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Article
Numerical Study of Forced Convection in Wavy and Diverged-Converged Ducts
دراسة عددية للحمل القسري في مجرى متموج ومجرى متغير المقطع

Authors: Anmar M. Basheer --- Sattar J. Habeeb --- Waheed S. Mohamad
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2009 Volume: 27 Issue: 7 Pages: 1385-1403
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A three-dimensional study of developing fluid flow and heat transfer throughwavy and diverged-converged ducts were studied numerically for a Prandlt number 0.7and 5.85 and compared with flow through corresponding straight duct. The Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved by using control finite volume method.Development of the Nusselt number in wavy and diverged-converged ducts arepresented for different flow rates (50دراسة ثلاثية الابعاد لجريان مستقر وانتقال الحرارة لمائع خلال مجرى متموج واخر متغيرالمقطع لعدد برانتل 0.7 و 5.85 ومقارنة الجريان مع مجرى منتظم . حلت معادلة الطاقة والزخمبواسطة استعمال طريقة الفروقات العددية المحدد ة. ان عدد نسلت في المجرى المتموج والمتغير المقطع(0.46,0.39 and تساوي (Hmin/Hmax) 50 ) , ونسبة الارتفاع


Article
Surgical Management of Major Extra Hepatic Bile Ducts Calculi

Author: Mohammad Yaseen Alkhoja, Bashar A. Abdulhassan, Musafir Atea Hashim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 252-260
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Common bile duct stones or choledocholithiasis are present in 10% of people with gall stones disease. Patients may be asymptomatic or presented with jaundice, abdominal pain and fever. CBD stones can be single or multiple. The vast majority of common bile stones are secondary to the passage of stone from the gall bladder.Pre-operative detection of choledocholithiasis is usually by imaging study, either abdominal ultrasonography (US) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Management of choledocholithiasis is usually done by means of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), but sometimes this is not feasible for variable reasons and surgical exploration and stone extraction is needed.There are variable methods for surgical management of choledocholithiasis, each method has its advantage and disadvantage.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to compare these surgical methods and compare the outcome of each procedureMETHODS: One hundred patients with CBD stones were included in the study and divided into five groups according to the choice of surgical intervention used, the outcome of each group was compared.CONCLUSION: There are several surgical methods to deal with CBD stones, each has its advantage and its disadvantage and there is no single best method over the other.


Article
Endoscopic dacrocystorhinostomy in Kirkuk output and results

Author: Tunjai namiq faiq تونجاي نامق محمد
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2015 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 87-96
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract


Article
Ultrasonic evaluation of milk duct dilatation in mastalgia in Erbil, Iraq
التقييم بالموجات فوق الصوتية لتوسع قناة الحليب في الم الثدي في أربيل ، العراق

Author: Havin A. Akreyi
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 344-348
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: As the etiology of mastalgia is poorly understood this study applied ultrasonography to mastalgia patients with the aim of analyzing the significance of milk duct dilatation in patients with mastalgia. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 170 women with the mean age of 31 years presenting with breast pain who were referred to the Radiology Department of the Maternity and Rizgari Teaching Hospitals from October 2008 to September 2009. The breasts of each woman were examined by ultrasound scan with special attention was focused on the milk ducts. The presence and the width of the ducts were documented. Each woman was asked for pain intensity and breast pain intensity evaluated as mild, moderate and severe. Results: The mean±SD diameter of duct was 3.99±1.37 mm. The mean diameter of the duct was higher among the younger age group of <25 years than older age groups (4.28 vs 3.95 and 3.87), among married than singles (3.99 vs 3.90) and among those having cyclic pain compared to those having non-cyclic pain (4.0 vs 3.95). However, these differences were not statistically significant. The mean diameter of the duct was significantly higher among those having bilateral pain than those having unilateral pain (4.47 for bilateral vs 4.02 for left side and 3.61 for right side) and among those having severe pain compared to those having moderate or mild pain (4.91 vs 3.40 and 3.28). Conclusion: The study results show that duct ectasia is a major factor in determining the severity of mastalgia with no significance difference between cyclical and non-cyclical mastalgia.

