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Article
Dental Anxiety and it's Relation to Serum Cortisol Level Before

Author: Dunia W. Alfayad دنيا وديع الفياض
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2012 Volume: Vol.10 Issue: 1 Pages: 35-40
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Background: Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment methods, and it affects the utilization of health does not only decrease the pain threshold, but actually leads to the perception of painless stimuli as painful. services. Cortisol is an important hormone in the body, secreted by the adrenal glands and involved in many functions.Objectives: To evaluate the relation between the level of serum cortisol and increase anxiety in dental patients before minor oral surgery.Materials and Method: Sixty patients were included in this study were attended Alkatana Specialized Dental Center from October/4/2010 till December/1/2010, their age ranged from (16-54 years) 27 patients were females and 33 were males. They were divided into two groups, 30 of them as controls (they didn't need any dental surgery) who match the other 30 patients study group in age, sex and their general health status but they needed minor oral surgery. Blood samples were collected from all patients between 10-11 Am., and about 5 minutes before surgery to the patients of the study group. Serum cortisol level was measured by using radioimmunoassay analysis.Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled in this study. Regarding the control group 15 were females and 15 were males while for the study group patients12 were females and 18 were males. Serum cortisol level was significantly different between two groups the mean was13.05 ±6.51 for control patients and 23.62 ±10.12 respectively and the Coefficient correlation (r)between serum cortisol level and pulse rate in both groups were 0.16 (p>0.05) for the control patients and 0.58 (p<0.01) for the study group patients. When serum cortisol concentrations in study group were distributed according to the age of the sample, there was a highly significant positive correlation between these variables (r=0.36, p< 0.05). Also pulse rat in study group was found highly positive association with age (r=0.55, p < 0.01).Conclusions: It is concluded that the study group patients exhibited significantly higher levels of serum cortisol and pulse rate than that of the control group. This deference is suggested to be due to phobia from dental surgical work. As recommendation we suggest giving patient 5 mg of diazepam at the night before the operation.

القلق النفسي لدى مرضى الاسنان وعلاقة هرمون الكورتيزول قبل عمليات الاسنان الصغرى

Keywords

dental anxiety --- pain --- cortisol


Article
Role of Encouraging Words in Reducing Anxiety and Pain During Tooth Extraction

Authors: Abdurrahman A .Al-Samman --- Omar S. Al-Nuaime --- Omar J.B Mohamedtaib
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2018 Volume: 18 Issue: 34 Pages: 73-82
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The present study tests the effect of preoperative encouraging words provided by dental clinician onthe levels of anxiety and pain experienced by patients after tooth extraction. Materials and methods:Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and the control group. Intervention subjects had preoperative ten minutes appointment with operating oral surgeon. This appointment identify the sources ofanxiety, and participants given individualized encouragement according to their needs. Control subjectsreceived reassurance immediately before surgery. All patients completed several questionnaires coveringmeasures of anxiety and pain. Results: Discussion with patients along with encouragement highly affectspatients’ levels of anxiety and pain after tooth extraction. Conclusions: Dental clinicians should considerthe practice of encouraging patients shortly before tooth extraction.


Article
Assessment of dental anxiety by physiological measurement (salivary cortisol) and psychological measurement (dental anxiety scale) in children

Authors: Abeer M.H.Zwain --- Ban A.Salih
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 9 Pages: 2578-2568
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Dental anxiety is considered one of the most common sources of fear and anxiety that cause activation of adrenal gland to increase secretion of cortisol hormone. The aims of the present study are: measurement of the level of dental anxiety by physiological measurement (cortisol level in saliva) and psychological measurement (dental anxiety scale (DAS); evaluation of the stress response during several stages of dental treatment; assessment of the effects of dental anxiety on the oral health status of the child; and evaluation of factors that could affect dental anxiety in the children. The studied group included 85 children, aged between 9-13 years, 39 female, 46 male, selected from patients attended to the Dental Preventive Health Center in Al-Kadhimiya City, accompanied by the mother. Interviewing with each child's mother were conducted including a questionnaire about different variables affect dental anxiety, then another interviewing with each child including (DAS). Then saliva samples were collected from the children at the waiting room. All children received dental treatment according to their chief complaint, except 15 children, they received amalgam restoration under local anesthesia and saliva samples were collected from them during different stages of the treatment:1. After anesthetic injection, 2. After cavity drilling, 3. At the end of the treatment.The control group included 30 children, from them saliva samples had been collected in their school away from dental fear. A highly significant difference in the level of salivary cortisol was found between control and studied group and a significant correlation was observed between DAS scores and salivary cortisol level at the waiting room which indicates that both of these two methods are valid and can be used as a tool for the assessment of dental anxiety. Anesthetic injection was associated with a higher increase in the level of salivary cortisol. Patients reported high scores in DAS, have less filled, more decayed surfaces and more plaque accumulation than those who reported low scores in the scale. It is found that anesthetic injection, and pain associated with dental treatment is the most common sources and reasons for dental anxiety, so the dentist must decrease or eliminate any procedure that provoke anxiety and fear because of its effect on later perception of the child to the dentistry in general.

