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Article
Evaluation of Medication Errors in Hospitalized Patients

Author: Hamoudi A. Mosah, Ph.D.; Ahmed S. Sahib, M.Sc., Ph.D.; Haedar A. AL-Biati , B.Sc.,MSc
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2012 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 75-79
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objectives: Many medication errors occur in the hospital, and these can endanger patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of medication errors in hospitalized patients, and to categorize the most frequent types of errors, and to asses the possible measures that may prevent the occurrence of such errors.Methods: A prospective, exploratory, and evaluative study, using direct observation method to detect medication errors in adult hospitalized patients in medical and surgical units in Baquba Teaching Hospital- Diyala-Iraq.. The files of 299 patients had been reviewed from July 2009 to September 2009, including medication orders and treatment sheets to detect existing errors. The detected errors were recorded and classified using special form designed according to standard classification of medication errors.Results: During the study period, a total of 299 patient's files were reviewed and identified. The incidence of medication errors was 8.7%. The most common types of errors; where incorrect medication which includes 38.46% for not indicated drugs and 19.23% for drug-drug interaction. The incorrect dose represents the second common type of medication errors which include 15.38% for over dose and 3.85% for under dose. The classification of medication errors in this study were 61.54% prescribing errors, followed by 19.23% for each of dispensing errors and administration errors. Conclusions: Medication errors occur for a variety of reasons, including inaccurate communications and deficits in knowledge and performance by and among all health care professionals. In this study we addressed and identified that prescribing errors are the most common type of medication errors followed by dispensing and admintration types, so, all health care professionals have a responsibility in identifying contributing factors to medication errors and to use obtained information to reduce further error occurrence. Keywords: medication errors, patient safety, system errors.


Article
An Analysis of Semantic Errors in Iraqi EFL Learners' Writings

Author: Leena Lafta Jassim
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2016 Volume: 11 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-23
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

This study aims at presenting a comprehensive taxonomy capable of accounting for Iraqi EFL students’ semantic errors. It examines the types of these errors produced by third-year Iraqi EFL students in English Dep. in Education college for Human Science at Thi-Qar University. The recent study aims to classify and quantify the types of semantic errors made by Iraqi EFL students .Also it attempts to indicate the possible causes of these errors. The first hypothesis of this study is the most Iraqi EFL students fall inthe errors of confusion of sense relations. The second hypothesis is that the minimal or incomplete knowledge of Iraqi EFL students for English diction is the main factor to fall in many types of semantic errors . The results of the analysis of ninety-four essays collected from Ninety-four students in class are analyzed and statistically indicated .The findings indicate that confusion of sense relations errors were more common than stylistic ones; 65.89% compared with 14.05%. The researcher also discusses the pedagogical implications for the teaching of vocabulary for foreign language learners.

تهدف هذه الدراسة الى تقديم نموذج شامل يمكن استخدامه في تحليل اخطاء المفردات اللغوية الانكليزية في كتابات الطلبة المرحلة الثالثة في قسم اللغة الانكليزية في كلية التربية بجامعة ذي قار. تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى تصنيف وتحليل أنواع الاخطاء الدلالية لطلاب اللغة الانكليزية كما انها تحاول ان تبين الأسباب لارتكاب تلك الأخطاء .الفرضية الاولى لدراسة هي ان معظم الطلاب العراقيين يرتكبون اخطاء الارتباك في العلاقات معنى . الفرضية الثانية هي ان المعرفة الضئيلة لقاموس اللغة الانكليزية هي السبب الرئيس لوقوع في الأخطاء الدلالية.إن نتائج التحليل لاربع وتسعون مقالة كتبت من قبل أربعين طالب تبين إن الخلط بين أخطاء ارتباك العلاقات معنى كانت الأكثر من الأخطاء الأسلوبية شيوعاً. في نهاية البحث ناقش الباحث الآثار التربوية لتدريس المفردات لمتعلمي اللغة الانكليزية


Article
2-MEDICAL ERRORS AND RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PHYSICIAN

Author: Thamer A Hamdan
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 3-9
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

LEADING ARTICLE The physician is an active member ofthe society. He interacts with it,influences and takes care of it. His dutyis not only to cure patients, but also totake the necessary procedures to reduceerrors and to lessen the harm resultingfrom these errors on the health of thepatient. Such faults and errors may seemtravail, but they are serious however tinythey are because they are related to thedivine and precious life of the humanbeing.