Keywords

Mastalgia --- duct ectasia --- ultrasound --- Erbil


Article
Spontaneous Common Bile Duct Perforation in Adult:A Case Report and Review

Author: Ali J. Awad علي جواد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 1 Pages: 111-112
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Case Report: Common bile duct perforation has been reported in adults after invasive procedures, spontaneous common bile duct perforation is a rare entity as a cute abdomen in adults. A few cases due to choledocholithiasis have been reported as a cause of spontaneous perforation. We report an adult patient who presented with acute abdomen after spontaneous common bile duct perforation due to unknown etiology who was treated successfully. Keywords: Common bile duct-perforation- acute abdomen.


Article
Experimental Study For Effect of Aspect Ratio on Forced Convection Heat Transfer Inside a Rectangular Cross- Sectional Duct
دراسة عملية لبيان تأثير النسبة الباعية على انتقال الحرارة بالحمل القسري داخل مجرى مستطيل المقطع

Author: Hayder Azeez Neamah حيدر عزيز نعمة
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 31-45
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The effect of aspect ratio on the forced convection heat transfer is studied experimentally by construction a device formed mainly from an air duct with sliding surfaces to up or down directions and from a copper tube represents a heat generation source placed inside the air duct. The aspect ratio considered the ratio of the distance between the upper and lower surfaces of the air duct to diameter of the copper tube. The experimental results which obtained from this study show that the Nusselt number decreases with increase of the aspect ratio for Reynolds number range equals to (500 < Re < 3000). From the experimental results, a correlation for Nusselt number calculation is presented that depending on the effect of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and aspect ratio with an accuracy of ±8%.

تم دراسة تأثير النسبة الباعية على انتقال الحرارة بالحمل ألقسري عمليا من خلال إنشاء جهاز يتكون بصورة رئيسية من مجرى للهواء ذو سطحين علوي وسفلي قابلين للحركة باتجاه الأعلى أو الأسفل ومن أنبوب نحاسي كمصدر للحرارة المتولدة موقعه داخل مجرى الهواء. تم اعتماد النسبة الباعية على إنها النسبة بين المسافة بين السطحين العلوي والسفلي لمجرى الهواء إلى قطر الأنبوب الساخن. إن النتائج العملية التي تم الحصول عليها من هذه الدراسة بينت بأن رقم نسلت يقل بزيادة النسبة الباعية لمدى من رقم رينولدز مساو لـ (500 < Re < 3000). من النتائج العملية تم استخراج علاقة لحساب رقم نسلت بالاعتماد على رقم رينولدز ورقم براندل والنسبة الباعية بنسبة خطأ±8% .


Article
Effect of Solid Particle Properties on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Packed Duct
تأثير خصائص الحشوة الكروية على انتقال الحرارة وفقدان الضغط في مجرى مسامي

Authors: Muthanna L. Abdulla مثنى لطيف عبد الله --- Salman H. Omran سلمان حسين عمران --- Kifah H. Hilal كفاح حامد هلال
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 33-47
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This work examines numerically the effects of particle size, particle thermal conductivity and inlet velocity of forced convection heat transfer in uniformly heated packed duct. Four packing material (Aluminum, Alumina, Glass and Nylon) with range of thermal conductivity (from200 W/m.K for Aluminum to 0.23 W/m.K for Nylon), four particle diameters (1, 3, 5 and 7 cm), inlet velocity ( 0.07, 0.19 and 0.32 m/s) and constant heat flux ( 1000, 2000 and 3000 W/ m 2) were investigated. Results showed that heat transfer (average Nusselt number Nuav) increased with increasing packing conductivity; inlet velocity and heat flux, but decreased with increasing particle size.Also, Aluminum average Nusselt number is about (0.85,2.2 and 3.1 times) than Alumina, glass and Nylon respectively. From optimization between heat transfer and pressure drop through packed duct, it is found thatfinest ratio (Nuav / Δp) equal to (19.12) at (Dp = 7 cm, inlet velocity = 0.07 m/ s and 3000 W/m2 heat flux) with Aluminum as packing material.