الخوف من طب الاسنان يعتبر واحد من مصادر الخوف والتوتر الشائعة والتي تسبب تنشيط الغدة الكظرية لفرز هرمون الكورتيزول . الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو : قياس مستوى الخوف من طب الاسنان بواسطة المقياس الفسلجي( مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي) و المقياس النفسي( المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان((DAS),تقييم الاستجابة للتوتر خلال عدة مراحل من العلاج في عيادة طب الاسنان , تقدير تاثيرات الخوف من طب الاسنان على حالة صحة الفم للطفل ,تقييم العوامل التي قد تؤثر على الخوف من طب الاسنان عند الاطفال.العينة المدروسة تشمل 85 طفل تتراوح اعمارهم بين 9-13 سنة,39 انثى,46 ذكر, مختارة من مراجعين حاضرين عيادة طب الاسنان مصاحبين والداتهم. مقابلة مع والدة كل طفل جرت لجمع اجابات عن اسئلة حول مختلف المتغيرات المؤثرة في الخوف من طب الاسنان, مقابلة اخرى جرت مع كل طفل متضمنة اسئلة تشمل(المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان للاطفال((DAS), عينات من اللعاب جمعت من الاطفال في غرفة الانتظار. كل طفل تلقى العلاج حسب الشكوى الاساسية له, 15 طفل اجريت لهم حشوة بمادة الاملغم تحت التخدير الموضعي ومنهم عينات اللعاب اخذت في مراحل مختلفة من العلاج:1- بعد اعطاء البنج الموضعي 2- بعد حفر السن 3- عند نهاية العلاج. العينة المسيطر عليها تشمل 30 طفل منهم عينات اللعاب اخذت وهم في المدرسة بعيداعن عيادة طب الاسنان. اختلاف ذو مغزى عالي وجد في مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي بين العينة المدروسة و العينة المسيطر عليها, وايضا اختلاف ذو مغزى لوحظ بين المقياسالمدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان ((DAS و الكورتيزول اللعابي في غرفة الانتظار مما يدل على ان كلتا الطريقتين مضبوطتين و يمكن ان تستخدم لتقييم الخوف من طب الاسنان. اعطاء ابرة البنج ارتبط مع اعلى ارتفاع في مستوى الكورتيزول اللعابي خلال العلاج. الاطفال الذين سجلوا علامات عالية في المقياس المدرج للخوف من طب الاسنان ((DAS لديهم حشوات اقل وتسوس اكثر وتجمعات من الصفيحة الجرثومية اكثر في اسطح اسنانهم من الاطفال الذين اوردوا علامات قليلة.لقد وجد ان ابرة البنج و الالم المرتبط مع علاج الاسنان هو المصدر الشائع لسبب الخوف من طب الاسنان لذلك يجب على طبيب الاسنان ان يقلل او يزيل اي اجراء يحث التوتر و الخوف من طب الاسنان لتاثيره اللاحق على فهم الطفل لطب الاسنان بصورة عامة.


Article
Prevalence of dental anxiety in relation to sociodemographic factors using two psychometric scales in Baghdad