Keywords

MEDICAL --- ERRORS --- RESPONSIBILITY --- PHYSICIAN


Article
An Analytical Study of Errors committed by Iraqi EFL Learners in Using Contrastive Conjunctions

Author: Sabetha Hamza Dehham
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 16 Pages: 381-408
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

English has a set of words called conjunctions that enable us to gracefully transition from one part of a sentence to another part of the sentence. Some of the words in the set are inherently conjunctions and others are words that can function as conjunctions. - The mayor proposed a new regulatory ordinance, but the city council did not approve the measure. The conjunction in the sentence above 'but' means contrary. The conjunction facilitates the transition between independent clauses by conveying a sense that the meaning of the second clause is going to be different from the sense expressed in the first clause. - We will meet our humanitarian responsibilities during this financial crisis; however, some capital projects will be delayed. The word 'however' can function as an adverb or as a conjunction. 'however' means 'nevertheless' or 'yet'.


Article
RECORDING ERRORS IN CONVETION ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE IN DUHOK CITY . IRAQ
تقصي الاخطاء التسجيلية في مخطط كهربائية القلب التي تحصل اثناء الممارسه السريرية في مدينة دهوك

Authors: QAYSER S. HABEEB قيصر صاحب حبيب --- LARS A. PESCHKE لارس بسجم --- SUAD N. JAAFAR سعاد نوري جعفر
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2012 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 61-71
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background and objectives The 12-lead electrocardiogram is a useful tool to record and analyze the electrical activity of the heart. If correct recording procedure and high quality standards are not assured, registration mistakes may lead to potentially serious diagnostic errors. As far as we know, this subject has not been studied in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This study was conducted to investigate the electrocardiographic recording er-rors in clinicalpractice in Duhok City.Methods Data were collected from January 20 to May 31, 2011. A cross-sectional design was adopted to assess electrocardiogram records at Azadi Hospital, Zanest Family Medicine Center, and private clinics in Duhok City. All records were assessed for types of errors in accordance with predefined assessment criteria.Results The total number of recording errors was 6858, which constituted around one fifth (20.8%) of the maximum possible number of errors (33,000). Most major errors were seen at Azadi Hospital (3.3%), followed by private clinics and Zanest Center (2.4% and 1%,respectively). Minor non-technical errors in private clinics (17.2%) were almost double those of Azadi Hospital and Zanest Center. About one third (34.2%) of the total number of records contained at least one major error, 75% contained at least one minor technical error and almost all records (98%) contained at least one minor non-technical error.Conclusions Electrocardiographic recording errors are a problem in the three sectors of clinical practice in Duhok City, more so in the governmental institutions. Immediate and decisive measures should be put into action to prevent potentially serious sequelae.

خلفیة واهداف البحث: ان مخطط كهربائیة القلب ذي الوصلات الاثنى عشر جدیر بالاهتمام لفائدته وتعدد استعمالاته. ان موضوع تخطیط القلب الكهربائي یختص بتسجیل وتحلیل النشاط الكهربائي للقلب. ان طریقة التسجیل الصحیحة واعتماد معاییر النوعیة القیاسیة تمثل الاساس للاستغلال الامثل لعملیة تخطیط القلب كوسیلة تشخیص. اذا لم تؤخذ بعض الاخطاء التسجیلیة بنظر الاعتبار فان اخطاء تشخیصیة یمكن ان تحدث مع ما یلیها من تبعات غیر محمودة العواقب.هدف الد ا رسة هو تقصي الاخطاء التسجیلیة في مخطط كهربائیة القلب التي تحصل اثناء الممارسة السریریة في مدینة دهوك.طرق البحث: استغرقت عملیة جمع العینات الفترة من 20 / كانون الثاني الى 31 / مایس / 2011 . استخدم تصمیم الد ا رسة المقطعیة لتقصي ما مجموعه 2750 مخطط تم تسجیلهم في ثلاثة قواطع للممارسة السریریة هي: مستشفى ا ا زدي ومركز ا زنست لطب الاسرة والعیادات الخاصة في دهوك. اخضعت كل المخططات للفحص بهدف تحري وجود اي نوع من الاخطاء التسجیلیة وذلك وفقا لمعاییر ضابطة اعدت مسبقا لهذا الغرض.النتائج: بلغت كل انواع الاخطاء 6858 خطأ اي ما یعادل الخمس من اكبر عدد ممكن من الاخطاء. شكلت الاخطاء الكبرى في مستشفى ا ا زدي ( 3.32 %) تلیها ا لعیادات الخاصة ثم على التوالي ( 2.41 %) و ( 1.05 %) مركز ا زنست.كانت الاخطاء الصغرى مقاربة لبعضها في القواطع الثلاثة. الاخطاء الصغرى غیر التقنیة لدى العیادات الخاصة كانت مقاربة لضعف نظی ا رتها في مستشفى ا ا زدي ومركز ا زنست. كما ان ثلث العدد الكلي للمخططات كان حاویا على اخطاء كبرى بینما احتوى ثلاثة ارباعها على اخطاء صغرى تقنیة وتقریبا كلها احتوت على اخطاء صغرى غیر تقنیة.الاستنتاجات: شكلت اخطاء التسجیل مشكلة في مجالات الممارسة السریریة الثلاث في دهوك خصوصا في المؤسسات الحكومیة. الوضع الحالي یستدعي الشروع الفوري والنشیط في اتخاذ ما یلزم لتجنب العواقب السریریة المتوقعة.