اجريت في هذا البحث دراسة عددية لتأثير قطر الجزيئة المكونة للحشوة المسامية والموصلية الحرارية لها وسرعة الهواء الداخل على انتقال الحرارة بالحمل القسري خلال مجرى مسامي مسخن بفيض حراري ثابت. أربعة أنواع من الحشوات مصنوعة من ( الالمنيوم، الالومينا، الزجاج والنايلون) وبمدى موصلية حرارية يتراوح بين (200W/m.Kللالمنيوم الى 0.23W/m.K للنايلون) وبقطر جزيئة (1,3,5,7 cm) وسرعة ( 0.07, 0.19, 0.32 m/s) وبفيض حراري ثابت مقداره ( 1000,2000,3000 W/m2) تم اختبارها. لقد بينت النتائج ان انتقال الحرارة ( معدل رقم نسلت Nuav) تزداد بزيادة الموصلية الحرارية للحشوة المسامية وسرعة الهواء الداخل والفيض الحراري، ولكن يقل بزيادة قطر الجزيئة. معدل رقم نسلت (Nuav ) لحشوة الالمنيوم أعلى ب ( 3.1, 2.2, 0.85 مرة) من ( الالومينا، الزجاج والنايلون) على التوالي. من المفاضلة بين انتقال الحرارة وفقدان الضغط خلال الحشوة المسامية، نجد أن أفضل نسبة ( Nuav / Δp) تساوي ( 19.12) عند ( Dp = 7cm، U = 0.07 m/s وفيض حراري 3000 W/m2(، واستخدام الالمنيوم كحشوة مسامية داخل المجرى.


Article
Pathological Analysis of Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children

Author: Aseel Hameed A. Al-Khalifah
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 2656-2662
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Background: Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are the most common form of congenital neck cyst, accounting for up to 70% of such lesions. There has been no consensus on which factors predict outcome of thyroglossal duct cyst excision. Objective: To evaluate the relevance of symptomatology, age at presentation and the histopathology of TGDCs. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with TGDC at Al-Hissain medical city. Data collected included patient’s age, gender, clinical presentation, presence or absence of preoperative infection, size and location of the lesion, Results: Thirty –one patients were identified (71% female and 29% male). Age of presentation was bimodal and ranged from few months to 17 years. The most common presenting symptom was the presence of an asymptomatic midline neck mass (71%). A history of preoperative TGDC infection was present in 3% of patients ≤2 years of age and in 10% of patients ≥5 years of age. Conclusions: The finding of a midline neck mass is the most common presentation of TGDCs in toddlers, whereas infection is the most common presenting symptoms in school-aged children. Complete and precise clinical information is a prerequisite in order for pathologists to make accurate diagnoses of congenital cervical cysts.


Article
Management of Biliary Injuries after Open and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies

Authors: Salah Obaid Hamad --- Basher Abbas Abdulhassan --- Mohammad Yaseen Alkhoja --- Raafat Rauof Ahmed Alturfi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 57-67
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Bile duct injuries during laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy are still serious problems which may cause secondary biliary cirrhosis resulting in chronic liver failure. Injuries occur as a result of technical errors or misidentification of biliary ducts. BDIs are major cause of patient morbidity and litigation. This study aimed to evaluate the management of bile duct injuries (radiological, endoscopic or surgical management) following open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a tertiary referral hospital. A prospective clinical study was conducted 50 patients (9 males and 41 females) who sustained bile duct injuries during open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were thoroughly investigated to decide the final management, and they were followed up to two years post operation to find out short- and long-term complications. The most common presentations of those patients were biliary fistula, 18 (36%) and jaundice, 14 (28%). After resuscitation, the definite managements were percutaneous drain under ultrasound guide for one patient (2%), Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatographystenting or sphinectrotomy for 5 patients (10%) andhepaticojejunostomy for complete common hepatic duct transection for 43 patients (86%), most of which were done 8weeks after the primary operation. One patient succumbs before any intervention.According to the results of this study, patients with bile duct injuries are preferably treated in hepato-biliary department, where all radiological, endoscopic and experience surgeon available. Roux-en-hepaticojejunostomy is the procedure of choice for the management of patients sustaining complete transaction injury of common hepatic duct, while percutaneous drain is an excellent option for the drainage of intraperitoneal bile collection, without need for open drainage.


