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Article
Enhancing the Lifting Capacity of Drilling Fluids in Vertical Oil Wells

Author: Amel habeeb Assi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 3 Pages: 13-29
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Of the many functions that are performed by the drilling fluid, the most important is to transport cuttings from the bit up the annulus to the surface. Various drilling fluid have been widely used in the oil industry to improve lifting capacity. In this study, three mud type have been used which they are, oil base mud, X-anthan polymer and a mixture of CMC and bentonite ,by using Carrying Capacity Index calculation (CCI) , the Xanthan gave good values of CCI than other studied drilling fluid. By using Sifferman chart and field data from well in south of Iraq and API equation to find cutting concentration in the annulus, The results showed that the used of thick mud increase the lifting capacity and decrease volumetric drill cuttings in the annulus but the using thin mud lead to decrease lifting capacity and increase volumetric drill cuttings in the annulus .The results show that the mud viscosity and flow rate have important role in hole cleaning. Also, the effect of annulus velocity and flow pattern on cutting transport ratio is studied by using field data. The effect of cutting size and OD of drill pipe is also studied. Cutting size is one of the parameters that influence the hole cleaning; large size cutting makes the hole cleaning more difficult. The reducing of annular size of hole by increasing the OD of drill pipe lead to increasing the annular velocity.


Article
Improving Drilling Fluid Properties by Using Nano-Additives

Authors: D. Mahmood --- N.S.AL-Zubaidi --- A. A. Alwasiti
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 10 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1034-1041
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Nanotechnology is one of the most important techniques in recent days. Using Nano-additives to improve drilling fluids properties in order to meet the modern drilling process requirement is still being debated till date. In this study, three Nano-materials (magnesium oxide MgO, titanium dioxide TiO2 and Graphene) were used to improve the rheological and filtration properties as well as Clay Yield. The weight of Nano-materials were (0.02, 0.05, 0.2, 0.5, 0.8) gm. The results showed that the rheological properties were the same with Graphene and TiO2, while MgO gave the best results of rheological and filtration properties and with a higher values of yield point and gel strength. The higher value of Clay Yield obtained by0.2wt % (0.8 gm) of MgO was (173bbl/ton) while TiO2 and Graphene gave the same values (124,126 bbl/ton) respectively.


Article
Improving the Performance of Drilling Fluid Using MgO Nano Particles
تحسين اداء سائل الحفر باستخدام دقائق اوكسيد المغنيسيوم النانوية

Authors: Ghufran Falih --- Asawer A. Alwasiti --- Nada S. Alzubaidi
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 20 Pages: 179-193
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

One of the most important factors that cause formation damage is drilling fluid invasion caused by mud filtration. Hence, it is essential to minimize the mud filtration in order to reduce its damage to the formation using drilling fluid additives that control and minimize the filtration rate. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) nanoparticles at different masses (0.01, 0.05, 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2) gm with water base mud have been investigated in this research to measure its effect on the filtration rate. Four types of drilling fluid are used in this research; API water base mud WBM, Saturated salt water mud, DURA THERM mud and polymer mud. Filtration rate was tested under high temperature high pressure (HTHP) conditions; at (75 and 100) C and (500 psi), and at room temperature and pressure at (100 psi). The viscosity of all drilling fluid types is measured using a rotational viscometer at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In general, the results showed that adding MgO nano particle helped in reducing the filtration rate of drilling fluid, the best results were gained in DURA THERM mud and Saturated Salt Water Mud at MgO concentrationof 0.07gm and 0.2gm, respectively; where the filtrate reduction 60% at 100 C. Also, MgO addition improves rheological properties and drilling fluid stability

ان من اهم العوامل المسببه ضرر للطبقات المكمنية هو اختراق سائل الحفر لها وذلك ناجم عن ترشيح الطين. لذلك كان من الضروري التقليل من كمية الراشح للحد من الضرر للطبقات وذلك باستخدام اضافات لسائل الحفر للسيطره على معدل ترشيحه. استخدم دقائق نانوية من مادة اوكسيد المغنيسيوم ( MgO NP ) وبأوزان (0.01 - 0.05 - 0.07 – 0.1 – 0.2) غرام مع الطين ذو الاساس المائي لغرض دراسة تاثيره على معدل الترشيح. واستخدمت في الدراسة الحالية اربع انواع من سوائل الحفر هي:- API water base mud WBM- Saturated salt water mud- DURA THERM mud- Polymer mudحيث تم قياس معدل الترشيح تحت درجات الحرارة العالية °C(100 –75) وضغط (500 psi) باستخدام (HTHP filter press), وبدرجة حرارة الغرفة وضغط (100 psi) باستخدام (Filter press) بينما تم قياس الخواص الريولوجية لسائل الحفر باستخدام ((Rotationalviscometer. وقد اظهرت نتائج الدراسة ان اضافة ( MgO NP) لسائل الحفر ساعد في اختزال معدل الترشيح, ولاسيما عند اضافته (0.07) و 0.2)) غم الى ( DURA THERM mud) و (Saturated salt water mud) على التوالي بمعدل 60% وبدرجة حرارة 100 C, فضلا عن تحسين الخواص الريولوجية لسائل الحفر وزيادة استقراريته.


