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Article
10.FREQUENCY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES IN YOUNG AGE GROUPS IN NORTHERN IRAQ

Authors: Younis A. Khalaf --- Ismail D. Saeed اسماعيل --- Dhaher J. Alhabbo ظاهر جميل الحبو
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-73
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is frequently encountered among younger ages during last decades in both developed and developing countries largely contributed to the increasing degree and prevalence of obesity in such ages.Objective:To determine the frequency of T2D in patients younger than 40 years at Northern Iraq.Methods:Retrospectively a total of 9331 patients were studied consisted of 3471 males and 5860 females with diabetes mellitus (DM) at two settings in Northern Iraq in a period from January 2009 – January 2015. Demographic measurements and clinical evaluation were performed for all patients. The diagnosis of DM and its types was depended on the clinical background and confirmed by plasma glucose level measurement. The data from all patients were assessed and statistically analyzed. Results:T2D contributed by 8704 (93.3%) of total number of study sample. The mean values for body weight and body mass index for T2D were higher than those of T1D patients (78.0±14.2, and 30.93±5.42 vs. 56.1±22.6 and 23.72±6.89) respectively. The female to male ratio in T2D was approximately 1.73:1.00. Out of 8704 patients with T2D, almost 2134 (24.52%) patients were ≤ 39 years of age. Conclusion:Type 2 diabetes appears to be seen more frequently in younger age groups in Northern Iraqi society in parallel to increased rate of obesity particularly in adolescent and children.Keywords:Diabetes in young, obesity and diabetes, type 2 diabetes.Citation:Alhabbo DJ, Saeed ID, Khalaf YA. Frequency of type 2 diabetes in young age groups in Northern Iraq. Iraqi JMS. 2018; Vol. 16(1): 66-73. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.1.10


Article
Histomorphometrical Study of Placental from Male and Female Neonates of Diabetic Women

Author: Estabraq A. Mahmoud
Journal: Ibn Al-Haitham Journal For Pure And Applied Science مجلة ابن الهيثم للعلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية ISSN: 16094042/25213407 Year: 2019 Volume: 32 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: To investigate occur the histomatrical alternations in placental terminal villi and their vessels of Iraqi diabetes (gestational diabetes and overt diabetes) and normal pregnancies were born male and female neonates. Methods: The hitometrical study of male and female terminal villi of 68 placentae in maternal diabetes mellitus (34 gestational diabetes, 34 overt diabetes (17 DM type 1 and 17 DM type 2) and 34 normal placentae. These placentae obtained from Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in three hospitals in Baghdad city. Results: The study showed that there is a statistically significant with higher diameter in central and peripheral sections of the terminal villi and their vessels in male neonate. Moreover, terminal villous diameter in central and peripheral sections of placentae in both male and female neonates appeared highly significant differences (P≤0.001) between DM type 1 and DM type 2, but fetal blood vessels in this terminal villous did not record any significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusions: The current results concluded that increasing in diameters terminal villous and their fetal blood vessels of central and peripheral sections of placentae recorded increasing diameters of GDM peripheral sections of placentae in male neonate in comparison to placental sections of other study groups.


Article
Subcutaneous Pancreatic Transplantation Shows Success In The Treatment Of Experimentally Induced Diabetes Mellitus In Golden Hamsters

Authors: Salim R Al-Ubaidy** ماهرة نوري، هدى الخطيب ، سالم رشيد العبيدي --- Huda M Al-Khateeb --- Mahera N Al-Shaik*
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Pages: 287-292
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: to evaluate subcutaneous pancreatic transplantation in an experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in golden hamsters. Methods - many indexes (histological /using two stains, histochemical /using three enzymes, morphometrical and biochemical /blood glucose level) were employed in this assessment. Alloxan was used as ك-cytotoxic therapy (to induce diabetes mellitus), and cyclophosphamide was employed as immunosuppressive agent.
Results - high rate of success of transplantation (clearly evident by microscopical features of viable endocrine and exocrine tissue of transplanted pancreas and great tissue vascularization, normal enzymatic activities and significant lowering of blood glucose level) were elicited.
Conclusion – subcutaneous pancreatic transplantation should be thank about in treatment of diabetes mellitus.