Article
Errors Committed by EFL University Students in Using Confusing English Adverbs

Author: Hussein M. Kadhim Al-Nasrawi
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 14 Pages: 327-344
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb (Shaw,198:121). Being a teacher of English as a foreign language for a long time, the writer found a great deal of errors committed by the Iraqi university students of English when dealing with confusing adverbs.

Keywords

An adverb --- foreign language --- errors


Article
Dental students’ knowledge for prescribing antibiotics used for treatment of periodontitis
معرفة طلاب الأسنان لوصف المضادات الحيوية المستخدمة لعلاج التهاب اللثة

Author: Shima Ghazi Thanoon
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 570-576
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Although antibiotics along with analgesics are commonly prescribed medications by the dentists, little is known about the knowledge and understanding of dental practitioners concerning its use in every day clinical practice. Prescription errors are very common and this may be due to medical students are not adequately instructed. This study was done to investigate dental students’ knowledge of prescribing antibiotics to see if they are competent to prescribe rationally at the point of graduation. Methods: A questionnaire was devised to investigate the dental students’ knowledge for prescribing antibiotics. Students at their final year of graduation (2010) included in this study. A structured questionnaire was filled at the College of Dentistry/HMU. Results: Most of the antibiotics prescribed were at the correct doses and dosage form but there was variability in the frequency of dosing and duration of therapy. Four different antibiotics were prescribed in this study, these were amoxicillin (74.63%), metronidazole (5.97%), tetracycline (2.99%) and erythromycin (1.49%). Conclusion: A continuous education on the rationale use of antibiotics in dental infections is required and this would be better when integrated with its application in the clinical practice. Prescribing guidelines are required to improve the prescribing patterns of antibiotics by dental students so they will be competent to prescribe correctly and responsibly at the point of graduation.


Article
Effect of Optical Eccentricity of Human Eye on Vision Quality

Author: Suha Mousa Khorsheed Al-Awsi
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 55-64
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to give detailed explanations to the eccentricity related errors of human eye. An optical metrology is studied to determine the errors present in the eccentric eye with respect to emmtropic eye. To study optical metrology, the forms of errors that might be present need to be analyzed in the eye design. The possible eccentric errors were considered and produced on the adopted eye optical design. The most interesting optical functions were estimated and evaluated, the results showed a significant effect impacts the optical functions due to the eccentricity. The degradation of vision quality was interpreted according to the behavioral comparison between the estimated functions of the eccentric eye with respect to emmtropic eye. This study offers the chance for the researchers in the eye related topics to dissolve the vagueness concerning with the complexity of human eye design, and introduce a qualitative and quantitative analyses to consider the subject of human eye design and activities.

ان الغرض من هذا البحث هو إعطاء تفسيرات مفصلة للأخطاء المتعلقة بمركزية العين البشرية. تم دراسة المقاييس البصرية لتحديد الأخطاء الموجودة في العين اللامركزية نسبةًً الى العين السليمة (emmtropic). ولأجل ذلك، تم تحليل أنواع الأخطاء المحتمل وجودها في تصميم العين المعتمد وتحديدها. ثُم تم تقُديروتقييم الدوال الأكثر اهمية لوصف اداء العين، اظهرت النتائج ان هناك تأثير سلبي مُميز يصيب الدوال البصرية بسبب لامركزية العين. وان هناك تدهور في نوعية الرؤية فُسٍرً طبقاً لمقارنة التصرف بين الدوال المقدرة في العين اللامركزية نسبةً الى العين السليمة. هذه الدراسة توفر فرصة للباحثين في الموضوعات ذات الصلة بالعين لحل الغموض المتعلق بتعقيد تصميم العين البشرية، ويقدم تحليلات كمية ونوعية للنظر في موضوع تصميم العين البشرية وأنشطتها.