Article
Reducing Lost Circulation Problem by Using Rice Material
تقليل مشكله فقدان سائل الحفر باستخدام ماده الرز

Authors: Ayad Abdulhaleem A.Razzaq أياد عبد الحليم عبد الرزاق --- Wasan Abdullah Kzar وسن عبدالله كزار
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2016 Volume: 22 Issue: 6 Pages: 149-157
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Drilling fluid loss during drilling operation is undesirable, expensive and potentially hazardous problem. Nasiriyah oil field is one of the Iraqi oil field that suffer from lost circulation problem. It is known that Dammam, um-Radoma, Tayarat, Shiranish and Hartha are the detecting layers of loss circulation problem. Different type of loss circulation materials (LCMs) ranging from granular, flakes and fibrous were used previously to treat this problem. This study presents the application of rice as a lost circulation material that used to mitigate and stop the loss problem when partial or total losses occurred. The experimental work included preparing drilling fluid, which is selected to be water based mud. Amount of loss for rock samples was measured where the percentage of losses of drilling mud were 46.25% and 96.96% as well as the percentage of improvement in curing of lost circulation were calculated after rice adding. Rice materials addition was done by tow stages: a) Adding 24 Ib/bbl of fine rice and 1 Ib/bbl of course rice gave improvement in curing from 30.67% to 100%. b) Adding 24 Ib/bbl of fine rice and 6 Ib/bbl of course rice gave an improvement in curing equal to 92.12%.

فقدان سائل الحفر اثناء عمليه الحفر هي مشكلة كبيرة ومكلفة وخطيرة في نفس الوقت. حقل الناصرية النفطي هو أحد الحقول العراقية التي تعاني من هذه المشكلة. الدمام وام رضومه والطيارات وشيرانيش والهارثه من أكثر الطبقات التي يفقد فيها سائل الحفر في هذا الحقل. استخدمت العديد من المواد المعالجة للفقدان في حقل الناصرية سواء كانت مواد حبيبيه او ليفيه او صفائحيه. في هذه الدراسة تم استخدام ماده الرز كماده معالجه لفقدان سوائل الحفر للتخفيف من حدة وإيقاف مشكلة الفقدان عند حدوثها بشكل جزئي أو كلي. التجارب المختبرية شملت إعداد سائل الحفر مائي القاعدة حيث تم قياس مقدار الخسارة لنماذج صخريه تم قياس النسبة المئوية لفقدان طين الحفر فيها حيث كانت نسبه الفقدان 46.25% و96.96%. وكذلك تم حساب النسبة المئوية للتحسن في علاج حالات الفقدان بعد اضافه ماده الرز. تم استعمال الرز على مرحلتين أ) اضافه 24باوند/برميل من الرز الناعم مع 1باوند/برميل من الرز الخشن حيث اعطى نسبه تحسن تتراوح من 30.67% الى 100%. ب) اضافه 24 باوند من الرز الناعم مع 6 باوند/ برميل من الرز الخشن والذي اعطى نسبه تحسن92.12%.


Article
Studying the Effects of Different Polymers on Rheological Properties of Water Base Muds
دراسة تاثير مختلف البوليمرات على الخواص الريولوجية لسوائل الحفرالمائية القاعدة

Authors: Amel Habeeb Assi امل حبيب عاصي --- Ramzi Riyadh Khazeem رمزي رياض خزيم --- Ahmed Salah Salem احمد صلاح سالم --- Alaa Tahseen Ali علاء تحسين علي
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 12 Pages: 12-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This research is focusing on finding more effective polymers that leads to enhance the rheological properties of Water Base Muds. The experiments are done for different types of mud for all substances which are Polyacrylamide, Xanthan gum, CMC (Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose). This study shows the effect of add polymer to red bentonite mud, effect of add polymer to Iraqi bentonite mud, the effect of add bentonite to polymer mud. The mud properties of Iraqi bentonite blank are enhanced after adding the polymers to the blank mix, CMC gives the highest value of plastic viscosity and Gel strength than others; X-anthan gives the highest value of yield point and gel strength than others. For the red bentonite mud, Polyacrylamide has the highest shear stress and yield point than the others polymers, but Xanthan has the highest effect on plastic viscosity than other polymers. All polymers reduce filtration loss. The polymer solution mud failed to suspend the barite so we cannot use it as drilling fluid even so this mud has good Rheological properties (PV and YP). The maximum amount of each polymer is founded for the studied clay types.

