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Article
Histopathological Study of 5−Fluorouracil with and without Folic Acid administration on The Gastric Mucosa of Male Rabbits

Author: Alhan Daham Hadi Al –Moula
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 44-57
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Aims : To study the effects of 5−Fluorouracil (5−FU) on the gastric mucosa of rabbits and to evaluate the effect of folic acid (FA) on these effectiveness. Materials and methods : In the present study 9 adult male rabbits aged 3 months were used , and divided into 3 main groups. GroupI :served as a control group and received normal saline only. Group II: given a twice dose of 10mg /kg per week 5−FU intraperitonealy for 8 weeks . Group III: given a twice dose of 10mg / kg per week 5−FU intraperitonealy with 5mg of folic acid orally by cavage needle for 8 weeks . The animals were sacrificed and the body and pyloric tissues of stomach were excised and processed for histological study. Results :5−FU causes loss of tissues architecture in both body and pyloric regions of gastric mucosa with vacuolation in the cytoplasm of the cells lining epithelium and the cells lining the gastric pits, loss of gastric and pyloric glands architecture, vacuolation in the cytoplasm of the parietal and chief cells and the cells lining pyloric glands. Breached of muscularis mucosa, congestion of blood vessels in the lamina propria, vacuolation and dilated spaces in muscular layers. All these changes were significantly compare to control group except that for group III (5−FUplus FA)which showed few histopathological differences in whole thickness of gastric mucosa compare to control group. Conclusions :Weekly intraperitoneal administrations of 5−FU produce injury in the tissues of gastric mucosa. While combination 5−FU and folic acid (FA )regimen protect from enterotoxic action of 5−FU alone.


Article
VITAMINS PROVOKE THE RELEASE OF NITRIC OXIDE BY SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE: IN VITRO STUDY

Author: Eham A. Ali
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 40-44
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

It is plausible to assume that vitamins act as nitric oxide scavengers or donors like cobalaminederivatives. Therefore, this study aimed to screen the effect of folic acid, hydroxycobalamine andphytomenadione on nitrogen species. The effects of hydroxyl cobalamine, folic acid andphytomenadione were studied on the synthesized peroxynitrite as well as on their ability to generateperoxynitrite. It is ability to donate nitric oxide or to scavenge released nitric oxide by sodiumnitroprusside (10mM) also investigated in vitro experimental model. Synthetic peroxynitrite wasscavenged by folic acid, hydroxycobalamine and phytomenadione. Their effects varied with theirconcentrations. These vitamins per se failed to release nitric oxide while they improved thebioavailability of nitric oxide released by 10 mM sodium nitroprusside. The beneficial effects offolic acid and to less extent hydroxycobalamine and phytomenadione in improving the nitric oxidebioavailability raise the idea of using these substances as adjunct therapy in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction.

من المقبول افتراضا ان الفيتامينات تعمل على وهب اوكسح اوكسيد النتريك كما هو عليه في مشتقات كوبالامين ،لذا هدفت الدراسة الى التحري عن تأثير حمض فوليك ،هيدروكسي كوبالامين، و فايتومينادايون في الانواعالنتروجينية. تم دراسة تأثير كل من حمض فوليك ،هيدروكسي كوبالامين، و فايتومينادايون على بيروكسيناترايت المصنع وكذلك في قابليتهم على توليد بيروكسيناترايت. كما ودرست قابليتهم على وهب اوكسيد النتريك اوكسح اوكسيد النتريك المحرر بفعل نتروبروسايد صوديوم10 ملي مول) في أنموذج مختبراظهرت فيتامينات حمض فوليك ، هيدروكسيكوبالامين، و فايتومينادايون فعل كسح بيروكسي ناترايتالمصنع وأختلفت التاثيرات باختلاف التراكيز المستعملة.هذه الفيتامينات بذاتها لا تحرراوكسيد النتريك ولكنها تزيدمن التوافر الحيوي لاوكسيد النتريك المحرر بفعلنتروبروسايد صوديوم ( 10 ملي مول).يستنتج من ذلك ان التأثيرات النافعة لحمض فوليكوبدرجة اقل مع هيدروكسي كوبالامين و فايتومينادايون فيتحسين التوافر الحيوي لاوكسيد النتريك تطرح فكرةاستعمالها كعلاج مساعد في الامراض االمتعلقة بسوءوظيفة بطانة الاوعية الدموية.ي. )


Article
The Effect Of Folic Acid On The Newborn Of Pregnant Women At Al-Najaf Government
تأثير حامض الفوليك على المواليد للنساء الحوامل في محافظة النجف الأشرف

Authors: Abdulhadi Sallal Mohammed --- Shukriyia Shedhan Chyad --- Ruqayah Ali Salman
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2014 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 145-150
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: Across section analytic study was carried out to identify the effect of folic acid on birth of pregnant women at Al-Najaf government and to determine the statistical significant differences between folic acid and some variables.Methodology: A purposive sample of (1054) of pregnant women was selected from Al-Zahra maturity pediatric hospital, data was collected through the interview of women. Question forma was designed and contained (3) parts demographic variables, reproductive variables and variables related to effect of folic acid.Results: Descriptive and in fevential statistical procedures were used to analyze the data. The result of the study revealed that the age of women was ranged between (21-25) years and the highest percentage of them house wife (640).The result indicate that a significant association between takes folic acid and congenital anomalies. The present study was revealed that the percent of normal deliveries (38.9%), while in cesarean sections (58.8%). In normal deliveries the percent of congenital anomalies was (1.2%), and the percent of congenital anomalies in cesarean sections was (0.9%).Conclusion: The study concluded that there was a significant difference between taking folic acid and congenital anomalies Recommendation: According to these finding it is recommended to emphasize on prenatal care early as possible and education improve health services presented to the mother during pregnancy that the health team must take the role in reducing the incidence of congenital anomalies by taking folic acid.

