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Article
The Soviet Expansion in Baltic Area (1939- 1941)
التوسع السوفيتي في منطقة البلطيق1939 - 1941

Author: Imad Hadi Abd Ali عماد هادي عبد علي
Journal: Adab Al-Kufa مجلة اداب الكوفة ISSN: 19948999 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 8 Pages: 205-265
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

AbstractAfter the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the Conclusion of world war as well as Local hostilities against both German and Soviet forces did Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Establish the missives as independent states.All three Countries then adopted democratic broad land Reform’s to modernize their Economies, but their governments were unstable au lborien regimes gained power in Lithuania 1926, Estonia 1934 and Latvia 1934. In 1940 the Baltic States Were incorporated in to the Soviet Union, and after World War II their agriculture was collectivized and intensive in detribalization was under taken

الملخص شهدت دول البلطيق على مدى تاريخها تنافساً استعماراً كبيراً بين الدول الكبرى المحيطة بها والذي اثر بشكل كبير عليها، وقد استغلت دول البلطيق فترة تحطم الإمبراطورية الروسية والألمانية في احداث الحرب العالمية الأولى لتمتع باستقلالها الذي ضمته عصبة الأمم ودول الحلفاء وقد حدث مع نهاية عام 1939 تغير في الأوضاع السياسية في القارة الأوربية سيما بعد عقد معاهدة عدم الاعتداء الألماني السوفيتي في 23 آب 1939. يعتبر ضم دول البلطيق للاتحاد السوفيتي مثلاً للسياسة التوسعية التي أنتهجها الاتحاد السوفيتي بغية الحصول على ارض جديدة عن طريق الضغط الدبلوماسي المصحوب بالتهديد باستخدام القوه المسلحة، ولهذا التوسع في منطقة البلطيق قصه طويلة بدأت مع نهاية الحرب العالمية الأولى، ففي ذلك العام 1918 أعترفت الحكومة السوفيتية بأستقلال دول البلطيق وعقدة معها معاهدات عام 1920، وتمتعت الدول البلطيقية باستقلالها حتى عام 1939، لاسيما بعد عقد ميثاق عدم الاعتداء السوفيتي - الألماني في 23أب 1939 سعى الاتحاد السوفيتي للتوسع في هذه الدول عن طريق مواثيق عدم الاعتداء مع هذه الدول الذي اتاح للاتحاد السوفيتي استخدام أراضي هذه الدول وإدخال قوات عسكريه فيها، وكان طبيعياً ان يتحول إلى احتلال عسكري مباشر


Article
INVESTMENT POSSIBILITY TO SOME PARTS OF DESERTICAL PLATEAU FOR HEET CITY EXPANSION

Author: Mashal Faysal ALMola مشعل فيصل غضيب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES المجلة العراقية لدراسات الصحراء ISSN: pISSN: 19947801 / eISSN: 26649454 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-32
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Multistudies appear which have Humanity constructional to many of world districts , may be that concentrate into area of river valleys with leaving big areas of Desert area , without construction .So become this worry formany of responsible sides in the search about new places for spatial expansive to urban growth. This study trieda search in master plan possibilities to Heet city areas , then toward out master plan during study appear that veryfew of area possibilities and do not agree with population grow and their desire . so study research in how maybe areas expansive for Heet city and justify the code to choice a best places , and election the good alternative forensure achieve of the hope wanted , there for research done range from city survey work , with desert area whichcity around he adopt many ways to reach to Important eddicts , As Delfy way , then distribute question air forms, number (33) on sample from experts and civil society addition to use ways (economic cost , swing weigh ,spatial , reaction , economic basic ) so study reached to alternative second is best toward kubaysa city of otheralternatives

Keywords

Investment --- Parts --- Desert --- Heet --- Expansion


Article
Measurement of water sorption of five different composite resin materials

Author: Waleed M. Khalil وليد خليل
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 37-41
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Water sorption may affect composite resin materials by reducing their mechanical properties and wear resistance .The aim of this study is to measure the water sorption of five different composite resin materials, for different time intervals.Materials and methods: A stainless steel mold of 4 mm width, 8 mm length and 4 mm depth was constructed to form composite blocks. Seven blocks were made of each test resin composite material. All specimens were placed in a silica-gel desiccator for 48 hours. The samples were then weighed thrice using calibrated electronic microbalance, the average reading was recorded to the nearest 0.0001g. The specimens were kept in individual containers in deionized distilled water at 37 ºC.All specimens were periodically weighed. The weight measurements were taken at 2, 8, 14, 28,42,56,70,100,150 and 240 days intervals.Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that all composite resin specimens continued to gain weight for a period of 28 days. After that period, the weight gain continued, although at a reduced rate. The changes after the 28 days period were small for the Herculite XRV, Tetric ceram and Tetric composite resins, and greater for the Filtek P60 and Composan LCM composite resins.Conclusion: In this study water absorption increased steadily for all materials. The percentage weight change showed a tendency to increase with the time of water storage. This study concludes that over a period of 8 months, the differences in water sorption capacity of the five composite resin materials are related to the differences in the amount of filler loading in the composite resin matrix. With one exception, the composite resin materials with the largest quantity of fillers had the least water sorption capacity after eight months of storage in water


