongue and to keep tongue healthy

Keywords

Iron deficiency --- tongue


Article
A FAMILY WITH FACTOR XIII DEFICIENCY CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

Author: Zuhair Al-Barazanchi
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 92
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Factor XIII deficiency is a rare disorder of coagulation characteri-zed by moderate to severe bleeding tendency with increased susceptibility to intracranial hemorrhages, almost normal coagulation screening tests, clot lysis in 5 M urea solution & a tendency to abnormal wound healing. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. However, acquired causes for its deficiency are rarely encountered. We describe here an inherited form of F XIII deficiency in two members (a boy & a girl) in a one family in Basrah.


Article
Iron Deficiency Anaemia and Beta Thalassaemia Trait in Anaemic Pregnant Women.

Author: Haider H. AL–Shammari
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 3 Pages: 280-283
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Anaemia is one of commonest health problems in antenatal care units of developing countries and contributes significantly to increased maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.
Patients and methods: During the period from 1st of July 2007 to the end of October 2007, hundred anaemic pregnant women attending the gynaecology and obstetrics department in Al- Yarmook teaching hospital in Baghdad and 20 apparently healthy pregnant women,aged between 17 - 46 years as a control were included in this study. Anaemic women included in this study fulfilled the criteria of haemoglobin concentration of less than 110 g/L in first trimester and 105g/L in the second and third trimesters, no history of acute or chronic illnesses, not receiving any treatment & without any family history of haematological disorders. These women were randomly selected in relation to age , parity ,trimester of pregnancy & social status. Ten mls of venous blood samples were aspirated from each pregnant women in the studied group , two mls were put in ethylendiaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) tube and analyzed for peripheral blood smear , reticulocyte count & haemoglobin A2 ( Hb A2 )using standard methods for hematological investigation .While the remaining 8 ml were put in a plain tube to evaluate serum iron , total iron binding capacity & serum ferritin. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity was done by colometric method, while serum ferritin was done by immunoenzymatic assay and hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) level by haemoglobin electrophoresis.
Results: Peripheral blood smear study revealed a hypochromic microcytic anaemia in 81% of cases, 8% of cases showed macrocytic anaemia, 8% a normochromic normocytic anaemia while the remaining 3% of cases showed a dimorphic picture .Iron deficiency anemia constitutes 79% of the cases confirmed by serum ferritin. Only two cases ( 2% ) had elevated level of HbA2 .Serum iron, total iron binding capacity & serum ferritin had significant differences in those cases with low social status, increasing parity & increasing gestational age (trimesters).Iron deficiency anaemia was not found to have a significant association with increasing age , while patients with para 4 & more, in the third trimester & low social status were more significantly affected with iron deficiency anemia .
Conclusion: Iron deficiency anemia was found in 79% of anemic pregnant females confirmed by measurement of serum ferritin level. There were a significant difference between parity; social status and gestational age with the incidence of iron deficiency anemia.â-thalassaemia trait constitute only 2% of anemic cases in the studied sample.


Article
Occurrence of Helicobacter pylori Specific antibodies in patients with Iron-deficiency anemia
التحري عن اضداد النوعية لبكتريا Helicobacter pylori عند مرضى فقر الدم نوع نقص الحديد

Author: Ishraq Ahmed Chiad
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2010 Volume: 23 Issue: 5 Pages: 41-45
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

This study evaluates the prevalence and significance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with iron- deficiency anemia. Analysis serum samples for the presence of H. pylori antibodies by ELISA was performed in 123 iron deficiency anemia sample and 100 sample for blood doners as control. Highly percentage of H. pylori antibodies positive was found in gastric patients with iron- deficiency and it was higher in females (66%) than males (55%) respectively. Majority of cases (more than 79%) from rural area. Percentages of patients with history of anemia and positive H. pylori is (55.2%), while (84%) for history of gastritis and positive H. pylori in blood doners (P < 0.001). From this study concluded that the sero-prevalence of H. pylori in patients and doners are (59%), (22%) respectively.

