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Article
Study the Effect of Many Parameters on the Speed of Drilling Materials by Laser Beam
دراسة تأثیر عدة عوامل على سرعة حفر المواد باستخدام شعاع اللیزر

Author: Fayroz A. Sabah
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 11 Pages: 1987-1999
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The speed of drilling depends on different parameters such as power, material, time,distance between drilling tool and the material, the drilling tool, etc. In this paper; thelaser beam was used as drilling tool. Two types of lasers were used; CO2 laser (10.6μm& 25W) and pulse Nd:YAG laser (1st harmonic 1064nm & 2nd harmonic 532nm, 1J).Two different materials were used; pure silver (0.4mm thickness) and beech wood(3mm thickness). The distance between laser beam and the material was 10cm for CO2laser and 6.5cm for Nd:YAG laser. Theoretically the melting point of wood is 9345.8°C. But when reaching the temperature of 300 °C, the auto ignition property will ignitethe wood, even in a vacuum. The melting point of pure silver is 961oC. Nor CO2 laserneither Nd:YAG laser could not drill silver even at maximum power for them, but itssurface was affected by Nd:YAG laser, where the affected zone color changed.Different powers for CO2 laser were used for different intervals, increasing powerincreasing drilling speed, zone width and depth. The affected zone of wood by 2ndharmonic Nd:YAG was clear more than that affected by CO2, the CO2 laser wouldburn it. Many figures which representing the relations between laser power, hole width,hole depth and drilling speed were obtained by using Matlab 2008 software program

سرعة الحفر تعتمد على معاملات مختلفة مثل، القدرة، المادة، الوقت، المسافة بين اداة الحفروالمادة، اداة الحفر... الخ. في هذا البحث; استخدم شعاع الليزر كأداة حفر. تم استخدام نوعين منليزر النبضي (التوافق الاول Nd:YAG 10.6 ) و μm & 25W) ليزر CO الليزر; 21). وتم استخدام نوعين من المواد المختلفة; الفضة النقية J ،532nm 1064 & التوافق الثاني nmCO 10 ل 2 cm 3). المسافة بين شعاع الليزر والمادة mm 0.4 ) وخشب الزان (سمك mm (سمكلكن عند .oC ليزر. نظرياً درجة ذوبان الخشب هي 9345.8 Nd:YAG 6.5 ل cm ليزر وخاصية الايقاد الطبيعية ستوقد الخشب، حتى في الفضاء. ، oC الوصول الى درجة حرارة 300ليزر من حفر Nd:YAG ليزر ولا ال CO لم يتمكن ال 2 .oC درجة ذوبان الفضة النقية هو 961ليزر، حيث ان Nd:YAG الفضة حتى عند اقصى القدرة المستخدمة، ولكن سطح الفضة تأثر بالليزر لفترات زمنية مختلفة، ان CO لون المنطقة المتأثرة تغير. تم استخدام قدرات مختلفة لل Nd:YAG زيادة القدرة تزيد من سرعة الحفر، عرض وعمق المنطقة. منطقة الخشب المتأثرة بالليزر قد حرق المنطقة. تم استخدام CO2 ،CO التوافق الثاني واضحة اكثر من تلك المتأثرة بال 22008 للحصول على رسوم تمثل العلاقات بين قدرة الليزر، عرضس الحفرة، Matlab برنامجعمق الحفرة، سرعة الحفر.


Article
Enhancing Drilling Parameters in Majnoon Oilfield
تحسين ادائيه معاملات الحفر في حقل مجنون النفطي

Authors: Majid M. Majeed --- Ayad A. Alhaleem
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2019 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 71-75
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The objective of drilling parameters optimization in Majnoon oilfield is to arrive for a methodology that considers the past drilling data for five directional wells at 35 degree of inclination as a baseline for new wells to be drilled. Also, to predicts drilling performance by selecting the applied drilling parameters generated the highest rate of penetration (ROP) at each section. The focal point of the optimization process is to reduce drilling time and associated cost per each well. The results of this study show that the maximum ROP could not be achieved without sufficient flow rate to cool and clean the bit in clay intervals (36" and 24") hole sections. Although the influence of combination of Weight on Bit (WOB), Round per minute (RPM), and hydraulic horsepower on the bit in (16", 12 1/4" and 8 1/2") hole sections is a key to reduce drilling time, therefore, the drilling parameters produced the fastest ROP per each section was considered as optimum parameters likely to apply for the future wells.

