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Article
Treatment of Soft Soil by Sand Columns
معالجة التربة الطينية الضعيفة بواسطة الأعمدة الرملية

Authors: Namir K.S. Al-Saoudi --- Mohammad M. M. Al-Kaissi --- Nawres A. A. Rajab
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 9 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2106-2118
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Stone or sand columns are most widely used to improve the engineering properties of soft saturated soils. In principles, sand columns technique is very close to the well-known stone columns technique and the only difference is the backfill materials. The present work focuses on implementing sand columns in soft soil of different diameters, different relative densities considering both floating and end bearing types. The model tests were performed inside a steel container (600mm x 600mm and 500mm in height). Sand columns of diameters ranging between 22mm to 50mm were constructed in beds of soil of undrained shear strength ranging between (15-20) kPa. Each individual sand column was loaded vertically through a rigid circular footing of diameters between 28.6mm to 64.7mm provided an area replacement ratio (as) of (0.6),the ratio of column depth to the column diameter (L/D) was (6).The model test results revealed good improvements of the load carrying capacity of the columns ranging between (1.3 to 1.9) and significant reduction in the settlement over the untreated soil ranging between (0.18 to 0.47). End bearing columns exhibited better results than floating columns and the diameter of column has no effect on bearing capacity as the (as) and (L/D) are constants

تقنية الأعمدة الحجرية أو الأعمدة الرملية تستخدم بصورة واسعة لتحسين الخواص الهندسية للترب الطينية المشبعة الضعيفة. تتشابه الأعمدة الرملية من حيث المبدأ مع الأعمدة الحجرية والفرق الوحيد هو المواد المستخدمة في ملئ الأعمدة. يركز البحث الحالي على غرز الأعمدة الرملية في تربة طينية ضعيفة وبأقطار مختلفة, بكثافات نسبية مختلفة مع الأخذ بنظر الاعتبار نوعية الأعمدة الطافية وأعمدة التحمل الطرفي.أُجريتالنماذج المختبرية بداخل صندوق حديدي بأبعاد (600 ملم*600 ملم وبارتفاع 500 ملم). نُفذت الأعمدة الرملية بأقطار تتراوح بين 22 ملم الى 50 ملم بداخل تربة طينية ذات مقاومة قص غير مبزول يتراوح بين (15-20) كيلو باسكال. كل الأعمدة الرملية مفردة وحملت بطريقة عمودية بواسطة أساسات دائرية صلبة تتراوح أقطارها بين 28.6 ملم الى 64.7 ملم مع الأخذ بنظر الأعتبار تثبيت نسبة المساحة الأستبدالية تساوي (0.6),نسبة طول العمود الى قطره تساوي (6). أظهرت نتائج الفحوصات المختبرية تحسين جيد لقابلية التحمل يترواح بين (1.3 الى 1.9) وتقليل ملحوظ للهطول يتراوح بين (0.18 الى 0.47), أعمدة التحمل الطرفي افضل من الاعمدة الطافية, لايؤثر قطر العمود على قابلية التحمل في حال تثبيت نسبتي المساحة الأستبدالية وطول العمود الى قطره.


Article
IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT CLAYS BY END BEARING STONE COLUMNS ENCASED WITH GEOGRIDS
تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية محملة النهايات المغلفة

Author: Mohammed Y. Fattah محمد يوسف فتاح
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2010 Volume: Engineering Sc. Conference Issue: First Pages: 310-326
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:- In this paper, the finite element method is utilized as a tool for carrying out different analyses of stone column–soil systems under different conditions. A trial is made to improve the behaviour of stone column by encasing the stone column by geogrid as reinforcement material. The program CRISP2D is used in the analysis of problems. The program adopts the finite element method and allows prediction to be made of soil deformations considering Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion for elastic-plastic soil behaviour. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the behaviour of ordinary and encased floating stone columns in different conditions. Different parameters were studied to show their effect on the bearing improvement and settlement reduction of the stone column. These include the length to diameter ratio (L/d), end support of the stone column and the area replacement ratio (as). It was found that the effect of encasement length ratio on bearing improvement and settlement reduction increases with the increase in the end bearing soil undrained shear strength.The encasement of the stone column should be extended to the full stone column length to make the stone column take the full benefit of the end bearing soil support especially for long columns with (L/d) more than 4. Keywords:- Stone columns, Encased, Geogrid, End bearing, Finite elements.