قيمت الدراسة مدى شيوع واهمية الأصابة بالـ H. pylori لدى مرضى فقر الدم نوع نقص الحديد. حيث حددت الأجسام المناعية المضادة للبكتريا بواسطة اختبار مقاييسة الروز المناعي المرتبط بالأنظيم. شملت الدراسة لدى 123 عينة لمرضى نقص الحديد و 100 عينة اخرى لمتبرعي الدم كسيطرة. وجد ان اعلى نسبة اصابة بالـ H. pylori عند المرضى المصابين بالتهاب المعدة مع وجود فقر دم نوع نقص الحديد. ان نسبة الاصابة عند الأناث اعلى من الذكور 66%, 55% على التوالي. كما عرف ان غالبية الحالات (اكثر من 79%) من المناطق الحضرية. نسبة الأصابة بالـ H. pylori لدى مرضى لهم تاريخ سابق بفقر الدم كانت 55.2% بينما 84% لمتبرعي الدم ولهم تاريخ بالتهاب المعدة, وكانت هذه النتائج ذات تأثير معنوي مهم (P <= 0.001). نستنتج من هذه الدراسة ان نسبة شيوع H. pylori عند مرضى نقص الحديد اعلى من متبرعي الدم وبنسبة تتراوح 59%, 22% على التوالي.

Keywords

H. pylori --- Iron-deficiency --- Anemia


Article
Correlation of vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism with anemic in Female Iraqi

Author: Sharara Fadhil Aboud
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 34-43
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and anemia are common in the Middle East, and vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism have been study to be linked with an increased incidence of anemia. In this study, that vitamin D deficiency and hyperpara¬thyroidism may be connected with anemia in female Iraqi population was tested.Aim: To investigated correlation of hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D3 levels deficiency and insufficiency with anemia in female.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Al-Hussein Medical City/ Al-Husain Teaching Hospital / Kerbala-Iraq. All samples 176 apparently are healthy female subjects as controls 80 and 96 female patients non- obese having iron deficiency anemia during the period from Nov. , 2015 to Sep., 2016with age ranged between (15- 50) years. The data of body mass index (BMI), Vitamin D3, serum iron levels, total iron binding capacity, creatinine ,complete blood count in blood were measured, alkaline phosphate, phosphorus and calcium .Results: In females, the prevalence of anemia was significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency independent of parathyroid hormone levels (p=0.001). In females, the prevalence of anemia appeared to be significantly associated with hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P = 0.01) Conclusion: It was concluding that anemia female patients have significantly low levels of serum vitamin D3and high levels of serum parathyroid hormone than that in healthy. High prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was stronger in female population of Kerbala city in Iraq. Additional studies to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation could be used to treat anemia are acceptable.


Article
Field and laboratory study of trace elements deficiency in sheep in Al-Najaf province
دراسة حقليه ومختبريه لبعض العناصر المعدنية في الأغنام في محافظة النجف

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Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the trace elements in the blood of sheep suffering from clinical signs of mineral deficiency . Thousand (1000) ewe were examined clinically and 32 were suffering from sever mineral deficiency, while 10 animals clinically healthy selected as control group . Blood samples were taken, 32 samples from the infected group and other 10 samples from the control group . Blood samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed high deficiency in trace elements as well as presence of significant differences between the affected and the control groups at p<0.05 .The values of Cu, Fe, Co, Zn and Pb in serum of control group were 0.859 ± 0.091 ppm , 2.038 ±0.016 ppm , 0.519 ± 0.076 ppm , 1.028 ± 0.015 ppm , 0.003 ± 0.0005 ppm respectively and in affected group Cu,Fe,Co,Zn And Pb were 0.209 ± 0.006 ppm, 0.294 ± 0.025 ppm, 0.012 ± 0.001 ppm , 0.190 ± 0.007 ppm, 0.053 ± 0.006 ppm respectively. There was no significant variation in toxic metal Pb between affected and control group.at (p<0.05).

