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Article
Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge Concerning Peritonitis- Dialysis Association in Baghdad Teaching Hospitals

Author: Abdul- Kareem S. Al-Mansory
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2006 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

AbstractObjectives : The study aims to assessing nurses’ knowledge concerning peritonitis- dialysis association at the peritoneal dialysis units, and to identifying the relationship between some nurses’ knowledge and some of their demographic characteristic.Methodology : A descriptive study was carried out at the peritoneal dialysis units in Baghdad Teaching Hospitals started from November 29th 2004 to August 15th, 2005. A purposive sample of (52) nurses was selected from Baghdad Teaching Hospitals. The data were collected through the use of constructed questionnaire, which comprised of (97) items as an interview questionnaire technique as mean of data collection. The reliability of the instrument was determined through a pilot study and the validity through a panel of experts. The data were analyzed through the application of descriptive statistical analysis that includes frequency and percentage, the application of inferential statistics that include the mean of score and Chi-square test. Results : The findings of the study indicated that the peritoneal dialysis nurses have inadequate knowledge about general information concerning peritonitis- dialysis association was, acceptable, knowledge in diagnosis and treatment and adequate knowledge in prevention of peritonitis- dialysis association.Recommendations: it is recommended that special peritoneal dialysis training program and booklets should be designed and presented to these nurses.Key wards : peritonitis , dialysis

الخلاصةالهدف : تهدف الدراسة الى تقييم معارف الكادر التمريضي المتعلقة بالتهاب الصفاق المصاحب للديلزة إلصفاقية وإيجاد العلاقة بين هذه المعارف وبعض الصفات الشخصية للممرضين..المنهجية: دراسة وصفية أجريت في وحدات الديلزة إلصفاقية في مستشفيات بغداد التعليمية للفترة من 29 تشرين الثاني 2004 ولغاية 15 آب 2005 . تم اختيار عينة عمدية من 52 ممرض و ممرضة من مستشفيات بغداد التعليمية يعملون في وحدات الديلزة إلصفاقية لتقديم العناية للمرضى الذين تجرى لهم الديلزة إلصفاقية.جمعت المعلومات من خلال استخدام استبانه مصممة ومكونة من 97 فقرة صممت لجمع المعلومات بطريقة المقابلة.حددت شرعية الاستمارة خلال إجراء الدراسة الاستطلاعية وحددت مصداقيتها مجموعة من الخبراء.تم تحليل البيانات من خلال استخدام الإحصاء الوصفي الذي تضمن التكرارات والنسب المئوية وكذلك استخدام الإحصاء ألاستبياني الذي شمل الوسط الحسابي ومربع كاي..النتائج: أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن معلومات الممرضين في وحدات الديلزة إلصفاقية دون المستوى فيما يتعلق بالمعلومات العامة حول التهاب الصفاق المصاحب للديلزة ولديهم معلومات جيدة فيما يتعلق بالوقاية من الالتهاب. .التوصيات: أوصت الدراسة بضرورة تصميم وأعداد برنامج لتدريب الممرضين في وحدات الديلزة إلصاقية وإصدار كتيب حول التهاب الصفاق المصاحب للديلزة إلصفاقية.

Keywords

peritonitis --- dialysis


Article
Exfoliative Cytological Changes in Peritoneal Fluid fromPatients on Peritoneal Dialysis

Authors: Liqaa R.Mousa --- Mutaz A.Al-Qazzaz --- Yarub I.Kattab
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Ambulatory peritoneal dialysis introduced by Popvich et al (13) in 1978 , consists of a four to five hours lavage of peritoneal cavity with 2000 ml of glucose solution .It remains a useful method for treating patients with end stage renal failure till renal transplantation becomes possible.Objectives: The aim of the study is to evaluate the value of cytological changes of mesothelial cells in dialysate patients.Methods: Within one year period, 32 cytological peritoneal fluid samples were collected from patients with end stage renal failure regardless of the underlying causes, admitted to the dialyzing unit in Kadimya Teaching Hospital. Smears were prepared and fixed in 95 % ethyl alcohol and then stained with H & E stain to be interpreted by the same pathologist.Results: Thirty two samples of peritoneal fluid were obtained from patients in peritoneal dialysis with a mean age of 54.8 years and male to female ratio of about 1.9: 1.Twenty two had short term dialysis were compared with 10 patients with long term dialysis. Gross examination of the samples revealed clear yellow fluid. Macroscopical examination showed no evidence of inflammatory cells with increased exfoliation, cellularity and three dimensional mesothelial cellular clustering pattern with increased nuclear size. No statistical significances were found in the changes seen in cytological smears between both groups but remarkable nuclear changes were shown in both of them. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that peritoneal dialysis of any duration can induce significant atypical changes in mesothelial cells. The pathologist needs to be aware of these changes and to include peritoneal dialysis in the list of other benign conditions that cause reactive mesothelial atypia.