الخلاصة في هذا البحث تم استخدام طريقة العناصر المحددة كوسيلة لأجراء تحليلات مختلفة على منظومة الأعمدة الحجرية-التربة بظروف مختلفة. أجريت محاولة لتحسين تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية بواسطة تغليف الأعمدة باستخدام المشبكات (geogrid) كمادة تسليح. تم استخدام برنامج CRISP2D لإجراء هذه التحليلات و الذي يعتمد طريقة العناصر المحددة ويمكن من خلاله الحصول على التشوه المتوقع من خلال اعتماد معيار فشل Mohr–Coulomb لتصرف التربة المرن - اللدن.أجريت دراسة للمعاملات لتحري تصرف الأعمدة الحجرية لظروف مختلفة. تمت دراسة عدة معاملات لبيان تأثيرها على تحسين قابلية التحمل والهبوط للأعمدة الحجرية وهذه المعاملات هي نسبة طول الركيزة إلى قطرها (L/d), وإسناد النهاية للعمود الحجري وكذلك نسبة المساحة التعويضية (مساحة العمود الحجري/مساحة الأساس الكلي) لكل من الأعمدة الحجرية العادية والمسلحة. وقد وجد أن تأثير نسبة طول التغليف للأعمدة الحجرية (طول التغليف بالمشبك على طول العود الحري / الطول الكلي للعمود) على كل من تحسن التحمل و تقليل الهبوط يزداد مع زيادة مقاومة القص للطبقة التي تستند إليها نهاية العمود. إن تغليف العمود الحري يجب أن يمتد إلى الطول الكلي للعمود الحجري لجعل العمود يستفيد استفادة قصوى من التربة التي تستند إليها نهايته و خاصة للأعمدة الطويلة ذات نسبة (L/d) أكثر من 4.


Article
Mathematical Estimation for the Bearing Capacity of Sand Column Inserted in Soft Clay Soil
تقدير قابلية تحمل الاعمدة الرملية المغروزة في التربة الطينية الضعيفة

Authors: Awf Abdul Rahman Al-Kaisi --- Hiba Hussein Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 5 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 816-827
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Sand column is one of the soft ground improvement methods. It is made up of well compacted sand pile, it is used for enhance the load capacity of soft clay soils, reduce the settlement and accelerate the consolidation process of the native soft soil surrounding it, also the sand column is used to minimize the likelihood of liquefaction when installed in loose sand soils. This research deals with the evaluation of a mathematical equation depending on the results obtain from series of triaxial test in order to calculate the bearing capacity of sand column which inserted in soft clay soil and for two different cases (floating case condition and other is when the sand column is resting on a firm base). The results indicate that the calculation of the shaft resistance for sand column mainly depends on the clay medium properties, while the calculation of the end bearing depends on the sand property (depending on the mode of failure for the sand column, which was observed). Another group of mathematical relations was suggested to calculate the load capacity of sand column inserted in soft clay for two area replacement ratios (11% and 6%) and depending on the confining pressures considered (100-400) kPa, and for two cases, the first is when the sand column in the floating case condition and other is when the sand column is resting on a firm base.

الأعمده الرمليه هي احد الطرق لمعالجه الترب الرخوه.وتتكون من الرمل المرصوص جيدا, وتستخدم لزياده تحمل التربه الطينيه الرخوه, تقليل الهبوط وتعجيل عمليه الانضمام للتربه الرخوه المحيطه بها. وكذلك تعمل على تقليل ظاهره ال(liquefaction) عندما تغرس بالترب الرمليه الضعيفة. يتناول هذا البحث ايجاد علاقات رياضية من اجل حساب قابلية تحمل العمود الرملي المغروس في التربة الطينبة الرخوة ولحالتين ( في حالة كون العمود الرملي غير مستند على طبقة قوية والاخرى مستند على طبقة قوية)وبالاعتماد على نتائج استحصلت من سلسلة فحوصات الانضغاط الثلاثي. أشارت النتائج الى إن حساب المقاومه السطحيه(Shaft Resistance) للعمود الرملي تعتمد أساساً على خصائص الوسط الطيني الرخو، بينما حساب تحمل القاعده (End Bearing) تعتمد على خصائص الرمل المستخدم في الأعمده الرمليه (اعتماداً على نمط الفشل الملاحظ للأعمده الرمليه بعد التحميل). ولقد تم اقتراح مجموعه أخرى من العلاقات الرياضيه لحساب تحمل الأعمده الرمليه المغروزه بالترب الطينيه الرخوه اعتمادا على نسبه الاشغال للعمود الرملي المستخدمه (11% او6%)واعتمادا على الضغوط الجانبيه المستخدمه(100-400)كيلوباسكال وفي حالتين, الأولى عندما تكون الأعمده الرمليه غير مستنده على طبقه قويه(Floating sand column), والأخرى عندما تكون تلك الأعمده مستنده على طبقه قويه


Article
Finite Element Analysis of Machine Foundation Resting on End Bearing Piles
التحلیل بطریقة العناصر المحددة لأساس ماكنة مستند الى ركائز ذات تحمل قاعدي