Article
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Diabetic Patientsand Its Relation to Other Diabetic Complications

Authors: Adil S. Ghafour --- Jawad A. kadhim --- Hilal B. shawki
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 13-18
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: left ventricular hypertrophy is independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The presence of diabetic complications such as autonomic neuropathy and retinopathy may predict cardiac structural changes in diabetic patients.
Objective: To explore the chance of occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy in diabetic patients and whether it is related to the presence of other diabetic complications.
Methods: ninty seven (97) normotensive diabetic patients (57) type II with mean duration of diabetes of (12±6 y) and forty (40) type I with mean duration of (8±6 y) were studied by echocardiography and compared with 41 patients as control.
Results: The LVMI was significantly higher in type II diabetics compared to control (102±31 vs. 67±16 p< 0.001), although LVMI was higher in type I compared to controls but it was statistically non significant (76.7±18 vs. 76 ±16 P < 0.25). The increased in LVMI was correlated with long duration of diabetes > 15 years in type I but not in type II (p<0.001), retinopathy (34.5% vs. 4.8 p< 0.001), sings and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction (32.7% vs. 10.4% p=0.008) and (38.2% vs. 12.7%p=0.004) respectively. After adjustment for duration of diabetes, age, gender and the type of diabetes, the LVMI was only significantly correlated with long duration of diabetes (>10y).
Conclusion: LV mass index was higher in diabetic patient mainly in type II, more prevalent with long duration of diabetes and if there are other diabetic complications.
Key words: lvh, diabetes, autonomic neuropathy

Keywords

Ivh --- diabetes --- autonomic neuropathy


Article
Evaluation of Patients with Liver InjuriesTreated by Perihepatic Gauze Packing

Author: Laith Naef Hindosh
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-44
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The liver is one of the most common organs injured after blunt abdominal trauma. The control of severe hemorrhage remains a problem.
Methods: One-hundred thirty-eight patients diagnosed as liver injury between 09/2003 and 08/2006 had been evaluated prospectively in Al- Kindy Teaching Hospital.
A distinction was made between hemodynamically stable and unstable patients. Different modalities of surgical procedures were done concentrating on perihepatic gauze packing.
Results: (60 out of 138) patients included in the study were clinically evaluated as hemodynamically stable. The average abbreviated injury severity score (ISS) was 25. Twenty patients underwent abdominal surgery. In 12 of them additional liver treatment was performed. The mortality was three, all were non-liver related.
Seventy eight patients were considered to be hemodynamically unstable, and had an average ISS of 38. All of them needed abdominal surgery.
Gauze packing was used as initial therapy for bleeding control from injured liver in 34 patients of both hemodynamically stable and unstable groups with a mortality of 11 patients (32.7%).
Conclusion: perihepatic gauze packing is considered as a life saving and a quick method for controlling ongoing hemorrhage in the treatment of liver injuries before undertaking definitive repair under controlled conditions.
Key words: surgery, liver injury, and gauze packing.