Article
Urine Cytology in Patients withLong Standing Dialysis

Authors: Liqaa R Mousa --- Mutaz A.Al-Qazzaz --- Yarub I Kattab
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2007 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-4
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dialysis is in common use to treat patients with end stage renal failure .However longstanding dialysis harboring some cellular changes in various body fluids. This study was conducted in order to detect these changes in urine.
Objective: The study was conducted to detect cellular changes in urine of patients with longstanding dialysis.
Method: Fifty-three urine samples were examined cytologically obtained from patients with longstanding dialysis during 6 months period. Freshly voided midstream urine samples were taken . Samples were centrifuged and 2 to 3 drops of sediments were smeared on 2 glass slides and fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol then stained with Hand E stain to be evaluated.
Results: Gross physical examination of all urine samples were neither purulent nor hemorrhagic .Microscopically there was increased exfoliation of urothelial cells except in 9 cases. No significant cytological atypia were seen in all urine samples. Excessive exfoliation in the absence of significant inflammation, hemorrhage and cytological atypia compared with control group.
Conclusion: The study revealed that some cytological changes do occur in the urothelial cells of patients with longstanding dialysis. These changes need further attention and study to disclose their causes.
Key words: Urine cytology, dialysis.

Keywords

Urine cytology --- dialysis


Article
OUTCOME AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE INTERMITTENT PERITONEAL DIALYSIS IN AL-KINDI TEACHING HOSPITAL

Author: Ali J Al-Saedi علي جاسم هاشم الساعدي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 205-210
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Acute peritoneal dialysis is commonly practiced in IRAQ. Objective:To evaluate and improve the management of peritoneal dialysis in Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital.Methods:Six hundred and sixty nine patients underwent peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 2011 to June 2012. The mean age of patients was 54±13.9 years. Among the patients, there were 168 cases of acute renal failure, and 501 cases of chronic renal failure requiring acute dialysis.Results:Acute peritoneal dialysis performed on patients admitted in dialysis unit of Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital was safe, a simple procedure, easily tolerated by the patient and requiring less expertise than hemodialysis and had complication rates nearly comparable to other established centers.Complications occurred in 349 patients (52%). The most common complication was bleed¬ing in the peritoneal cavity (30%) while dialysis solution leak was the second most common complication (25%). Dialysis episodes complicated by peritonitis was (2.5%). Death rate was 15%.Conclusion:Acute peritoneal dialysis was performed safely and effectively in Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital. Improvements are possible through closer supervision of new doctors and tighter nursing precaution.Key Words:Acute peritoneal dialysis, outcome.


Article
Detection viral load of Parvovirus B19 in patients with Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Sattar G. Ajeel --- Huda D. hathal --- Jawad K. mnate
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 40-44
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background : Because of Parvovirus B19 that occur in patients with chronic renal failure ; Parvovirus B19 was found to be associated with or might be an aggravation factor of renal failure , we tried to find out the rate of occurrence of this virus in dialysis and non dialysis patients. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate viral load for Parvovirus B19 was play an important role in the etiology of chronic renal failure patients Subjects and methods :A cross sectional study included Serum samples were collected from 50 dialysis patients and 50 without dialysis patients 50 normal subjects as control, and subjected for ELISA technique for detection of parvovirus IgG antibody, and multiplex Real time PCR for detection virus and viral load of this virus Results: Thirteen (26%) out of these 50 dialysis patients were positive by RT-PCR and, 16% (8/50) were positive by ELISA, while none of the controls was positive neither by RT-PCR nor by ELISA. The results of this study showed highly significant differences (p<0.001) on comparing between the median viral load in patients who had dialysis (2.38x106) copies / ml of Parvovirus B19 DNA and those who without dialysis(1.73x104) copies/ml of Parvovirus B19 DNA. Also the results of B19 by real time PCR analysis showed a significant difference (p<0.001) in median viral load in patients who had acute infection(2.87x106) copies/ml of Parvovirus B19 DNA ,than those who had chronic infection (2.29x105) copies/ml of Parvovirus B19 DNA , Conclusions Parvovirus B19 could be an important co-factor that play a role in CKD, which was higher rate in dialysis patients.