Authors: Ibtihal A. M. Al-Nakdy --- Mohammed Y. Fattah --- Mohammed J. Hamood
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2014 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 132-153
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Dynamic effects of the machines play a major role in sizing of the foundation where conditions, like resonance is avoided by varying the stiffness and the mass of the structure which leads to modifications in foundation sizes. In this paper, a piled machine foundation in sandy soil is analyzed. A detailed 3D finite element analysis approach is considered using finite element software (ANSYS v.11). Machinefoundations resting on end bearing piles are modeled. Harmonic dynamic load is chosen. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effect of several parameters including: geometry of the piled machine foundation, the amplitude of the dynamic load, and frequency of the dynamic load.It is concluded that as the pile cap thickness increases, the oscillation of displacement decreases due to geometrical damping of the pile cap. There is a limit of pile cap size at which its stiffness governs its dynamic response, above this size, the weight of the cap overrides its stiffness effect, and the additional weight by cap leadsto increase the foundation displacement. On the other hand, when the pile diameter of the group increases, the frequency, at which the maximum displacement occurs increases hence the system becomes more stable against resonance condition.


Article
Development Bearing Capacity of Piles Embedded in Clayey Soil

Authors: Awf A. Al-Kaisi --- Falah H. Rahil --- Mohanned Q. Waheed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 3 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 315-321
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The load carrying capacity of piles resulting from base resistance and shaft resistance, the load transfer mechanism of piles is complicated since the mode of failure of these components is different in addition to the effect of pile installation on the soil surrounding of piles .The intended task of this paper is studying the behavior of pile group model driven in clayey soil subjected to vertical axial loading, and the assessment of the development of resistance of each of the two components, tip resistance and skin friction of the piles of during loading. Twelve piles group tests are conducted at three grades of undrained shear strength (cu) of clayey soil which are (20 or 40 or 60 kPa) where the configuration of the pile groups used in all tests is (2 x 2). Two different pile lengths (L) are selected (300 and 450 mm), these lengths represent the slenderness ratio (L/D) of (10) and (15) respectively, so that the center to center spacing between the piles (Sp) used are (3D) and (5D). It was observed that the most of the load capacity of piles is mobilized at settlement of around (1 – 2 mm), corresponding to (5 %) of pile diameter (D) , however, the development of full shaft resistance of piles appears at a low displacement range and is only of about (1 to 2 %) of the pile diameter while the pile end bearing will mobilize at a higher displacement range in the range of (5 to 10%).The changing of undrained shear strength of clay from (20 to 60 kPa) has no significant effect on the load transfer mechanism and the mobilization of shaft resistance and end bearing with increasing the settlement. It was concluded that a low ratio load sharing of piles tip, especially with increasing slenderness ratio (L/D) , which supports the fact that the piles in the weak clayey soils behave as a floating pile which leads to neglecting end bearing capacity in calculating the total pile load capacity as indicated by some references.


Article
Comparison of the Behavior for Free Standing Pile Group and Piles of Piled Raft

Authors: Awf A. Al-Kaisi --- Falah H. Rahil --- Mohanned Q.Waheed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 4 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 373-380
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The intended task of this paper is studying the behavior of free standing pile groups and piles of piled raft driven in clayey soil under axial loading. The raft-piles interaction is investigated as well through the two series of tests. Each one of these series includes twelve tests, the two series are conducted with the same configuration, spacing, size of piles and undrained shear strength of soil except that in the free standing group there is a gap of about (20-25 mm) between the raft and the soil surface to have the applied load transferred to the piles only in order to compare the behavior of piles in the two cases. Three grades of undrained shear strength (cu) of clayey soil are selected which are (20 or 40 or 60 kPa) and the configuration of the pile groups used in all tests is (2 x 2). Two different pile lengths (L) are selected (300 and 450 mm). These lengths represent the slenderness ratio (L/D) of (10) and (15) respectively, so that the center-to-center spacing between the piles (S) used are (3D) and (5D). It is observed that piles exhibited a very high stiffness at initial loading stages till the settlement is about 0.5mm, beyond this level, even for a small increment in the load, the pile settled rapidly, which means that once the friction is overcome the piles failed instantaneously. In addition, most of the load capacity of piles is mobilized at settlement of around (1 – 2 mm), corresponding to (5 %) of pile diameter.Moreover, the increasing the undrained shear strength of clay from (20 to 60 kPa) has no significant effect on the load transfer mechanism of piles in the two cases .It can be concluded that the load capacity of the free standing pile group is about equal to the piles in piled raft case, indicating that the interaction effect is not significant, therefore, it is suggested to apply an efficiency factor (αG) of (1) in designing the piled - raft foundation in clayey soil when calculating for pile load share.

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