الغرض من تحليل معاملا ت الحفر المستخدمه في حقل مجنون النفطي هو الوصول الى وسيله تعتبر البيانات المتوفره للابار المحفوره سابقا" لخمسه ابار مائله بدرجه 35 اساس للابار التي سوف يتم حفرها مستقبلا", كذلك يتم استخدامها لتخمين ادائيه الحفر بالاعتماد على معاملات الحفر المختاره بناءا" على اقصى معدل اختراق لكل مقطع. الهدف الاساسي من اختيار المعاملات المثاليه اثناء عمليه الحفر هو لتقليل الوقت المرا د به الوصول الى نهايه كل مقطع وبالتالي تقليل الكلفه الاقتصاديه لكل بئر يتم حفره, الاستنتاج الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو معرفه المتطلبات الاساسيه للحصول على اعلى معدل اختراق والذي لايمكن تحقيقه من غير تسليط معدل جريان مناسب لتنظيف وتبريد الحافره في المقطعين (36" و 24") كذلك لايمكن تحقيق اعلى معدل اختراق من غير الموازنه بين الوزن المسلط على الحافره وسرعه دوران عمود الحفر في كل من المقاطع (16"و12.25"و 8.5"), لذلك كلما زاد معدل اختراق الحافره انخفض الوقت اللازم لاكمال البئر وبالتالي كلفه اقل بالاعتماد على معاملات الحفر التي حققت اعلى معدل حفرفي حقل مجنون النفطي.


Article
Design of Horizontal Well Program for Ajeel Field

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Abstract

Horizontal wells are of great interest to the petroleum industry today because they provide an attractive means for improving both production rate and recovery efficiency. The great improvements in drilling technology make it possible to drill horizontal wells with complex trajectories and extended for significant depths. The aim of this paper is to present the design aspects of horizontal well. Well design aspects include selection of bit and casing sizes, detection of setting depths and drilling fluid density, casing, hydraulics, well profile, and construction of drillstring simulator. An Iraqi oil field (Ajeel field) is selected for designing horizontal well to increase the productivity. Short radius horizontal well is suggested for the developing the field since many drilled vertical wells are exists A soft string model was programmed to predict the imposed loads on suggested drillstring. Six operating conditions of drillstring includes rotating off bottom, pick up without rotation, slack off without rotation, pick up with rotation, slack off with rotation, and sliding ,were considered. Also, two buckling modes of drill string were estimated. According to drillstring simulator results, short radius well of build rate 90 deg/100 ft could be implemented without exceeding the strength limits of the suggested drillstring.


Article
The Effect of Soil Content, Drilling Parameters and Drilling Tool Diameter on the Vibration Assessment in the Drilling Rig
تأثير مُحتوى التُربة, مَقاييس الحَفر وقطر عُدة الحَفر على الإهتِزازات الحاصِلة في مَنظومة الحَفر

Authors: Mauwafak Ali Tawfik موفق علي توفيق --- Wafa Abd Soud وفاء عبد سعود --- Rami Safaa Alwan رامي صفاء علوان
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 93-112
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This paper represents a study of the effect of the soil type, the drilling parameters and the drilling tool properties on the dynamic vibrational behavior of the drilling rig and its assessment in the drilling system. So first, an experimental drilling rig was designed and constructed to embrace the numerical work.The experimental work included implementation of the drill-string in different types of soil with different properties according to the difference in the grains size, at different rotational speeds (RPM), and different weights on bit (WOB) (Thrust force), in a way that allows establishing the charts that correlate the vibration acceleration, the rate of penetration (ROP), and the power consumption curves with the depth of drilling.In addition to that the ANSYS Workbench (the 14.0 release) software was used to simulate and verify the experimental results. And it was also used to model other numerical cases with different drill bit diameters.

هذا البحث يُمثل دِراسة لتأثير نوع التُربة, مَقاييس الحَفر, وقُطر عُدة الحَفر على السُلوك الديناميكي الإهتزازي وتحليله في مِنصة الحَفر. ولهذا الغرض تم تصميم وبناء مِنصة حَفر مُختبرية لإجراء التجارب المُتعلقة بالجانب العَملي من البحث, حيث ان الجانب العَملي اشتمل على تشغيل عمود الحَفر في انواع مُختلفة من التُرب ذات خواص مُختلفة نِسبة الى اختِلاف حجم الحُبيبات, بسُرع دورانية مُختلفة, وبأحمال مُختلفة, وبالشكل الذي يُتيح رسم المُنحَنيات التي تربط تسارع الإهتزاز, مُعدل الإختراق (ROP) وإستهلاك الطاقة مع عُمق الحَفر.فضلاً عن ذلك فقد تم استِخدام برنامج ال ANSYS Workbench (the 14.0 release) لمُحاكاة التجارب المُختبرية والتحقق من صِحتها, وكذلك فقد تم استِخدامه لتمثيل حالات نظرية اخرى باقطار مُختلفة لبريمة الحَفر.

