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Article
Profile of Some Cytokines in Sera of Children with Autism Syndrome
نسق بعض الحركيات الخلوية في مصول أطفال متلازمة التوحد

Authors: Kamil M. Halboot كامل مهدي حلبوت --- Alice K.Melconian أليس كريكور اغوب --- Jenan AL- Saffar جنان محمد جواد الصفار
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 1A Pages: 125-131
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a spectrum of behavioral anomalies characterized by impairment in social interactions and communication deficits. A potential role for immune dysfunction has been suggested in ASD. To test this hypothesis, certain cytokines: IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A and IFN-γ were investigated in serum of all participants. The study includes: 39 child (male and female) aged < 5 to10 years with confirmed diagnosis of autism using standard assessment, age and gender matched 24 confirmed healthy children and 19 non autistic siblings used as controls. Serum was isolated and cytokines were detected using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The observations indicate a significant increase (P < 0.05) in autistic patients serum levels of IL-10 compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. Whereas detection of IL-12 and IFN-γ in the autistic patients serum showed significantly decrease level (P < 0.05) compared with healthy control, but with lack of significant difference with their related non autistic siblings. On the other hand, detection of IL-2 and IL-17A results showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences compared with healthy control and non autistic siblings.

أضطراب طيف التوحد (ASD) هو طيف من الشذوذ السلوكي الذي يتميز بضعف في التفاعل الاجتماعي واختلال التواصل. الدور المحتمل للخلل المناعي تم اقتراحه في اضطراب طيف التوحد. ولاختبار هذه الفرضية، أجري فحص مصول جميع المشاركين لتواجد الحركيات الخلوية L-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A ,IFN-γ . شملت الدراسة: 39 طفل ( ذكر وأنثى ) تتراوح أعمارهم اقل من 5 إلى 10 سنوات بتشخيص مؤكد للأصابه بالتوحد وفق تقييم قياسي لمعهد الرحمن لرعاية التوحد، ومجاميع سيطرة بأجناس وفئات عمريه مماثله لإغراض المقارنة مكونه من ( 24 طفل سليم و 19 طفل من الأخوة غير المصابين بالتوحد ). تم قياس تركيز الحركيات الخلوية IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A,IFN-γفي مصول دم المشاركين باستعمال تقنية الأمتزاز المناعي المرتبط بالإنزيم (ELISA). أظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (P < 0.05) لمستوى IL-10 في مصول مرضى التوحد عند مقارنتهم مع الأطفال الأصحاء ، ولكن عدم وجود اختلاف معنوي مع أشقائهم غير المصابين بالتوحد. بينما الكشف عن مستويات IL-12 و IFN-γ في مصل أطفال التوحد أظهرت انخفاض معنوي (P < 0.05) عند مقارنتهم مع الأطفال الأصحاء، وعدم وجود اختلاف معنوي مع أشقائهم غير المصابين بالتوحد، بينما الكشف عن مستوى IL-2 و IL-17A أظهرت النتائج عدم وجود اختلاف معنوي عند المقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة والأخوة غير المصابين.


Article
Dental caries and salivary physiochemical characteristics among osteoporotic old adult women