Article
Water sorption of three types of composite resins

Authors: Dr. Samar Abdul Hamed Yasin. B.D.S, M.Sc د. سمر عبد الحميد --- Dr. Linz Ali Shalan. B.D.S, M.Sc.. د. لنز علي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 242-247
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Silorane low shrink composite resin material introduced with a non-methacrylateresin matrix to realize a fundamental improvement in cure shrinkage, clinical andphysical properties. The aim of this study is to measure the water sorption of threetype of composite material: Filtek P90, Filtek P60, IPS Empress composites afterimmersion in deionized distilled water as a function of time.Thirty disk shape plastic molds (4 mm diameter and 2mm thickness) wereconstructed to form composite blocks. Teen blocks were made from Filtek P 90(Silorane) GI, Filtek P 60 (packable) GII and IPS Empress (Nanohybrid) GIII. Allspecimens were placed in a silica-gel desiccator for 48 hours. The samples were thenweighed three times using calibrated electronic microbalance and the average readingwas recorded to the nearest 0. 0001g then specimens were kept in individualcontainers in deionized distilled water at 37 oC. All specimens were periodicallyweighed. The weight measurements were taken from the second day after incubationand continue as one measurement every week for 6 weeks. Data were subjected tostatistical analysis using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and least significantdifferences LSD test.Statistical analysis of the results showed that all the specimens continued to gainweight for a period of 4 weeks. After that period the weight gain continued, althoughat reduced rate. Filtek P90 (Silorane) GI has highly significant less water sorptionvalue ( p < 0.01) than the other groups after 6 weeks, while there was no significantdifferences ( p > 0.٠٥) between IPS Empress (Nanohybrid ) GIII and Filtek P60 (Packable ) GII in their water sorption value with higher value for GIII.Silorane which based on siloxane and oxirane resin matrix has less value after 6weeks followed by Packable composite while IPS Empress has higher value for watersorption. This study concluded that the differences in water sorption capacity of thethree composite resin materials are related to the differences in the type of resinmatrix, the amount of filler loading and filler particle size.


Article
A Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme BPES-Related Analytical Solution to Williams-Brinkmann Stagnation Point Flow Equation at a Blunt Body

Authors: F.W. Li --- D.H. Zhang
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Applied Physics Letters الرسائل العراقية في الفيزياء التطبيقية ISSN: 1999656X Year: 2009 Volume: 2 Issue: 4 Pages: 25-28
Publisher: iraqi society for alternative and renewable energy sources and techniques الجمعية العراقية لمصادر وتقنيات الطاقة البديلة والمستجدة

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Abstract

An analytic solution is proposed for the problem of Williams-Brinkmann axisymmetric steady flow in vicinity of a stagnation point at a blunt body. The boundary equations governing the Fow are embedded in the main equation system by the mean of the Boubaker Polynomials Expansion Scheme(BPES). The main differential equations are solved analytically and yield continue and differentiable C solutions which are compared to some published ones so far.


Article
EVALUATION OF TELLOL AL-KIEND CLAY IN MOSUL CITY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATES

Authors: Doaa M. Hammed --- Mayada S. Joodi --- Abdul Wahab AR. Al-Ajeel
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2013 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 151-160
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

In this research a representative sample from Tellol Al-Kiend clay deposit (Injana Formation), Naenava Governorate, Iraq, was evaluated for lightweight aggregates preparation. Two methods of heat treatment were carried out. Iso-thermal treatment conducted at (1180 – 1200) °C range, for aggregates made from clay only, using different socking time. Whiles, rapid (or flush) firing, were carried out at 1200 °C, for aggregates made from clay with different types and amounts of additives (dolomite, waste engine oil, and straw). The iso-thermal tests reveal that bloating can occurs at 1180 °C only for 45 minutes holding time. The aggregates obtained, have a specific gravity of about 1.38 and 0.8% water absorption. In rapid firing, it was found that, the bloating of the clay can be significantly improved by the addition of dolomite. The results obtained indicated that aggregates having 1.35 specific gravity with about 1% water absorption value could be produced from aggregates made of clay and 5 wt.% dolomite. The firing time has been about 5 minutes. Thereupon, it can be suggested that, Tellol Al-Kiend clay can be used for the production of lightweight aggregates by rapid firing. Concrete made from these lightweight aggregates shows a compressive strength (28 days) of about 173 kg/cm2, which can be designated as structural and insulating concrete.