Keywords

Soil --- Vibration --- and Drilling Rig.


Article
Estimation of Rate of Penetration Considering Mechanical, Hydraulic, and Formation Characteristics for Mishref Formation

Author: Kadhim Hmood Mnati
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 17 Pages: E20-E38
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

This paper presents a detailed formulation of a rate of penetration (ROP) model, considering many drilling parameters and conditions for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost.A regression analysis technique has been usedfor ROP modeling in Mishref formation.The data were extracted from routinely available mud and wirelinelogs. These data includes weight on bit ,rotary speed,horse per square inch,and transit time.For ROP modeling, data of five wells inHalfaya oil field in south Iraq were extracted.Statistical software called SPSS was used for improving the modeling data and to perform linear and nonlinear multiple regression analysis. This improving approach included detection the outliers of modeling parameters, grouping the modeling data, moving average and finally applying the regression analysis.Results of modeling showed that the grouping of modeling data exhibited good convergence with actual data and the overall model of oil field could producegood fitness with the actual data in both cases of linear and nonlinear models.Also,a good estimation of drilling cost could be obtained when using this model.


Article
Biotreatment of Oil Wells Drilling Waste in an Agricultural Soil

Authors: Ayad A. A. H. Abd Al-Razaq --- Muna H. Al-Joubori
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 69-74
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One of the most important environmental issues is the responsible effective and economic treatment of drilling waste especially oily waste.In this research two fungal isolates named Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum were chosen for the first time to treat biologically the oily drilled cuttings contaminated with diesel which resulted from drilling oil wells use oil based muds (OBMs).The results showed that the fungi under study utilized the hydrocarbon of contaminated soil as a source of nutrient and growth and that both fungi can be considered hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms. The used biotreatment is cost effective process since most of the materials used in the cultivation and growth of the present fungi were available and cheap agricultural waste.The best hydrocarbon degradation was observed in case of using both fungi together with 8 % by weight microorganisms concentration ratio and with the same ratio of nutrients components expressed as carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus equal to 100/60/10 with 10/1 carbon/potassium which gave average total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation of about 395 ppm per day. Good results were obtained using the new nutrients components ratio(C/N/P=100/60/10 with C/K=10) compared to other studies applied different nutrients ratios for the same type of diesel contamination.


Article
Biotreatment Technique to Treat Oil Wells Drilling Wastes

Authors: Ayad A. A. Abd Al-Razaq --- Muna H. Al-Joubori --- Akram H. AI-Hiti
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 37-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The minimization, treatment and disposal of drilling wastes especially oily wastes are important environmental issues. In this research two fungal isolates named Pleurotuso streatus and Trichoderma harzianum were chosen carefully for the purpose of biotreatment of oily drilled cuttings which resulting from drilling oil wells using oil based muds (OBMs).A relationship of total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in oily drilled cuttings with time has been obtained The results showed that Pleurotus ostreatus and Trichoderma harzianum can be considered hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms and the used biotreatment is cost effective process since most of the materials used in the cultivationand growth of the present fungi were available and cheap agricultural wastes.The best hydrocarbon degradation was observed in case of using both fungi together with 5 % by weight microorganisms concentration ratio (MCR) and with the same ratio of nuirients expressed as C/N/P equal to 100/50/10 nutrients components ratio which gave average total petrol eum hydrocarbon degradation of about 205 ppm per day.


Article
Reduction of Formation Damage Due to Drilling Muds

Authors: Dhorgham S. Abrahim --- Samir A. Al-Assaf --- Akram H. Al-Hitti
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2005 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-32
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An experimental study has been carried out in investigate the possible reduction of formation damage that is result from drilling muds. This was accomplished through making a bridging system with different barite additions 70, 140, 200, 280, lb/bbl to fresh water mud. This bridging system creates an effective sealing of impermeable filter cake, thereby inhibiting continual losses of small solids and mud filtrate into the formation. The study indicates that all the muds, which were used, have the ability to damage the petrophysical properties of formation, but some additives to mud reduce the damage in petrophysical properties. In addition, it is found that minimum permeability damage can be obtained when the particles of drilling mud are larger than the pore size of formation because no internal mud cake is created. Finally, the relationship between the pore size distribution of the core samples and particle size distribution of drilling muds becomes better and the impairment is reduced, when the particle size distribution in the mud is matched to the pore entry size distribution within the rock, so that each pore entry could be bridge as permitted by the particular fluid flow rate involved.