Article
Determination of I/D genetic variation of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene in Iraqi patients with Renal Failure
تحديد الاختلاف الجيني I / D لجين إنزيم تحويل الأنجيوتنسين (إيس) في المرضى العراقيين الذين يعانون من الفشل الكلوي

Author: Karrar Saleem Zayed كرار سليم
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2017 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

This study was proposed to investigate genetic polymorphism in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene as a risk factor for renal failure disease incidence. Fifty-eight Iraqi patients (37 men and 21 women) with renal failure undergoing dialysis treatment (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis) consulting at Al-Sadr dialysis center were enlisted into this study; the mean age of these patients was (54.25±11.35) years as the first group. A second group was fifty two healthy control subjects collected from donor blood bank (33 men and 18 women) with the mean age of (50.95±12.8) years. The collection of blood samples from renal failure patients and healthy control persons takes place for detection of serum Creatinine, Urea and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) as biochemical diagnostic markers. Then, DNA was extracted from the blood of two groups for detection of Insertion/Deletion (I/D) polymorphism in ACE gene in intron 16 as a prognostic marker for detection of renal failure disease. The result of this study appears that the levels of Creatinine, Urea and ACE enzyme in renal failure patients increased significantly when compared with control. On the other hand, the genetic polymorphism I/D in ACE gene concluded that the DD and II genotypes differences were highly significant between patients and control (P = 0.021) especially in patients with DD genotype OR = 3.49 ( 95%CI = 1.56-7.93). Also, The DD v/s ID+II and DD+ID v/s II genotypes comparison between patients and control group showed a significantly different (P = 0.001) with OR=5.874 (95%CI = 3.71- 8.80) , OR= 3.58 (95%CI = 2.01-6.81) respectively which revealed that the patients with DD genotype have a high risk for renal failure occurrence. In addition, it was detected that serum ACE level was higher in patients with DD genotype in ACE gene than in patients with II+ DI genotypes (p = 0.015). The present study concluded that there is a higher prevalence of (DD) polymorphism genotype in ACE gene in renal failure patients which may be responsible for renal failure pathogenesis