Authors: Hiba F. Al-Sekab --- Ban S. Diab بان صالح ذياب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2014 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 122-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder affects general health in addition to effect on salivaryphysical and chemical composition which lead to an adverse effect on oral health status. This study was conductedto evaluate the concentration of glycoprotein (osteonectin) in saliva and its effect on dental caries in relation tosalivary flow rate and viscosity among osteoporotic women and compared to control group.Materials and Methods: The total sample composed of 60 females aged 60-65 years attending Al-Yarmook TeachingHospital, 30 females diagnosed with osteoporosis by measuring bone density at the spine and femur with a dualenergyX-ray absorptiometry at T-score of >2.5, and 30 women without osteoporosis with T-score of -1 (controlgroup).The diagnosis and recording of dental caries was through the application of D1-4MFS index according tocriteria of Mühlemman (1976). Stimulated salivary samples were collected under standardized condition, accordingto Tenovuo and Lagerlöf, (1994). The flow rate and viscosity were estimated and then the saliva was analyzed forestimation of glycoprotein (osteonectin) by using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results: The percentage of dental caries occurrence was 100% among osteoporotic group and control group.Results revealed that DMFS value was higher but statistically not significant among osteoporotic women, ConcerningDMFS components, the data of the present study showed that the DS was lower but statistically not significantamong osteoporotic women, while MS value was significantly higher among them (t=2.044, P<0.05, df =58), on theother hand the opposite figure was found concerning filling component FS however the difference was notsignificant.Correlation coefficients of caries experience with salivary flow rate revealed a weak negative not significantcorrelation with D1-4MFS and its component.On the other hand, the data of the present study showed that salivaryviscosity correlate weakly not significant in negative direction with DS and its severity and in positive direction withMS, FS, DMFS.. The correlation coefficient between salivary osteonectin and dental caries were weak significant inpositive directions concerning Ds and its severity except D3 and FS component as the relation were in negativedirection, the positive not significant relation were also found between salivary osteonectin and MS,DMFS.Concerning the relation between salivary osteonectin and physical properties of saliva, the data of the present studyrevealed a non-significant relation in negative direction with salivary flow rate and in positive direction for salivaryviscosity.Conclusions: Dental caries revealed lower percentage of occurrence among osteoporotic group


Article
The effect of cigarette smoking on salivary IgA and periodontal disease

Author: Omar Husham Ali عمر هشام علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 3 Pages: 116-119
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tissues supporting the teeth. Salivary compositionshave been most intensely studied as a potential marker for periodontal disease. In this study, analysis of salivaprovides a simple and non-invasive method of evaluating the role of salivary IgA (s-IgA) levels in periodontal diseaseby detecting the level of (s-IgA) in patients with chronic periodontitis smokers and non smokers patients and correlatethe mean (s-IgA) levels with clinical periodontal parameters Plaque index (PLI) gingival index (GI), probing pocketdepth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL).Materials and Methods: The study samples consists of (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were non smokers(Group I) and (15) patients with chronic periodontitis who were smokers (Group II) of both gender with an ageranged (35-45) years were the periodontal parameters used in this study (PLI, GI, PPD and CAL), unstimulated salivarysample were collected from all subjects and the levels of salivary IgA (s-IgA) in each sample were analyzed for eachgroup by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. A statistical analysis was done by using excel2013.Results: There was a significant difference with high mean level in the clinical periodontal parameters in smokersgroup compared to non smokers with chronic periodontitis (PLI, PPD and CAL) except GI which showed nosignificant difference between the same groups. The biochemical finding showed significant difference with lowmean level for (s-IgA) in smokers group compared to non smokers.Conclusion: The findings in this study showed that the concentrations of salivary IgA might be used as an indicator forperiodontal disease progression in smokers with chronic periodontitis as a resultant to the effect of smoking whichlowering the concentration of the salivary IgA and subsequent reducing of the host’s defense lead to increase in theprogression of periodontal disease


Article
Serosurvillance on Toxoplasmosis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Al-Najaf Province

Authors: Mahmoud, Marai H. S --- Al-Rubaie ,Abdel-Elah S.M. --- Al-Jeburii, Kefah O. S --- Taha, Abdel-Kareem A.
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 204-210
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The current study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in camels resident in Al-Najaf province in Iraq . Serum samples were collected from 360 camels, 219(60.83%) of samples represents males and 141(39.16%) were collected from females. Latex Agglutination Test(LAT) was applied to screen all serum samples for Toxoplasmosis while ELISA was also used to confirm the positive result obtained by LAT Using LAT, out of 360 serum samples 91 (25.2% ) were positive to Toxoplasma gondii. Percentage of positive cases was more in females (30.4 %) than it is in males (21.9 %); the percent of seropositivity increased by increasing animals age. The ELISA test showed that 15 (16.4 %) samples were positive for toxoplasmosis, the males were 7 (14.5 %)which was lower than the percentage in females 8 (18.6 %). Also the percentage of positivity increased with increasing animals age.