Article
Evaluation of the Potential Role of Serum Seleniumin Diabetic Patients

Authors: * Abdul Kareem Y. J. Al-Sammraie --- Abbas M. R. Al-Mussawi --- Tawfeeq F. R. AL-Auqbi
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The altered status of some essential trace elements observed in diabetes could have deleterious influences on the health of the diabetics.
Objectives: To estimate and study the potential role of serum Selenium in type 1, type 2 diabetics and healthy subjects; and its relation with lipid profile and glycemic index.
Methods: A case control designed study was carried out at the National Diabetes Center (NDC) / Al-Mustansiria University; on a total of 94 participants formed of 32 type 1 diabetics, 32 type 2 diabetics and 30 healthy control participants. Data collected about age, sex and BMI; also, blood samples examined for FPG, HbA1C, serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, serum triglyceride and sera were examined for Selenium by using atomic absorption technique.
Results: Type 1 and type 2 diabetic groups show respectively 75% and 65% decrement in S. Selenium, <70 µg/L. The mean of S. Selenium, age, BMI, waist/hip ratio, FPG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, Non-HDL and atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol) for the type 1 and type 2 diabetics shows statistically significant differences from control group. Type 1 diabetics versus type 2 diabetics shows statistically insignificant differences between mean of the S.Selenium, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and atherogenic index (t-test, P > 0.05) while the mean of FPG, HbA1c and triglyceride show highly statistical significant differences (t-test, < 0.001).Simple linear correlation and regression analysis of FPG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, Non-HDL and atherogenic index of the studied groups shows weak to moderate correlation with their serum Selenium levels.
Conclusions: The inverse relationship between Selenium status and glucose tolerance suggest the potential role of Selenium in diabetics. Serum Selenium levels show high statistically significant differences from healthy subjects; while the differences between type1 and type 2 diabetic groups’ shows no statistically significant differences. Inverse correlations and regression were noticed between S.Selenium levels of all studied groups with their FPG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, Non-HDL and atherogenic index. Low S.Selenium and HDL-cholesterol plus an increase in total cholesterol, non-HDL and atherogenic index enhance risk of cardiovascular diseases progression among the diabetics.
Key Words: Serum Selenium, diabetes mellitus


Article
Hypomagnesemia in Iraqi Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls: An Exploratory study

Author: Lewai S. Abdulaziz لؤي عبد العزيز
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, and because available data suggest that adverse outcomes are associated with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent that routine surveillance for hypomagnesemia be done and the condition be treated whenever possible.AIM OF THE STUDY:To explore the serum Mg concentrations of diabetic patients and healthy controls in our locality.MEHTODS: One hundred and forty four diabetic patients (22 with type I and 122 with type II diabetes mellitus) recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at the Specialized Center For Endocrine Diseases-Baghdad (62 patients), National Diabetes Center-Al Mustansiria University (20 patients), and from private endocrinologic practice clinics in Baghdad (62 patients), during the period from 1st October 2005 to 30th April 2006. Ninety non-diabetic healthy controls matched for age and sex were participated in this study. Exclusion criteria for both groups included diarrhea and loop diuretics. None were taking Mg supplements. Level of Mg and Albumin were determined spectrophotometerically in the same serum samples.RESULTS:Mean serum Mg concentrations of the diabetics was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001). Serum albumin was not a significant predictor of serum Mg neither among diabetic patients (r = 0.005) nor control subjects (r = 0.139). In 88.9% of the diabetic patients and 11.1% of the control subjects serum Mg concentrations were below the normal reference range of 0.70 mmol/L. The prevalence is increased when hypomagnesemia is defined by a reference limit of 0.75 mmol/L (98.6% and 28.9 % for diabetics and controls, respectively), a further higher prevalence among controls (91.1 %) was noted when 0.80 mmol/L is adopted as the lower normal limit. All diabetics (100%) and controls (100%) were identified as hypomagnesemic with a lower reference limit of 0.90 mmol/L.CONCLUSION:The tremendous hot climate of ours, can be suggested as an influential cause for increased Mg losses, and may provide a coherent explanation for the exceedingly high prevalence of hypomagnesemia observed in diabetic and control subjects participated in this study. Which therefore may suggest an inevitable requirement for magnesium supplementation to avert hypomagnesemia, not only among diabetics, but as well for controls, particularly through the hot summer episode

Keywords

Hypomagnesemia --- Albumin --- Diabetes --- Iraqi.