وقد اقترحت هذه الدراسة للتحقيق في تعدد الأشكال الوراثية في جين انزيم تحويل الأنجيوتنسين (إيس) كعامل خطر لفشل مرض الفشل الكلوي. تم إدراج 58 مريضا عراقيا (37 رجلا و 21 امرأة) يعانون من الفشل الكلوي الذين يخضعون لعلاج غسيل الكلى (غسيل الكلى وغسيل الكلى البريتوني) في مركز غسيل الكلى في الصدر. كان متوسط ​​عمر هؤلاء المرضى (54.25 ± 11.35) سنة كأول مجموعة. أما المجموعة الثانية فكانت خمسين موضوعين صحيين تم جمعهما من بنك الدم المتبرع (33 رجلا و 18 امرأة) مع متوسط ​​عمر (50.95 ± 12.8) سنة. جمع عينات الدم من مرضى الفشل الكلوي والأشخاص السيطرة السليمة يحدث للكشف عن مصل الكرياتينين واليوريا وأنجيوتنسين تحويل الإنزيم (إيس) علامات التشخيص البيوكيميائية. ثم تم استخراج الحمض النووي من الدم من مجموعتين للكشف عن تعدد الأشكال الإدراج / الحذف (I / D) في الجينات إيس في إنترون 16 كعلامة النذير للكشف عن مرض الفشل الكلوي.       نتيجة هذه الدراسة تظهر أن مستويات الكرياتينين واليوريا وانزيم إيس في مرضى الفشل الكلوي زادت بشكل ملحوظ بالمقارنة مع السيطرة. من ناحية أخرى، خلص تعدد الأشكال الجيني I / D في جين إيس إلى أن الاختلافات الجينية د و إي كانت كبيرة جدا بين المرضى والسيطرة (P = 0.021) وخاصة في المرضى الذين يعانون من النمط الجيني د أو = 3.49 (95٪ سي = 1.56- 7.93). كما اظهرت المقارنة بين المصفوفات والمجموعة الضابطة (د = 0.001) مقارنة مع أور = 5.874 (95٪ سي = 3.71- 8.80)، أو = 3.58 (95٪ سي = 2.01-6.81) على التوالي والتي كشفت أن المرضى الذين يعانون من النمط الجيني د لديهم مخاطر عالية لحدوث الفشل الكلوي. وبالإضافة إلى ذلك، تم الكشف عن أن مستوى إيس المصل كان أعلى في المرضى الذين يعانون من النمط الجيني د في الجينات إيس مما كان عليه في المرضى الذين يعانون من إي + دي الأنماط الجينية (ع = 0.015). وخلصت الدراسة الحالية إلى أن هناك انتشارا أعلى من النمط الجيني متعدد الأشكال (د) في الجينات إيس في مرضى الفشل الكلوي التي قد تكون مسؤولة عن المرضية الفشل الكلوي.


Article
Acute Renal Failure in Children Below 12 Years Causes, Clinical Presentation and Management

Author: Bushra Jalil Salih
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-39
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common condition in hospitalized patients, characterized by a rapid fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), carries a high morbidity and mortality, often preventable, so rapid recognition and treatment may prevent irreversible loss of nephrons.OBJECTIVE:To find out the cause of acute renal failure in children and to study the clinical presentation and management modalities and sequel.METHODS:A prospective study done in Central Teaching Hospital for children from January 2006 to December 2006. 120 patients aged 1month- to 12 years who were diagnosed and treated as cases of acute renal failure were collected & analyzed. And the distribution of patients according to (age, sex, type of presentation, laboratory finding, type of management and sequel) were done.RESULTS:From hundred twenty patients, there were 77 male and 43 female with 1.7:1 ratio distributed into 93 infant, 14 preschool and 13 school age group .The main type of presentation was acidosis ,oliguria & dehydration. The main causes were gastroenteritis, sepsis and obstructed uropathy in infancy and preschool children, glomerular disease in school age group. 97 need conservative treatments and 23 need urgent peritoneal dialysis (PD) with mortality rate 5.15%, 30.51% respectively.CONCLUSION:Acute renal failure occurred more in infancy and most of them were prerenal acute renal failure can be handled with conservative treatment; peritoneal dialysis is a good choice for treatment of acute renal failure not resolved by conservative therapy.


Article
Effect of Dialysis on Erythropoietin and some Hematological Parameters in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure
تأثير غسيل الكلى على الإريثروبويتين وبعض المعلمات الدموية في المرضى الذين يعانون من الفشل الكلوي المزمن

Authors: Mohamad Salih Jaff --- Jamal M. Aziz --- Zhian Sh. Hayder
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2009 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 14-21
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objectives: A prospective study was carried out for estimation the concentration of the erythropoietin hormone and its effects on some hematological parameters in chronic renal failure patients despite medical treatment. The object of the study was to evaluate the available evidences which support the relationship between anemia and adverse outcomes in chronic renal failure patients, to estimate the erythropoietin concentration of plasma in chronic renal failure patients and to examine the relationship between the anemia and erythropoietin concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease.Methods: One hundred and eleven (111) patients with CRF on dialysis in the Dialysis and Kidney Disease Center in Hawler Teaching Hospital and (40) control groups were studied. Haematological parameters: were performed by conventional manual methods. The quantitative measurement of erythropoietin concentration in serum was done by using the Erythropoietin ELISA kit (IBL Immuno Biological Laboratories Hamburg Erythropoietin Kit, German).Results: Hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased (P<0.001) in all age groups of Chronic renal failure patients, while, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were increased significantly (P<0.001). Total white blood cells were decreased significantly (P<0.01) at the ages (40-60, >60) years groups, while not significantly decreased at the ages (<20, 20-40) years. Plasma erythropoietin was decreased significantly at the level (P<0.001) in chronic renal failure patients.Conclusions: Anemia is a common and often an early complication of chronic renal diseases and decreased renal production of erythropoietin is the major cause of anemia in these patients.