أجريت هذه الدراسة لتقييم بعض العناصر المعدنية في مصل الأغنام والتي تعاني من علامات سريريه تدل على إصابتها بنقص شديد في بعض المعادن في محافظة النجف الأشرف . شملت الدراسة 1000 حيوان تم فحصها سريريا , أظهرت الدراسة ان 32 حيوان منها يعاني من علامات سريريه شديدة تمثلت بالضعف الشديد (93.7% )وانعدام الشهية (50%) وتساقط الصوف (87.5%) وفرط التقرن (56%)وشحوب الأغشية المخاطية(40.6%) وحالات اسهال بنسبه (28.1%) .اظهرت نتائج فحص عينات الدم ان هناك نقص شديد في المعادن في الحيوانات التي تعاني من اعراض سريرية مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة وهناك فرق معنوي كبير بين المجموعتين تحت مستوى (p<0.05). , حيث كانت قيم العناصر النحاس , الحديد, الكوبلت , الزنك والرصاص, في مجموعة السيطرة0.859 ± 0.091 ppm , 2.038 ±0.016 ppm 0.519 ± 0.076 ppm , 1.028 ± 0.015 ppm , 0.003 ± 0.0005 ppmعلى التوالي وفي مجموعة الحيوانات المصابة سجلت قيم العناصرالنحاس والحديد والكوبلت والزنك والرصاص 0.209 ± 0.006 ppm, 0.294 ± 0.025 ppm, 0.012 ± 0.001 ppm , 0.190 ± 0.007 ppm, 0.053 ± 0.006 ppm. على التوالي.


Article
PREVALENCE OF IRON DEFICIENCY IN -THALASSEMIA TRAIT IN ERBIL GOVERNORATE
انتشار نقص الحديد بين حاملى مرض الثلاسيما من نوع بيتا فى محافظة اربيل

Author: KAWA MOHAMEDAMIN HASAN كاوه محمدامين
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2014 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 38-46
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground and objectives Anemia is a common clinical disorder that could be seen byclinician in Iraqi Kurdistan hospitals and private clinics, iron deficiency anemia perform thevast majority of such cases, and the prevalence of -thalassemia trait in our community isabout 7.5-8%. We examined a consecutive cohort of patients with -thalassemia trait todetect the frequency of iron deficiency among them.Method A descriptive cross sectional study performed in Erbil-Rizgary teaching hospital, thestudy was conducted among 162 individuals with -thalassemia trait over a period extendingfrom October 2013 to October 2014. The individuals had their diagnosis confirmed by acombination of blood counts and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. They were theninvestigated for Iron status by determining Transferrin saturation and Serum ferritin.Results Among the 162 individuals with -thalassemia minor enrolled, the prevalence of irondeficiency was 34.6%. There were no significant difference in the frequency of irondeficiency between adults and children (p = 0.99) or males and females (p= 0.477). The meanhaemoglobin (Hb) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were significantly lower in thosewith concomitant iron deficiency (ID) than those without it (p= 0.009, p= 0.021 respectively)while mean red cell distribution width (RDW) was higher among those with ID than thosewithout ID (p = 0.01). However, no significant differences were noted in the Hb A2 % inthose with concomitant ID (p= 0.52).Conclusions Iron deficiency is frequent among our -thalassemia trait people, serum ferritinwas low in only 16% of cases while the prevalence of ID counting on both serum ferritin andtransferrin saturation (Tsat%) was 34.6%; so serum ferritin shuold not be the only ultimatetool for iron assessment among such people.