جرى في هذا البحث تقييم نموذج ممثل لترسبات أطيان تلول الكند (تكوين إنجانة) في محافظة نينوى لإنتاج الركام الخفيف، وجربت طريقتان للمعالجة الحرارية. جرى في الطريقة ألأولى معالجة الركام المحضر من الطين فقط في درجات حرارة تتراوح مابين (1180 ـ 1200) °م وزمن استبقاء مختلف. أما الركام المحضر من الطين مع كميات وأنواع مختلفة من المواد المضافة (دولومايت، مخلفات زيت المحركات والقش) فقد تم معالجتها بالحرق السريع (أو المفاجئ) عند درجة حرارة 1200 °م مع زمن استبقاء 2 أو 3 دقائق. بينت نتائج حرق الركام المحضر من الأطيان فقط بأن الانتفاخ يمكن أن يحصل فقط عند حرارة 1180 °م وبزمن استبقاء 45 دقيقة، وإن الركام الناتج من هذه العملية أعطى كثافة نوعية بحدود 1.38 ونسبة امتصاص للماء 0.8%. ولكن وجد أنه باستخدام الحرق المفاجئ فإن انتفاخ ركام الطين يتحسن بشكل ملحوظ عند إضافة الدولومايت وبينت النتائج المستحصلة من هذه العملية إمكانية إنتاج ركام يمتلك كثافة نوعية بحدود 1.35 ونسبة امتصاص للماء 1% عند إضافة 5% وزناً من الدولومايت للطين وإن الزمن اللازم للحرق هو بحدود 5 دقائق. وعليه يمكن استخدام أطيان تلول الكند في إنتاج الركام الخفيف بإتباع الحرق السريع. كما بينت نتائج فحص الكونكريت المحضر من الركام الخفيف بأن مقاومة الانضغاط بعد 28 يوم بحدود 173 كغم/ سم2 والذي يمكن أن يستخدم في تحضير الخرسانة الإنشائية العازلة.


Article
The Substitutes of Cadastral Expansion in Alkhalidiya City
بدائل التوسع المساحي في مدينة الخالدية

Author: Mazin Abdurrahman Alhiti مازن عبد الرحمن الهيتي
Journal: Journal of Research Diyala humanity مجلة ديالى للبحوث الانسانية ISSN: 1998104x Year: 2016 Issue: 69 Pages: 447-466
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Alkhalidiya city is one of the cities of significance in Al-Ramadi district due to its location that is comprising of natural and human potentials and due to the quick urban expansion and the apparent increase of population. This formed a pressure on the basic constructional design of the city and accumulation of population met with a lack in lands suitable for expansion accompanied by circling the city with huge natural and human limitations which are preventing future expansion and the emergence of consequent problems. In consideration of the importance of the topic, the researcher regarded it the focal point of the study in order to shed light on its problems, setting alternative solutions as future geographic vision.

تعد مدينة الخالدية من المدن المهمة في قضاء الرمادي . لما تمتلكه من وفورات موقع وموضع تتمثل بإمكانات طبيعية وامكانات بشرية . ونظرا إلى ما تشهده المدينة من توسع عمراني سريع وزيادة ملحوظة في عدد السكان . الامر الذي شكّل ضغطا على التصميم الأساسيّ للمدينة وتكدس السكان يقابله قلة الاراضي المناسبة للتوسع واحاطة المدينة بمحددات طبيعية وبشرية كبيرة تحول دون التوسع المستقبلي وبروز المشاكل المترتبة عليها . ولأهمية الموضوع عده الباحث محور الدراسة لتسليط الضوء على مشكلاتها ووضع الحلول البديلة كرؤية جغرافية مستقبلية .


Article
SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT PASTE DUE TO COMBINED EFFECT OF MGO AND SO3 CONTENTS IN CEMENT
ثبات العجينة الاسمنتية نتيجة للتاثير المشترك لمحتوى MgO و SO3 في الاسمنت

Authors: Dr.Tumadhir M. Borhan --- Dr.Riyadh S. Al-Rawi
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2016 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 492-502
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the combined effect of MgO and SO3 content in cement on soundness of the cement paste throughout their effect on autoclave expansion tests. Cement paste, with different MgO and SO3 percentages in type I and V cements, were cast. The results showed that there is a considerable effect of MgO content on autoclave expansion tests and on the optimum gypsum content in cement. The increase in MgO content results in an increase in the autoclave expansion and a reduction in the optimum gypsum content. The autoclave test is not sensitive to the variation in SO3 content in cement at low MgO value. The sensitivity is increased with increase MgO content. Type V cement appears to be more sensitive to the increase in MgO and SO3 contents than Type I. The X- ray diffraction analysis was also conducted to examine the microstructure and phase distribution of cement paste after autoclave treatment.