Article
Effect of Dialysis Duration on the Immunochemical Changes
تأثير فترة الديلزة على المتغيرات الكيمومناعية

Author: Shatha MJ. AL-Khateeb د. شذى محمد جواد الخطيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-72
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Objective: To study the effect of dialysis on the immunochemical changes of some interleukins and other biochemical parameters.Design setting: A total of 25 patients with end stage renal disease (mal and female) underwent dialysis with different duration were included in this study. Their age ranged from (22-75).The patients were divided according to the duration, the first group who received dialysis less than one year and the second group who received dialysis more than one year Healthy control group were sex, ethnic, matched and semimatched in age with patients group were selected. Results: Using ELISA technique, serum IL-1α and IL-8 were estimated for dialyzed patients when divided in to two groups (less than one year and more than one year). Also Serum FT3 and albumin were also measured for the above two groups compared with healthy controls. All the above parameters showed different pattern. Conclusion: Hemodialysis duration was influenced serum levels of interleukins and other biochemical parameters.Key words: End stage renal disease, Dialysis, Interleukins.

الغــــــرض: دراسة تأثير الديلزه على المتغيرات الكيمومناعيه والكيميائيه الحياتيه وبعض الانترلوكينات.التصميـــــــــــم: تضمنت الدراسة (25) عينه ذكور وإناث تراوحت أعمارهم بين ( 22-75) سنه من مرضى في الحالات المتأخرة من إمراض الكلى الخاضعين للديلزه في أوقات مختلفة.تم تقسيم المرضى اعتمادا على فترة الديلزه حيث تضمنت المجموعة الأولى الديلزه لأقل من سنه بينما كانت المجموعة الثانية لأكثر من سنه والتي قورنت مع الأصحاء.النتائـــــــــــج: باستخدام تقنية ELISA)) تم قياس الانترلوكين IL-8) و α IL-1) في مصل الدم لكلا المجموعتين أعلاه , تضمنت الدراسة كذلك دراسة هرمون الغدة الدرقية الحر والالبومين وكانت كل المتغيرات قد أظهرت منحى متغير مقارنة بالأصحاء.الخلاصـــــــــة: إن فترة الديلزه قد أظهرت تأثيرا على الانترلوكينات والمتغيرات الكيميائية الحياتية.


Article
EFFECT OF BLOOD FLOW RATE ON DIALYSIS ADEQUACY IN AL-KADHIMIYA TEACHING HOSPITAL

Authors: Arif S Malik عارف سامي مالك --- Ehab J Ghali ايهاب جمعة غالب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 260-264
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Adequacy of dialysis is one of determinants of morbidity and mortality. The Blood flow rate is one of important factors of adequacy of dialysis in patients with Hemodialysis.Objectives:To assess the effect of blood flow rate on adequacy of dialysis.Methods:Seventy patients maintained on regular Hemodialysis in the dialysis unit, Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital. Their body weight and blood urea level before and after hemodialysis sessions were recorded, volume of ultra-filtration, duration of dialysis and blood flow rate were documented in a checklist. Both (kt/v) and (URR) were determined at three different pump speed (150-200), (201-250) and (251-300) ml/min. During hemodialysis, the hemodynamic status and vital signs of patients were monitored and controlled.Results:Efficiency of dialysis was calculated using the standard formulas. Paired t-test showed no significant difference in dialysis efficiency between the three groups. Conclusion:Higher rate of inadequacy of hemodialysis, and no significant correlation was observed between BFR groups.Key words:Hemodialysis, Blood flow rate, Adequacy of dialysis

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