الخلفية والأهداف: فقر الدم هو اضط ا رب سريري شائع التي يمكن أن يواجه الطبيب في المستشفيات والعيادات الخاصة في كوردستان الع ا رق ، وفقر الدم نتيجة نقص الحديد يشكل الغالبية العظمى من هذه الحالات، نسبة انتشا رحامل مرض ٨٪. قمنا بد ا رسة مجموعات متتالية من حاملي - الثلاسيما (الثلاسيميا الصغرى) من نوع بيتا في مجتمعنا حوالي ٧.٥ مرض الثلاسيما من نوع بيتا للكشف عن نسبة نقص الحديد بينهم.المرضى والطرق: د ا رسة وصفية مقطعية أجريت في مستشفى رزكاري التعليمي في اربيل. وقد أجريت الد ا رسة بين ١٦٢شخصا من حاملي مرض الثلاسيما نوع بيتا على مدى فترة امتدت من أكتوبر ٢٠١٣ إلى أكتوبر ٢٠١٤ . لقد تم تشخيص (HPLC) مرض الثلاسيما عند هؤلاء الاشخاص عن طريق تحليل الدم العام و تحليل السائل الكروماتوك ا رفي عالي الاداء بعد ذلك تم التحري عن نسبة الحديد بواسطة كل من نسبة الفيرتين في مصل الدم ونسبة تشبع الت ا رنسفيرين.النتائج: بين ١٦٢ شخصا من حاملي مرض الثلاسيما نوع بيتا الذين شملتهم الد ا رسة بلغت نسبة انتشار نقص الحديدمعدل .(P= و بين كلا الجنسين ( ٠.٤٧٧ (P= ٣٤.٦ ٪، لم يكن هناك اختلاف بشكل ملحوظ بين الكبار والأطفال ( ٠.٩٩ كان أقل وبشكل ملحوظ بين حاملي مرض الثلاسيما نوع بيتا (MCV) نسبة خضاب الدم ومعدل حجم كريات الدم الحم ا رء على التوالي)، في حين معدل P= 0.021 ،P= من تلك دون نقص الحديد ( 0.009 (ID) المت ا زمن مع نقص الحديد على اية حال لم .(P=٠.٠١) ID من دون تلك (ID) كان أعلى بين ذوي نقص الحديد (RDW) توزيع خلايا الدم الحمراء عند حاملي مرض الثلاسيما نوع بيتا المت ا زمن مع نقص الحديد (HbA يلاحظ اي اختلاف ملحوظ في خضاب (% 2.(P= ٠.٥٢) الاستنتاج: نقص الحديد شائع و منتشر لدى الاشخاص الحاملين لمرض الثلاسيما نوع بيتا، نسبة الفيرتين كان اقل من الحد الطبيعي عند % 16 فقط من مجموع ١٦٢ شخصا اجريت عليهم الد ا رسة بينما بلغت نسبة انتشار نقص الحديد ٣٤.٦ ٪ معتمدا على كل من نسبة الفيرتين في مصل الدم ونسبة تشبع الت ا رنسفيرين، لذلك فان قياس نسبة الفيرتين في مصل الدم لا يمكن ان تكون الفحص الاساسي الوحيد لتقييم نسبة الحديد بين هؤلاء الشخاص.


Article
THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA AND FIRST FEBRILE SEIZURE: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY
العلاقة بين فقر الدم الناتج عن نقص الحديد والاختلاجات الحرارية

Authors: AKREM M. AL-ATRUSHI اكرم الاتروشي --- KHALID N. ABDURRAHMAN خالد نواف عبدالرحمن
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2010 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 60-66
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of seizures in children. Therelationship between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and first FS has been examined in severalstudies with conflicting results.Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the association between IDA and firstFS.Patients and Methods In this prospective case-control study we assessed 112 children with adiagnosis of first FS, aged between 5 months and 4 years who were admitted to theemergency unit of Hevi Children’s Hospital in Duhok/Kurdistan region/Iraq, or who visitedprivate office of the authors, during January 2006 to July 2009. The control group consistedof 120 febrile children without convulsion; controls were matched to the cases by gender andage. Patients and controls were reviewed to determine iron status using the hemoglobinconcentration (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, S. iron, and total iron binding capacity.Results A total of 35 (31.2%) of cases had IDA, compared to 14 (11.6%) of controls, whichis statistically significant, P = 0.003.Conclusion IDA was more frequent among children with FS than those with febrile illnessalone. The results suggest that IDA may be a risk factor for FS and screening for IDA shouldbe considered in children presenting with the first FS.