الهدف: تم اجراء دراسة تحليلية مقطعية لغرض التعرف على تاثير حامض الفوليك على مواليد النساء الحوامل في محافظة النجف الاشرف وإيجاد الفروق المعنوية ذات الدلالة الإحصائية بين العوامل المرتبطة بالموضوع مع حامض الفوليك. المنهجية:اختيرت عينة غرضية متكونة من ( 1054) امراة حامل اللائي يتعاطين حامض الفوليك بجرعة( 5mg) طيلة مدة الحمل من المراجعات لمستشفى الزهراء للنسائية والاطفال في محافظة النجف الاشرف، جمعت المعلومات بطريقة المقابلة الشخصية مع الأمهات.صممت الاستمارة الاستبيانية والتي تكونت من (3) اجزاء شملت المعلومات الديمغرافية للعينة، المعلومات الإنجابية للعينة، معلومات متعلقة بحامض الفوليك والتشوهات الخلقية، وتم استخدام الاحصاء الوصفي والاستنتاجي لتحليل البيانات.النتائج: تشير نتائج الدراسة ان النسبة المئوية للولادات الطبيعية(38.9%) ، بينما كانت النسبة (58.8%) للولادات القيصرية. في الولادة الطبيعية كانت النسبة المئوية للولادات المشوهة (1.2%)، بينما كانت النسبة المئوية (0.9%) للولادات المشوهة في الولادة القيصرية واللاتي يتعاطين حامض الفوليك.تشير نتائج الراسة ان معظم النساء هن من الفئة العمرية (25-21) سنة ومعظمهن (640) امراة ربات بيوت، كذلك وجود فروقات معنوية بين تناول الفوليك اسد والتشوهات الخلقية.الاستنتاجات: أستنتجت الدراسة ان هناك دلالة احصائية ذات مستوى معنوي بين تناول الفوليك اسد والتشوهات الخلقية. التوصيات:وطبقا للنتائج اوصت الدراسة بالتاكيد على العناية المبكرة خلال فترة الحمل والتثقيف الصحي وتحسين نوعية الخدمات المقدمة للامهات خلال فترة الحمل على ان يأخذ الفريق الصحي دوره في هذا المجال لتقليل نسبة التشوهات الخلقية للأجنة وذلك بتناول حامض الفوليك اسد.


Article
New Approach for the On-Line Spectrophotometric Determination of Folic Acid in Pure and Pharmaceutical Preparation via Oxidation by Cerium(IV) Sulphate Using Ayah 3Sx3-3D-Solar Cell CFI Spectrophotometer Analyzer
نمط جديد للتقدير الاني الطيفي لحامض الفوليك في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية من خلال الاكسدة بكبريتات السيريوم (IV) بأستخدام المحلل الطيفي للحقن الجوياني المستمر Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar cell

Author: Aktham N. Jasim اكثم نصيف جاسم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 3B Pages: 1153-1163
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A newly photometric analytical method characterized by its speed and sensitivity was developed for the determination of folic acid in pure and pharmaceutical samples via its oxidation to reddish-orange coloured complex through oxidation by cerium (IV) sulphate in aqua medium using homemade Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar cell CFI photometer. The colored species were determined using supper bright green light emitting diode (LED) as a source. A 100µl was taken as a best sample volume for the determination of folic acid. The linearity of calibration curve for the instrument response versus folic acid concentration was 0.005-20 mmol.L-1 while the L.O.D. was 0.5  mol.L-1 from the stepwise dilution for the minimum concentration of lowest concentration in the linear dynamic range of the calibration graph. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994 while the percentage linearity (r2%) was 99.88%. The method was applied successfully for the determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparation. RSD% for 8 mmo.L-1 (n=6) less than 1% . Using paired t-test it was shown that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and official method (Quoted value- 5mg) and on that basis the new method can be accepted as an alternative analytical method.