اجريت دراسة مختبرية لبحث امكانية تقليل ضرر التكوين الناتج عن استخدام اطيان الحفر. تم انجاز هذا من خلال عمل منظومة تجسير مع مختلف اضافات البرايت (280، 200، 140، 70 رطل / برميل) الى طين الماء العذب. هذه المنظومة تولد غلق محكم لكعكة الطين القليلة النفاذة، وبذلك تمنع الفقدان المستمر للقطع الصغيرة وراشح الطين داخل التكوين.تبين هذه الدراسة أن كل الاطيان التي استخدمت لها القابلية على الحاق الضرر بالمواصفات البتروفيزاوية للتكوين. لكن بعض الاضافات الى هذه الاطيان قلل الضرر في هذه المواصفات. اضافة الى ان اقل ضرر بنفاذية التكوين ممكن الحصول عليه عندما تكون جزيئات طين الحفر اكبر من حجم مسامات التكوين بسبب عدم تكون طبقة كعكة طين داخل هذه المسامات. واخيرا العلاقة بين توزيع الحجوم المسامية للنماذج الصخرية وتوزيع حجوم الجزيئات لطين الحفر، تصبح افضل والضرر يقل عندما يتطابق التوزيعان، حيث كل فتحة للمسام ستغلق بجزيئة خلال جريان المائع.


Article
VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING PROCESS ALLOCATION VIA NONLINEAR OPTIMIZATION APPROACH

Authors: Kasim M. Daws --- Zuhair I. Ahmed --- Mohamed S. Ali
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 86-99
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

This study demonstrates the evolution of optimal virtual manufacturing process via utilizing the condition of optimization tools to determine the optimum configuration of the drilling process and operations of allocation in term of distances constrains through availability of two dimensional space layout.The distribution of motherboard holes allocated was virtually investigated and an experimental of power supply plate cover is also maintained to achieve different minimum dimension which leads to alter the whole design parameters of sub components such as integrates and electric components in the main board circuit.A technique for mentioned case study is a new branch technology which will affect simultaneously many cases design attributes in the same concept such as machines allocation distribution in the plant shop floor, assignment problem, industrial geographical distribution salesman problem, perforation and transportation and other.After all iteration took place an ultimate final allocation for drilling holes in an 1.5 x1.5 cm metal cover already perforate in specific locations to perform its design need where the new distribution of the holes give an optimal space for metal cover which effect in the hole design prospect in addition to other production aspects of cost and raw material west issues.

في هذا البحث تم استحداث برنامج حاسوبي لتخمين التوزيع المطلوب للكثير من التطبيقات الهندسيه وهذا التوزيع ممكن ان يكون ناتج عن عمليات تثقيب او توزيع مكائن في بيئة العمل ومناولة المواد. الخ وكذلك تخمين ابعاد اللوحات المعدنيه المشغله لتقليص الضياعات وفي الملحق تم وضع شفرة البرنامج لتمكين الباحثين من استخدامه بعد الاشاره الى البحث الموسوم اعلاه.


Article
Study the Efficiency of Drilling With Casing Operation in an Iraqi Oil Field

Author: Ayad A. Alhaleem
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 47-52
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Drilling with casing (DWC) can be considered as a modern drilling technique in which both of drilling and casing operations done in the same time by using the casing to transfer the hydraulic and mechanical power to the bit instead of traditional drilling string. To overcome oil well control, minimizing the total cost through enhancing drilling efficiency, drilling with casing was proposed as an enabling technology. Two surface sections (17 1/2 - and 12 1/4- inch) were drilled successfully in Rumaila oil field with casing strings which reached 655m and 1524m measured depths respectively. By using DWC technique, the total drill/case phase time was reduced up to 20% comparing to conventional drilling in the same field . Drilling both sections with DWC system eliminating the number of trips and nonproductive time (NPT) related to wellbore instability.

Keywords

casing drilling --- BHA --- drill string --- tripping --- CDS.

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