Article
Association of sFas and sFas Ligand with Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Basrah Province

Author: Saja Majid Hamid, Wafaa Sadoon Shani
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2018 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 135-138
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to assess the role of Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system in the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Materials and Methods: This study included 100 participants – 30 persons as a control group and 70 patients with T2DM (35 males and 35 females)and their ages were ranged from 40 to 70 years. The patients were distributed into two groups according to gender and duration of the disease:newly diagnosed group for short duration ≤5 years and chronic diagnosed group for long duration >5 years. Serum sFas and sFasL levelswere measured by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay technique, and also, lipid and glucose profile were measured by COBAS analyzer.Results: The results revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrement in the levels of FasL in T2DM than controls while the levels of Fas wereincreasing significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in T2DM than controls. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose were negatively correlatedwith FasL, while high‑density lipoprotein was positively correlated with it, and whereas HbA1c positively correlated with Fas, the genderand duration of disease did not show any correlation with the disease. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia causes increasein Fas levels which lead to dysfunction of pancreatic β‑cell in T2DM.


Article
Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Commercially Available Tests for Diagnosing Hepatitis B Surface Antigenemia

Authors: Saad Hasan Mohammed Ali --- Saja Jehad Al-Khalidi --- Waleed Nadi Kasim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 159-171
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:A number of serologic immunoassays techniques have been developed in diagnostic virology with different degrees of sensitivity and specificity for the detecting hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens and their relevant antibodies.OBJECTIVE:This study was designed to apply and assess the sensitivity and specificity of different commercially available laboratory techniques for detecting hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg).METHODS:One hundred and twenty-one sera samples were collected from National Center for Blood transfusion, Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Hospital, Central Public Health Laboratories and Teaching Laboratories. According to the manufacturer’s practical instructions, a group of commercially available laboratory methods for detecting HBsAg were applied , including enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), enzyme linked fluorescent assay(ELFA), immunochromatographic assay(ICA), and latex agglutination test(LAT).RESULT:Among ELISA, ELFA, ICA, and LAT methods for detecting HBsAg, the 3rd generation ELISA was proved to have very high specificity (no false negative results) and the least one that has necessitated few confirmatory repetitions. ELFA versus ELISA has showed relatively lower sensitivity (more false negative results). However, similar to ELISA, ELFA showed very high specificity. Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) confidentially appeared to be a good, rapid and simple technique with comparable sensitivity and specificity to ELISA and ELFA techniques. Although LAT was introduced as a rapid, simple and cheap technique for HBsAg screening, it showed frank lower sensitivity and specificity that deranged it from competing with all those tested techniques.CONCLUSION:The concomitant use of ELFA with ELISA compensates its relatively lower sensitivity in front of ELISA. Latex agglutination test for HBsAg has relatively lower sensitivity and specificity than all other tests. For its comparable performance characteristics to ELISA, the use of ICA is ideally suited for HBsAg screening, in respect to its lower cost, rapidity, simplicity and no need for expensive equipments


Article
Comparison Between cANCA and pANCA In Patients with Renal Disease
مقارنة بين سيتوبلاسميك الاجسام المضادة (انكا) نوع بي و سيتوبلاسميك الاجسام المضادة نوع (سي) لمرضى الكلى

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Background: Renal involvement is immensely include in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis .It is a significant cause of end-stage renal failure. Objective: To comparison between cytoplasmic autoantibodies a cytoplasmic pattern and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies a perinuclear pattern in patients with renal disease .Patients and Methods: Prospective study reports presenting serological , hematological and biochemical investigations of 44 new patients diagnosed in teaching laboratories of Baghdad hospital from March 2015 to June 2016. All studied groups tested for hemaglobin (Hb), White blood cells (WBC), serum blood urea, Serum blood creatinine, c-reactive protein in addition to antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies a perinuclear pattern (p-ANCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies a cytoplasmic pattern (c-ANCA) detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique . Results: All patients with renal disease had antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody a cytoplasmic pattern negative whereas (27.3%) of those patients had positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody a perinuclear pattern. Patients with age group range between (20-29) years showed (18.2%) pANCA positive results which mainly involved in female. Clinically evident systemic lupus erythematosus was present in 6 of the 12 patients with positive pANCA .Conclusion: Serum anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody measurement should not be used alone in the diagnosis of ANCA-associated disease, whereas pANCA is more convincing in the diagnosis than cANCA.