يوجد العديد من البوليمرات التي تستخدم لتحسين الخواص الريولوجية لسوائل الحفر المائية القاعدة وهدف هذا البحث هو ايجاد المواد الاكثر تاثيرا على تلك الخواص.تمت التجارب باستخدام ثلاثة بوليمرات وهي كاربوكسي مثيل سيليلوز,الزنثان,البولي اكريلمايد .كل تلك المواد لها تاثير على الخواص الريولوجية بنسب مختلفه ومفعول مختلف ويرجع السبب في ذلك لاختلاف تلك المواد في خواصها الفيزيائيه والكيميائية. بداية استخدمنا بوليمر +ماء بحيث كانت نسبة المادة الصلبة قليلة جدا لكن هذا النوع فشل في تعليق البارايت لهذا التجئنا الى اضافة البنتونايت الى البوليمر والعكس صحيح.النتائج اظهرت بان كل من الزنثان و البولي اكريلمايد هما الاكثر تاثيرا على الخواص الريولوجيه لسوائل الحفر وكان الكاربوكسي مثيل سيليلوز هو الاقل تاثيرا .كذلك تم دراسة الخواص الريولوجية للبنتونايت العراقي حيث انه بعد اضافة تلك البوليمرات للبنتونايت العراقي لاحظنا تحسن كبير في خواصه الريولوجيه والترشيح .كذلك تم دراسة تاثير اضافة البنتونايت الى البوليمر (طين الحفر ذا المحتوى القليل من المواد الصلبة),وكذلك تم دراسة الخواص الريولوجية لسائل حفر مكون من بوليمر وماء فقط ومدى امكانية استخدام هكذا نوع من سوائل الحفر.اقصى كمية لكل بوليمر تم ايجادها من خلال التجارب لكل نوع من انواع البنتونايت المدروسة.


Article
Potential of Ethylhexyl Ester Oil to Enhance Drilling of HTHP Wellbores

Authors: Lina Jassim --- Robiah Yunus --- Suraya Abdul Rashid --- Amar Salleh
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 1 Part (C) Pages: 30-37
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Ester-based drilling fluids have been accepted as an alternative tomineral oils in drilling applications and currently being utilized to drill oilor gas wells around the world. However, the ester-based fluids havedeficiencies that limit its ability to carry and transfer drilled solids, stabilizethe wellbore and drill the extended reach wells. Several approaches havebeen considered to overcome the ester limitations. Thus, the main aim of thisstudy is to overcome these limitations by developing the high performanceester-based green drilling fluids for deep and ultra-deep wells. The lowpressuretechnology was applied in the synthesis of the ester to minimizeester hydrolysis and thermal instability issues during the drilling operation.The rapid ester synthesis involved the 2-ethylhexanol and vegetable oilbasedmethyl esters C12 in the presence of sodium methoxide as thecatalyst. Performances of 2-EH ester-based drilling fluids behaviour wasassessed under different hot rolling temperatures (121, 149, 177, and200oC) for 16 hours. The rheological properties in terms of low shear rateof 6 and 3 rpm were superior which verified that these ester-based mudscould be used in deep and ultra-deep wellbores without sagging, pipesticking and unbalanced wellbore problems.


Article
CFD Study of Cuttings Transport through Vertical Wellbore
دراسة حركيات المائع الحسابية لقطع الصخور المنتقلة خلال بئر عمودي

Authors: Mortatha Al-Yasiri --- Amthal Al-Gailani --- Dongsheng Wen
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2018 Issue: 20 Pages: 158-178
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Cuttings transportation from the bit up the annulus to the surface is one the essential functions that are performed by drilling fluid. Predication of drilling fluid efficiency to transport cuttings in the annulus is very complicated due to numerous parameters that have affected drilling operations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used as a numerical technique in handling complex multiphase flow problems in different operational conditions. The present work has taken the advancement of CFD to computationally analyse the influence of the effects of various parameters like drilling fluid rheology, flow rate, pipe rotation, cuttings density, shape, concentration and drilling fluid- cuttings particle coupling regimes on the cuttings transport in a vertical wellbore. The CFD simulation was carried out by using transient solver of ANSYS-FLUENT CFD commercial code. The dense discrete phase model (DDPM) is suggested in this work to overcome the main shortcomings of Eulerian–Eulerian and CFD-DEM approaches in simulating drilling fluid-cuttings flow. Also, some of the experimental investigations were involved in determining the fluid physical properties and essential input data to perform the CFD simulations. Regarding the results validation and verification, well agreement has been achieved between results obtained in this study with those reported in other studies.

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