Article
Oral Carriage Rate of Candida Speciesin Diabetic Patients

Authors: Huda Hadi Al-Hasnawi --- Adnan Mahran --- Faris Abdul Kareem Khazal
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: It is well known that oral carriage
of Candida species increase in many situations, like
obesity, debility, leukemia, viral infection, use of
certain drugs in addition to diabetes mellitus.
Objective: find the relation between diabetes and
its control on oral carriage of Candida.
Methods: Thirty four hundred oral swabs from
diabetic patients 67% are females and 33% are
males, 41.7% are type 1 diabetes and 58.3% are type
2.different culture media are used.
Results: we found that 37.9% of diabetics had oral
carriage, older age group had more but the
difference is not significant statistically P>0.05, in
addition females carry more Candida than males
P<0.05, while type of diabetes had no effect on oral
carriage we found that control of diabetes had
significant effect P<0.01.
Conclusion: There is high carriage rate of
Candida species in oral cavity of diabetic patients
37.9%, the rate of carriage increase in females and
those with poor control. Candida albicans is the most
common type with all the associated factors.
Key Words: Diabetes, oral carriage, Candida

Keywords

diabetes --- oral carriag --- canada


Article
Precipitating risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

Author: Salem Rahma سالم رحمة
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2005 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-31
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Objective: To determine the precipitating risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) from medical and social points of view as well as risk of prolonged hospital stay.
Methods: Forty-eight patients were admitted to Basrah Maternity and Child Hospital for DKA. Over a 2 years period; September 2001 through to September 2003. Patient's age, sex and family socioeconomic status were identified. Duration of hospital stay was examined, prolonged duration of stay was defined as ،ف 7days.
Results: Forty eight patients with DKA, their ages ranged between 1 and 15 years, with a male to a female ratio 1.3:1.
More than half of the children (58.4%) were males and (60.5%) were from low social status. Poor compliance to continue the treatment and infections were the most common precipitating factors, being responsible for 54.2% and 25% of cases of DKA respectively
Children with prolonged hospital stay were significantly found to be of younger age and of low socioeconomic status.
Conclusions: DKA is still a commonly seen complication; it can be the presenting feature of
diabetes. Poor compliance and inadequate treatment are the leading precipitating factors in our patients.


Article
Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Diabetic Patients

Author: Sabeha M. Al-Bayati
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-34
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background H Pylori infection could be regarded as the commonest infection worldwide, it had been suggested that H pylori infection is more frequent among diabetics. Objective This study had been designed to define any significant association between diabetes and H pylori infection, to evaluate different demographic features of patients with diabetes mellitus who have H pylori infection, assess any relation between H pylori infection and the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus and to estimate the frequency of different oesophagogastroduodenoscopy findings among diabetic population with H pylori infection. Methods This study enrolled 50 patients with diabetes mellitus and another 50 non-diabetic patients (as a control group). The patients attended Gastrointestinal unit at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital Baghdad/Iraq during the period between the 1st of March2004, to the 31st of November 2004. Full history was taken and clinical examination, investigation to assess the glycemic control and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD)had been done to all of them. H pylori status had been detected by positive Rapid Urease test and histopathology and/or ELIZA test for anti-H pylori IgG. Results This study revealed that 26diabetic patients (52%) were H pylori positive, while 14 non-diabetic patients (28%) were H pylori positive which is statistically significant (X2=6.0,P=0.01). patients aging 60 year old or more (24 patients, 48% of the sample) 18 of them had positive H pylori status, 20 patients out of the 26patients with positive H pylori status (76.9%) had poor glycemic control, 84.6% of those with positive H pylori status (22 out of 26 patients) had glycated hemoglobin level of 8% and greater, 61.8% of those with positive H pylori status (16 patients) were diabetic for more than 10 years. 61.5% of those with positive H pylori status had one or more of the chronic diabetic complications, 12 patients had OGD finding consistent with duodenitis, all of them were H pylori positive, OGD examination revealed 20 cases without active disease, 18 of them had negative H pylori status. Conclusions This study indicates that Helicobacter pylori infection is more common in diabetic patients. Frequency of H pylori infection is higher among elderly diabetics, those with long standing, poorly controlled and with diabetic complications.

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