Article
Medical Errors “Admit, Convince, Compensate and Avoid”

Author: Thamir A. Hamdan
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-2
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

edical errors can be reduced to the minimum possibly by precautions, over- consciousness and guarding against the unexpected, particularly, anatomical malformation and congenital anomalies. Sadly, it is impossible to take medical errors out of the medical dictionary even in the best centers on this earth. The outcome of the medical errors depends on the magnitude of these errors. It ranges from no bad effect, minor damage to serious damage or even death.


Article
Factors Associated With spectacle-wear compliance among hypermetropic pre-school children in Al-diwaniya Governorate, Iraq

Author: Saif Abbas. Al-Shamarti سيف عباس الشمرتي
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 20 Pages: 170-175
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

Background: Uncorrected refractive error are community health problem among pre-school children. It's also considered as the most common cause of avoidable visual impairment in children worldwide. Objective: This study intended to measure the extent of compliance of hypermetropic preschool children with spectacle wear and the factors connected with non-compliance.Method: The study was carried out in my ophthalmology private clinic. One hundred and fourteen patients (114 patients) below 6 years old were enrolled this study. Each was interviewed by the author of correspondence. the possible factors associated with non-compliance with spectacle wear were identified.Results: The total number of patients enrolled in this study was 114 among them 36% were compliance with spectacle wear while 73% were non compliance. The results also revealed that children less than 2 years were 12 and 35 in compliant and non compliant respectively. For gender distribution, there were 15 male and 26 female in complaint children while there were 39 male and 34 female in those who non complaint. Urban children showed high compliant for spectacle wear than rural one.Conclusion: One of the risk factor for noncompliance with in the present study were region distribution and ignorance by family. More population based studies with larger sample should be conducted to assess the determinants of the spectacle use and the barriers to spectacle use should be addressed

الأخطاء الانكسارية غير المصححة هي مشكلة بين الأطفال قبل سن المدرسة. إهماله تعتبر أيضا من الأسبابالأكثر شيوعا لضعف البصر الذي يمكن تجنبه في الأطفال في جميع أنحاء العالم.الهدف: تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى قياس مدى التزام الأطفال ما قبل سن المدرسة والذين يعانون من بعد النظربارتداء النظارات الطبية والعوامل المرتبطة بعدم الامتثال.الطريقة: أجريت هذه الدراسة في عيادتي الخاصة لطب العيون . التحق بهذه الدراسة مائة وأربعة عشر مريضا111 مريضا( أقل من 6 سنوات. تمت مقابلة الكل من قبلي. وقد تم تحديد العوامل المحتملة المرتبطة بعدم (الامتثال لارتداء النظارات الطبية.النتائج: بلغ عدد المرضى المسجلين في هذه الدراسة 111 بينهم 66 ٪ من المرضى امتثلوا لارتداء النظاراتبينما كانت 36 ٪ نسبه عدم الامتثال. وكشفت النتائج أيضا أن 11 من الأطفال أقل من 1 سنة كانوا ملتزمين و63 لم يمتثلوا . لتوزيع الجنسين، كان هناك 13 من الذكور و 16 من الإناث امتثلوا في حين كان هناك 63 منالذكور و 61 لم يمتثلوا لارتداء النظارة . كما أظهر الأطفال في المناطق الحضرية درجه عالية من الالتزامبارتداء النظارة بالمقارنه مع الأطفال في المناطق ألريفيه.الخاتمة: واحدة من عوامل الخطر لعدم الامتثال في هذه الدراسة كان توزيع المنطقة والجهل من قبل الأسرة.وينبغي إجراء المزيد من الدراسات السكانية القائمة على عينة أكبر لتقييم محددات استخدام النظارة الطبيةوالحواجز التي تحول دون استخدام النظارات من قبل الاطفال قبل سن السادسه ومعالجتها.

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