في هذا البحث تم دراسة التاثير المشترك لمحتوى المركبين MgO و SO3 في الاسمنت على نتائج فحص الثبات للعجينة الاسمنتية بطريقة المحمم. تم عمل خلطات بنسب مختلفة من هذه الاوكسيدات وتم استخدام نوعين من الاسمنت هما الاسمنت البورتلاندي الاعتيادي والاسمنت المقاوم للكبريتات. اضهرت النتائج ان هناك تاثر هام لهذه الاوكسيدات على التمدد الطولي والنسبة المثلى للجبس في الاسمنت حيث اشارت النتائج الى ان زيادة محتوى MgO يؤدي الى زيادة التمدد الطولي للعجينة الاسمنية وانخفاض قيمة المحتوى الأمثل للجبس في الاسمنت. لوحظ أيضا من النتائج ان فحص التمدد بطريقة المحمم غير حساس للتغير في محتوى SO3 في الاسمنت عند النسب الواطئة من الاوكسيد MgO ويزداد التحسس بزيادة نسبة MgO. أن تاثير هذه الاوكسيدات كان اكثر وضوحا في الاسمنت المقاوم للكبريتات مقارنة بنتائج الاسمنت الاعتيادي. تم عمل فحص بالأشعة السينية لمعرفة هيكل العجينة الاسمنتية وتوزيع الاطوار في العجينة بعد فحص الثبات بطريقة المحمم.


Article
Computational Study of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Sudden Expansion Channel with Inclined Obstacles

Authors: Khudheyer S. Mushatet --- Qais A. Rishak --- Mohsen H. Fagr
Journal: University of Thi-Qar Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 26645564/26645572 Year: 2015 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-19
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The laminar flow through an obstacled sudden expansion channel is numerically investigated. Rectangular adiabatic inclined obstacles mounted behind the expansion region on the upper and lower wall of the channel were used. The effects of obstacles inclination angle, obstacles length, obstacles thickness and the number of obstacles on the flow and thermal fields for different Reynolds number and expansion ratio were examined. The angle of obstacles inclination was taken in the direction of streamwise flow and ranged from 30° to 90°. Three values of expansion ratio(ER=H/h) equal to 1.5, 1.75 and 2 were used. The choice of values of Reynolds number takes the consideration of symmetry state. The body fitted coordinates system is used to transfer the considered physical problem to computational domain in order to treat the complexity arising from applicable the boundary conditions near the inclined obstacles. The governing stream-vorticity equations expressed in generalized coordinates system were transformed to algebraic equations by using finite difference method. The solution of these equations was done by iteration method. The obtained results showed that there is a significant effect of obstacles angle on the hydrodynamic characteristics. The performed tests of the present results with related published results showed that there is an acceptable agreement.


Article
Charge Stratification and Fuel/Air Ratio Effect on theEfficiency of (ICADE) I. C. Engine Cycle
تأثير الشحنة المطبقة ونسبة الوقود / الهواء على كفاءة دورة محركالاحتراق الداخلي ( ICADE )

Author: Hayder Abed Dhahad حيدر عبد ضهد
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 68-77
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The Isolated Combustion and Diluted Expansion (ICADE) internal combustion engine cycle combines the advantages of constant volume combustion of the Otto cycle with the high compression ratio of the Diesel cycle. This work studies the effect of isolated air mass (charge stratification) on the efficiency of the cycle; the analysis shows that the decrease of isolated air mass will increase the efficiency of the cycle and the large dilution air mass will quench all NOx forming reactions and reduce unburned hydrocarbons. Furthermore, the effect of Fuel / Air ratio on the efficiency shows that the increase of Fuel / Air ratio will increase efficiency of the cycle.

دورة محرك الاحتراق الداخلي ذات الاحتراق المعزول والتمدد المخفف ( ICADE) تجمع بين مميزات الاحتراق بثبوت الحجم في دورة اوتو مع نسبة الانضغاط العالية في دورة ديزل ، يدرس هذا البحث تأثير كتلة الهواء المعزول ( الشحنة المطبقة ) على كفاءة الدورة وقد تبين من خلال التحليل بان تقليل كتلة الهواء المعزول يودي إلى زيادة كفاءة الدورة ، كما ان زيادة كمية الهواء المخفف سيؤدي إلى تخميد تكون اكاسيد الناتروجين NOX وكذلك الهايدرو كاربونات الغير محترقة ، كما تم دارسة تأثير نسبة الوقود / الهواء على كفاءة الدورة حيث تبين بان زيادة نسبة الوقود م الهواء سيؤدي إلى زيادة كفاءة الدورة.

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