Article
Compound Heat Transfer Enhancement in Dimpled and Sinusoidal Metal Solar Wall Ducts Fitted with Wired Inserts

Authors: Abeer H. Faleh --- Fouad A. Saleh --- Mohammed H. Mahmoud
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2012 Volume: 18 Issue: 5 Pages: 591-610
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

An improved Metal Solar Wall (MSW) with integrated thermal energy storage is presented in this research. The proposed MSW makes use of two, combined, enhanced heat transfer methods. One of the methods is characterized by filling the tested ducts with a commercially available copper Wired Inserts (WI), while the other one uses dimpled or sinusoidal shaped duct walls instead of plane walls. Ducts having square or semi-circular cross sectional areas are tested in this work. A developed numerical model for simulating the transported thermal energy in MSW is solved by finite difference method. The model is described by system of three governing energy equations. An experimental test rig has been built and six new duct configurations have been fabricated and tested. Air is passed through the six ducts with Reynolds numbers from 1825 to 7300. Six, new, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are developed to assess the benefits that are gained from using the WI and the dimpled and sine-wave duct walls. It is found that higher heat transfer rates are achieved using the Dimpled, semi–circular duct with Wired Inserts (DCWI). Also, it is found that Nusselt number and the pressure drop in the DCWI are respectively (44.2% -100%) and (101.27% - 172.8%) greater than those of the flat duct with WI. The improvement in Nusselt number for flat duct with WI is found to be (1.4 – 2) times the values for flat duct with no WI. The results demonstrated that DCWI provides enhancements efficiency value that is higher than those obtained from other types of ducts. The developed MSW ducts have added to local knowledge a better understanding of the compound heat transfer enhancement.

في هذاالبحث تم تقديم جدار معدني شمسي (MSW) مطور ذو قابلية خزن حرارية ضمنية. ان الجدار المقترح يستخدم طريقتين لتحسين انتقال الحرارة. الطريقة الاولى تتضمن إملاء قنوات الجريان بحشوات نحاسية من الأسلاك (WI) المتوفرة تجاريا اما الطريقة الثانية فتستخدم مجاري الهواء ذات الجدران المتموجة جيبيا او المقعرة بدلا من المجاري ذات الجدران المستوية. لقد تم اجراء البحث على مجاري ذات مقاطع مربعة و نصف دائرية . تم اجراء الحل للموديل العددي المطور الخاص بمحاكاة الطاقة الحرارية المنقولة باستخدام طريقة الفروقات المحددة. ان هذا الموديل العددي مكون من منظومه من ثلاثة معادلات حاكمه للطاقه. تم في هذا البحث بناء جهاز أختبار عملي وتم تصنيع وأختبار ستة مجاري هواء وإمرار الهواء خلال المجاري ضمن مدى لرقم رينولدز من 1825 الى 7300. من النتائج المستحصلة من هذا البحث تم استحداث ستة معادلات جديدة خاصة برقم ناسلت و معامل الاحتكاك لتخمين الفوائد المكتسبة من الأستعمال المركب لكل منWI و مجاري الهواء ذات الجدران المتموجة جيبيا او المقعرة. لقد وجد ان اعلى معدل لانتقال الحرارة هو للمجرى المدمل ذو المقطع نصف الدائري المحشو (DCWI). النتائج بينت ان نسب رقم ناسلت ومقدار الانخفاض بالضغط للمجرى نوع DCWI هي على التوالي (44.2%-100% ) و (101.27%-172.8% ) اعلى من تلك العائدة الى المجرى المسطح مع WI . وجد ان التحسينات في رقم ناسلت قد بلغت ( 1.4 - 2 ) مرة بالنسبة للمجرى المزود ب WI بالمقارنة مع تلك غير المزودة ب WI.بينت النتائج الخاصة بالبحث الحالي ان الموديل المطور لمقترح DCWI يعطي كفاءة تحسين اعلى من الموديلات الاخرى. النتائج المستخلصة في هذا البحث أضافت للمعرفة المحلية فهم أفضل لتحسين انتقال الحرارة المركب.

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