الخلفية: الاخخلاسبح امحرار جٍ ه وى الذر ايواػ امضرػ ش وٍؽب مدى الاعفبل. اسر حٍ ؽدد وى امتحود مخفش رٍ امؾلاقج ت ىٍ فقر امده اميبخز ؽى يقص امحد دٍ والاخخلاسبح امحرار جٍ الاومي وؼ يخبئز وخيبقظج.الاهداف: امغرط وى هذا امتحد هو موؾرفج امؾلاقج ت ىٍ فقر امده والاخخلاسبح امحرار جٍ الاومي.الطرق: خه ق بٍس يشتج امه وٍولنوت ىٍ وحسه املر بٍح امحورو يشتج امحد دٍ ف امده ل) 112 ( ورطٍ وضبة تبخخلارحرار اول‚ووى خراوحح اؽوبرهه ت ىٍ خوشج اشهر وارتؼ شيواح منفخرث وى لبيوى امذبي 2006 ومغب جٍ خووز 2002 . وف يفس اموقح خوح دراشج 120 عفلا وضبتب تحوي تدوى اخخلاسبح لوسووؽج ش عٍرث.النثبئج: غهر فقر امده اميبخز ؽى يقص امحد دٍ ف 35 ور ظٍب وقبريج ة 14 عفلا وى وسووؽج امش عٍرث.الاسثنثبج والارشبدات: فقر امده اميبخز ؽى يقص امحد دٍ الذر ش وٍؽب ت ىٍ الاعفبل اموضبت ىٍ تبلاخخلاسبح امحرار جٍ , مذمك سٍة امخحر ؽى ذمك.


Article
Study of some minerals deficiency in grazing sheep in Thi-Qar province.
دراسة نقص بعض المعادن في الأغنام الرعوية في محافظة ذي قار

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Abstract

This study was carried out on 250 locally sheep collected from four sides of Thi-Qar Governorate. The clinical, hematological, trace elements changes in naturally occurring minerals deficiency in sheep were described. Anemia & Pale mucous membranes, Alopecia &steely wool, Diarrhea, parakeratosis, pica and abortion constituted the main signs and symptoms. The respiratory and heart rates were significantly higher (p<0.05) in mineral deficient sheep than in normal control sheep in one side of province. Values of total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were significantly lower (p<0.05) in mineral deficient sheep than in normal control sheep. Significant differences were not found in total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count values in sick and normal control sheep. Copper, Zinc and Iron values in the serum were significantly lower (p<0.05) in mineral deficient than in normal control sheep. The erythrocytes morphology appeared a abnormal shapes and size, this refer to Macrocytic hypochromic anemia and Normocytic hypochromic anemia, It was concluded that a significant changes were noticed between diseased and control sheep in clinical hematological values and trace elements and abnormal erythrocytes morphology, deficiency of a single element seldom occurs under field condition in Thi-Qar Governorate.

اجريت هذه الدراسة على مئتان و خمسون رأس من الغنم جمعت من اربعة اتجاهات من محافظة ذي قار.فظهرت تغيرات سريريه ودموية و مستوى المعادن النادره في الاغنام التي كانت تعاني من نقص المعادن. كانت العلامات و الصفات الظاهرة هي فقر الدم و شحوب الاغشية المخاطية ، تساقط الصوف و ابيضاض الصوف ، اسهال ، تقرن الجلد ، انحراف الشهية بالاضافه الى الاجهاض .كان معدل التنفس و نبض في الاغنام التي تعاني نقصا اعلى من اغنام السيطرة السليمة ظاهريا معنويا(p<0.05) في منطقة واحدة من المحافظة .اظهرت الدراسة ان معدل كريات الدم الحمراء ، الهيموغلوبين وحجم كريات الدم المضغوطه اوطأ معنويا (p<0.05) في الاغنام التي تعاني نقصا من اغنام السيطرة السليمة ظاهريا ، بينما لم يحدث فرق معنوي في كريات الدم البيضاء بين الاغنام التي تعاني نقصا و اغنام السيطرة السليمة ظاهريا.كان مستوى النحاس ،الزنك و الحديد في مصل الدم اوطأ معنويا (p<0.05) في الاغنام التي تعاني نقصا من اغنام السيطرة السليمة ظاهريا. وكان الشكل الظاهري لكريات الدم الحمراء في الاغنام التي تعاني نقصا قد اظهرت تغيرا مورفولوجيا في الحجم والشكل مما يدل على حدوث فقر الدم قليل الكروماتين كبير الحجم و فقر الدم قليل الكروماتين معتدل الحجم . خلصت النتائج الى ان هناك تغير ملحوظ سريريا ودمويا و مستوى المعادن النادره ، وان نقص عنصر واحد نادرا ما يحدث تحت الظروف الحقلية في محافظة ذي قار.

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