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Abstract

Background: In spite of advances in dentistry, anxiety about dental treatment and thefear of pain remains public health problem and is a significant impediment todental treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the levels of dentalanxiety in patients who referred to Al-Mustansiriyah dental clinics and Al-ShiekhOmar specialized dental center in Baghdad and their relation to their gender, age,educational level.Materials and methods: The study was done on (800) patients, aged (20-59) years inBaghdad. The survey form was prepared and translated from English to Arabiclanguages by certified translator and were filled by patients themselves withoutany help from dentists. Patients with mental retarded, those who not havingcompleted the survey form and those below 20 years and above 59 years wereexcluded. The survey was divided into 3 parts (socio-demographic information,Modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS) and Dental fear survey (DFS).Results: The present study showed that females had higher anxiety (13.57, 47.38)than males (8.98, 37.75) for Modified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear surveyrespectively. The anxiety decreased with advance of age (12.31, 11.41, 10.89,10.45 for Modified dental anxiety scale and 43.10, 41.22, 38.69, 37.93 for Dentalfear survey) in groups (1,2,3,4) respectively. The anxiety decreased with advanceof teaching, so the uneducated patients had higher mean of anxiety (14.45, 48.59)while the postgraduate patients had lower anxiety (9.10, 36.30) for Modifieddental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively than others. There washigh significant difference between males and females at P-value (≤ 0.01) for bothModified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey scales.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed high significant difference among agegroups and among education level groups at P-value (≤ 0.01) for both Modifieddental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey scales. The higher percentage ofanxiety scales was appeared in minimal anxiety score in males (56%, 48%) inModified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively, while lessorpercentage was appeared in very high anxiety score in males (5.1%, 5.5%) inModified dental anxiety scale and Dental fear survey respectively. Pearson'scorrelation coefficient (R) showed that there was a positive relationship betweengender and anxiety scales, with statistically high significant at P-value (≤ 0.01).While, there was inverse relationship between age and anxiety scales, and betweeneducation and anxiety scales with statistically high significant at P-value (≤ 0.01)for both relations.Conclusion: The females had higher rate of anxiety than males. The anxietydecreased with advance of age and education level of patients. There was a strong(positive) relationship between gender and anxiety. While, there was inverse(negative) relationship between anxiety with age and education.


Article
Patient Satisfaction and its Relationship to Dental anxiety among patients of Dental Clinics in Baghdad city
قناعة المريض وعلاقتها بقلق عيادات طب الاسنان في مدينة بغداد

Authors: Ibrahim murtadha Ibrahim ابراهيم مرتضى الاعرجي --- Saadi Jawad Muslim سعدي جواد مسلم
Journal: Journal Of Educational and Psychological Researches مجلة البحوث التربوية والنفسية ISSN: 18192068 /pissn 26635879 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 57 Pages: 563-585
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract: Patient satisfaction and dental anxiety considered as an important factors in dental health care and treatment because they greatly affect the patient's cooperation with the dentist and the extent to which follows the guidelines, treatment and preventive instruction. The present study investigates the relationship between patient satisfaction and dental anxiety, as well as their relation to demographic variables such as gender, age, number of visits, and cultural level. The study was applied on a random sample of dental clinics in Baghdad city with total of (200) patient (108 male and 92 female). Two scales were used in this study, patient satisfaction scale PSS (included 9 aspects, constructed by authors) and Iraqi dental anxiety scale DAS (Salem & Muslim, 2015). The results explained that there is an inverse significant correlation between patient satisfaction and dental anxiety. And there are two demographic variables that have predicted with dental anxiety which are age and number of visits to dental clinic. While there are four aspects of patient satisfaction are predicted to dental anxiety, which are satisfaction of (overall appearance of the clinic, the reception, patient information, and services with safety). The research came out with some of recommendations and suggestions. Key Word: patient Satisfaction, Dental anxiety, Dental clinic.