خلفية الدراسة: المشاركة الكلوية تشمل بشكل كبير الأجسام المضادة السيتوبلازمية المضادة للالتهابات (أنكا) المرتبطة بالتهاب الأوعية الدموية النظامية وهو سبب كبير من نهاية المرحلة للفشل الكلوي.اهداف الدراسة: لمقارنة بين سيتوبلاسميك الأجسام المضادة (أنكا ) نوع بي و سيتوبلاسميك الأجسام المضادة (أنكا) نوع سي للمرضى الذين يعانون من أمراض الكلى .المرضى والطرائق: تقدم هذه الدراسة الاستطلاعية تقارير تحليلية مصلية , دموية وكيميائية حيوية شملت 44 مريضا جديدا تم تشخيصهم في المختبرات التعليمية لمستشفى بغداد من مارس 2015 إلى يونيو 2016. والتي تم فيها، قياس نسبة هيموكلوبيولين الدم , نسبة اليوريا في الدم, الكرياتينين والبروتين ج التفاعلي لجميع المجموعات المدروسة بالاضافة الى أنكا بي و أنكا سي التي قيست باستخدام تقنية ارتباط الخميرة للامتزاز المناعي.النتائج: جميع المرضى الذين يعانون من أمراض الكلى كانت نتائح انكا سي سلبية في حين أن (12٪) من هؤلاء المرضى كان انكا بي إيجابية.اظهرت نتائج المرضى الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين مجموعة <20-29سنة, (66,6٪) نتائج إيجابية انكا بي التي تشمل أساسا الإناث. سريريا داء الذئبة الحمامية الجهازية واضحة في 6 من 12 مريضا مع انكا بي إيجابية.الاستنتاجات: قياس المصل مضاد سيتوبلاسميك الأجسام المضادة (أنكا) لا ينبغي أن تستخدم وحدها في تشخيص المرض المرتبط ب أنكا، في حين ا نكا بي هو أكثر إقناعا في التشخيص من انكا سي .


Article
Dry Blood Spots As Alternative To Conventional Serum Samples In Diagnosting Some Viral Infections
بقع الدم الجاف كبدیل لعینات المصل التقلیدیة في تشخیص بعض الاصابات الفایروسیة

Author: Abbas Arrak Abbas al-Tamimi عباس عراك عباس التمیمي
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 - part 2 Pages: 209-218
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of dried blood spot ( DBS) samples for diagnosting HBV infection in comparison with the conventional serum samples.Pair-matched blood samples obtained from six HBsAg positive and four HBsAg negative persons by two ways; venipuncture and fingerstick by lancet and collect blood drops on filter papers (Zelpa type). Blood spots left to dry for two hours on flat bench then placed in nylon bag with dessicant to reduce humidity and stored in the refrigerator for one week.Before examination, blood spots were removed from filter papers and placed in tubes containing phosphate-buffered saline plus tween 80 and left overnight. ELISA for HBsAg screening was applied on sera and blood spot samples. Statistical analysis was done using pearson correlation test to test the optical densities of samples.statistical analysis showed no significant differences between serum and DBS samples and there is a strong linear correlation between the two types of samples.Dried blood spots can be used as successful alternative for serum samples in diagnosing certain viral diseases.

الهدف: تم اجراء هذا البحث لغر ض اختبار صلاحية عينات بقع الدم الجافة في تشخيص الاصابة بفايرس التهاب الكبد نمط بي بالمقارنة مع عينات المصل التقليدية. المواد وطرق العمل: تم اخذ عينات دم مزدوجة لستة مرضى موجبين لفحص HBsAg وأربعة سالبين للفحص للمقارنة وبطريقتين (طريقة السحب من الوريد وطريقة وخز الابهام وجمع قطرات الدم على اوراق ترشيح من نوع Zelpa). تركت الاوراق لتجف على سطح مستوي لمدة ساعتين. بعد ذلك وضعت اوراق الترشيح في كيس نايلون مع مادة مانعة للرطوبة desiccant وخزنت في الثلاجة لمدة اسبوع. قبل الفحص تم رفع المناطق الحاوية على قطرات الدم الجاف ووضعها في انابيب تحوي دارئ الفوسفات الملحي مع منظف tween 80 لغرض الفحص في اليوم التالي.أجري فحص الاليزا على عينات المصل والدم الجاف للكشف عن المستضد السطحي للفايرس HBsAg.النتائج: اظهرت النتائج عدم وجود فروق معنوية بين عينات الدم الجاف وعينات المصل وكذلك وجود علاقة خطية قوية بين قيم عينات المصل وعينات الدم الجاف.الاستنتاج: يمكن استخدام عينات الدم الجاف كبدائل ناجحة لعينات المصل ان لم تكن ذات اولوية في تشخيص بعض الاصابات الفايروسية.