قناعة المريض وعلاقتها بقلق عيادات طب الاسنان في مدينة بغدادأ.م.د. ابراهيم مرتضى الاعرجي / مركز البحوث التربوية والنفسية / جامعة بغدادم.د. سعدي جواد مسلم / مركز البحوث التربوية والنفسية / جامعة بغداد ملخص البحث: يعد رضا المريض والقلق من معالجة الاسنان من العوامل الأساسية و المهمة في رعاية صحة الاسنان وعلاجها كونهما يؤثران بدرجة كبيرة في مدى تعاون المريض مع طبيب الاسنان وفي مدى التزامه بالإرشادات والتعليمات العلاجية والوقائية. يتحرى البحث الحالي دراسة العلاقة بين رضا المريض وقلق معالجة الأسنان، فضلا عن علاقتهما ببعض المتغيرات الديموغرافية مثل (الجنس، والعمر، عدد مرات المراجعة، والمستوى الثقافي). أجريت الدراسة على عينة عشوائية من العيادات الخاصة بطب الأسنان في محافظة بغداد مقدارها (200) مراجع (108 ذكر و92 أنثى)، استعملت في الإجراءات أداتين، الأولى لقياس رضا المريض من أعداد الباحثين (تتضمن 9 مجالات)، والثانية لقياس قلق الأسنان لـ(سالم ومسلم20150). كشفت النتائج عن وجود علاقة دالة ارتباطيه عكسية بين رضا المريض وقلق الأسنان، وان هناك متغيرين ديموغرافيين قد أنبئا بقلق الأسنان هما: (العمر وعدد مرات المراجعة) ،في حين أنبأت أربعة مجالات من رضا المريض بقلق معالجة الأسنان والمجالات هي: (الرضا عن المظهر العام للعيادة، والرضا عن الاستقبال، والرضا عن معلومات المريض المقدمة، والرضا عن إجراءات السلامة والخدمات). وقد خرج البحث ببعض التوصيات والمقترحات. الكلمات المفتاحية : ( قناعة المريض , قلق الاسنان , عيادة طب الاسنان )


Article
An Anxiety and Salivary Cortisol Correlation in Dental Managements between Different Dental Departments
العلاقة بين التوتر ومستوى الكورتزول في اللعاب خلال عمليات العلاج بين مختلف اقسام طب الاسنان

Author: Ahmad Fliah Hassan احمد فليح حسن
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2015 Issue: 35 Pages: 343-356
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

Stress is a normal psychological and physical reaction to the ever-increasing demands of life. Studies show that many challenges with stress at some point during the year. Seventy five Iraqi dental patients interning collage of dentistry divided in three groups, twenty five patients were admitted to oral medicine and diagnosis department, twenty five patients to periodontal department and the last twenty five patients were to oral surgical department. Each selected group was compared to the each other groups. The parameters of comparison were dental anxiety scale and salivary cortisol. The research was based on evaluation of salivary cortisol and modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS). The cortisol evaluation was achieved using ELISA technique while, MDAS were based on scoring questionnaire.The salivary cortisol levels and MDAS were ranges from 0.243±0.190 ng/L to 7.760±2.488 with a significant changes 0.0001 (p<0.05) in the oral surgery department. The collected cortisol level and MDAS were 0.274±0.273ng/L to 9.000±3.617 in periodontal department with a significant changes 0.0001 (p<0.05), while the diagnosis department showed a cortisol changes between 0.178±0.132 ng/L to 7.240±2.385 with significant changes 0.0001 (p<0.05).We concluded that the relations between the anxiety-fear of the patients were significantly changed and strongly related to the type of treatments ; we confirmed that by using MDAS according to the dental treatment in a different departments (oral medicine and diagnosis, periodontal and oral surgery) in compared with salivary cortisol level.The diagnosis department showed the lower values in salivary cortisol and MDAS with high correlation, while the higher values were recorded in periodontal department. MDAS was an effective tool in monitoring an anxiety for the patients. Types and applying of dental instruments were associated with anxiety.

ان الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو بيان درجة الخوف لمرضى الاسنان وعلاقتة بنسبة الكورتزون المقاس من اللعاب لثلاث عينات من المرضى تمت معالجتهم في ثلاثة فروع علاجية في كلية طب الاسنان- الجامعة المستنصرية.شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة وسبعون مريضا. خمسة وعشرون مريضا تمث معالجتهم في كل قسم (جراحة الفم و امراض وجراحة ماحول الاسنان والتشخيص الفمي). وزع على المرضى استبيان معدل لقياس الخوف من علاج الاسنان مع اخذ عينة من اللعاب من اجل قياس نسبة الكورتزون لغرض معرفة العلاقة الاحصائية بينهما.اظهرت النتائج الاحصائية ان المرضى الذين يعالجون في قسم امراض وجراحة ماحول الاسنان هم الاكثر خوفا، يليهم المرضى المعالجين في قسم جراحة الفم وقد كان المرضى المعالجين في قسم التشخيص الفمي هم الاقل تخوفا حسب النتائج الاحصائية بين مجموعة واخرى حسب نتائج الاستبيان والكورتزون المقاس من اللعاب وارتباطها بالقسم الذي تم العلاج به وذلك يعود لعدة اسباب منها طول فترت انتظار المرض ومعرفته او عدم معرفته بنوع العلاج المقدم له وطبيعة المواد المستخدمة في العلاج.

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