Article
The differences in sensitivity and specificity between three different kits for the detection Rotavirus
الفروقات في الحساسية والخصوصية بين ثلاث مجموعات كشف عن الفَيروسَات العَجَلِيَّة (الروتا)

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Rotavirus is the common key etiologic agents of attained diarrhea in infant, young children and neonatal calves globally. It is very important to early diagnose the disease in purpose of effective patient treatment. This study was conducted by using three different kits for detecting Rotavirus in calves in five Iraqi governorates (Al-qadissiya, Babel, Kerbala, Missan, Wassit). A total of 125 stool specimens were examined, they were collected from calves in the (period from November 2015 to February 2016). The ages ranged from 1 to 16 weeks. Stool samples were collected and examined using Chromatographic Immunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Polymerase-chain reaction. The results obtained by chromatographic immunoassay were 44% positive, ELISA 42% positive, and 38% Polymerase-chain reaction positive. Chromatographic immunoassay was easy, simple, economic, and rapid and showed high sensitivity with accepted specificity while ELISA permit quantitative estimation of Rotavirus antigens. These results indicate that ELISA is as sensitive and specific assay as the chromatographic immunoassay, and it could be applied on a large scale for screening stool specimens in suspected rotavirus diarrhea. Conventional Polymerase-chain reaction demonstrated more sensitivity and highest specificity.

الفَيروسَات العَجَلِيَّة (الروتا) هي إحدى العوامل الرئيسة الأكثر شيوعاً المسببة للإسهال في الرضع والأطفال الصغار والعجول حديثي الولادة على مستوى العالم. من المهم جداً تشخيص المرض مبكراً لغرض علاج المرضى المصابين بشكل فعّال. لقد أجريت هذه الدراسة باستعمال ثلاث طرائق مختلفة للكشف عن فيروس الروتا في خمسة محافظات عراقية (القادسية، بابل، كربلاء، ميسان، واسط). جُمع و فُحِصَ ما مجموعه 125 عينة من براز عجول تراوحت أعمارها ما بين 1 أسبوع إلى 16 أسبوع في المدة من تشرين الثاني 2015 إلى شباط 2016، باستعمال المُقايَسَةٌ المَناعِيَّة الكروماتوغرافيّة ومُقَايَسَةُ المُمْتَزِّ المَناعِيِّ المُرْتَبِطِ بالإِنْزِيْم )الألايزا) واختبار تَفاعُلٌ البلمرة التسِلْسِلِيّ. كانت النتائج التي حُصلَ عليها باستعمال المُقايَسَةٌ المَناعِيَّة الكروماتوغرافيّة44% ومُقَايَسَةُ المُمْتَزِّ المَناعِيِّ المُرْتَبِطِ بالإِنْزِيْم 42% وتَفاعُلٌ البلمرة التسِلْسِلِيّ 38%حيث كانت الأولى سهلة، بسيطة وسريعة وأظهرت حساسية عالية مع خصوصية مقبولة في حين سمحت مُقَايَسَةُ المُمْتَزِّ المَناعِيِّ المُرْتَبِطِ بالإِنْزِيْم بتقدير كمي لمستضدات الفيروس العجلي بينما أظهر اختبار تَفاعُلٌ البلمرة التسِلْسِلِيّ حساسية أكثر وخصوصية عالية جداً. وتشير هذه النتائج إلى أن الالايزا حساس ومحدد مثل المُقايَسَةٌ المَناعِيَّة الكروماتوغرافيّة، وأنه يمكن تطبيقهما على نطاق واسع لفحص عينات البراز في الحالات التي يشتبه اصابتها بالإسهال الناجم عن الفَيروسَةُ العَجَلِيَّة. وكانت الفحوصات الثلاثة موثوقة عموما للكشف عن فيروس الروتا، وبالتالي، يمكن تطبيقهما بنجاح للتشخيص الروتيني.

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