طورت طريقة تحليلية طيفية سريعة وحساسة لتقدير حامض الفوليك في المستحضرات الصيدلانية والنقية من خلال الاكسدة إلى معقد ملون برتقالي -محمر بوساطة اكسدته بكبريتات السيريوم (IV) في الوسط المائي بأستخدام منظومة الحقن الجرياني المستمر والمصممة محليا Ayah 3Sx3-3D-solar cell .قدرت القطع الملونة باستخدام ثنائي وصلة باعث للضوء الاخضر الساطع كمصدر تم اخذ 100 مايكروليتر كأفضل حجم لانموذج محقن لتقدير حامض الفوليك. الخطية لمنحني المعايرة للاستجابة الالية ضد تركيز حامض الفوليك 0.005-20 مللي مول.لتر-1 بينما حد الكشف 0.5 مايكرومول.لتر-1 من التخفيف التدريجي لاقل تركيز في منحني المعايرة . معامل الارتباط (r) 0.9994 بينما نسبة الخطية (r2%) 99.88% . طبقت الطريقة بنجاح لتقدير حامض الفوليك في المستحضرات الصيدلانية . الانحراف القياسي النسبي المئوي لتركيز 8 مللي مول. لتر-1 (n=6) اقل من 1% . بأستخدام اختبار t- المزدوج تبين انه لايوجد فرق جوهري بين الطريقة المقترحة والطريقة الرسمية (القيمة الموثقة -5 ملغم) وعلى هذا الاساس بالامكان قبول استخدام الطريقة المستحدثة كطريقة تحليلية بديلة.


Article
A Study Of Corrosion Inhibition Of Low Carbon Steel In Washing Water Of Crude Oil Solution In The Presence Of Folic Acid
دراسة تثبيط التآكل للحديد الصلب واطئ الكاربون في ماء الغسل للنفط الخام بوجود حامض الفوليك

Authors: Khaleel E.Ahmed خليل إبراهيم احمد --- Najah K.Nemer نجاح كاظم نمر --- Naema A. Hikmat نعيمة احمد حكمت --- Ahlam M.Farhan أحلام محمد فرحان
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 1171-1179
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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The corrosion behavior of low carbon steel in washing water of crude oil solution has been studied potentiostatically at five temperatures in the range (30–70)°C .The corrosion potential shifted to more negative values with increasing temperature and the corrosion current density increased with increasing temperature. Folic acid had on inhibiting effect on the corrosion of low carbon steel in washing water at a concentration (5× 10-4-- 5× 10-3 ) mol/dm3 over the temperature range (30–70)°C. Values of the protection efficiency were calculated from the corrosion current density .From the general results for this study, it can be seen that thermodynamic and kinetic function were also calculated (ΔG, ΔS, ΔH and Ea ) to comparison these values in presence and absence of inhibitor (folic acid ).

تم في هذا البحث دراسة سلوك التآكل لسبيكة الفولاذ واطئ الكاربون بمحلول ماء الغسيل للنفط الخام وتمت الدراسة باستخدام قياس الجهد الساكن و عند خمس درجات حرارية و ضمن المدى (30 – 70 ) م . تبين من خلال هذه الدراسة ان جهد التآكل قد انحرف الى قيم اكثرسالبيه مع زيادة درجة الحرارة كذلك ان كثافة تيار التآكل تزداد مع زيادة درجات الحرارة . استخدم حامض الفوليك كمادة مثبطة للتآكل لسبيكة الفولاذ واطئ الكاربون في محلول ماء الغسل وعند مدى من الدرجات الحرارية (30 – 70 ) م ومدى من التراكيز تراوحت بين ( 10-3 ×5 _10-4×( 5 مول/ دسم3 تم حساب قيم كفاية الحماية من خلال نتائج كثافة تيار التآكل.و لغرض مقارنة قيم الدوال بوجود وغياب المثبط المستخدم, فقد تم((ΔG, ΔS, ΔH and Ea الثرموداينميكية و الحركية حسابها من النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها في هذه الدراسة.


Article
ADSORPTION OF FOLIC ACID ON IRAQI BENTONITE AND KAOLIN FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION

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Background:Using specific antidotes for the treatment of acute poisoning that is due to drug overdose by drugs adsorption is of significant importance in physical pharmacy for the preparation of physical antidotes.Objective:The adsorption of folic acid from aqueous solution was investigated on two adsorbents (bentonite and Iraqi kaolin).Methods:The present study involves studying adsorption of folic acid on Iraqi clays (bentonite and kaolin) from aqueous solution. Adsorption isotherm of folic acid on both surfaces used obeyed Freundlich isotherm. UV- Spectrophotometric technique was used to obtain the quantities of adsorption data at different conditions of temperature.Results:The quantities adsorbed of the folic acid for bentonite and kaolin was increased at 37oC. Adsorption characteristics were described using Freundlich isotherm. The value of ΔGᵒ showed the spontaneous nature of the folic acid adsorption on both adsorbents.Conclusion:This result indicated the surface heterogeneity leading to different adsorption forces from site to site and different affinities toward drug molecules.Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated at different temperatures. The adsorption of folic acid increases with increase in temperature and positive value of ΔHᵒ indicates endothermic nature of the adsorption process. Negative values of free energy at all studied temperatures indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and favorable for folic acid. Positive value of entropy suggests increased randomness at the solid/solution interface.Keyword:Adsorption, folic acid, bentonite, kaolin, thermodynamic parameters.


Article
Study of Awareness and Practice of Folic Acid Intake among Iraqi Women

Author: Badeaa T. Yahyaa
Journal: Al- Anbar Medical Journal مجلة الأنبار الطبية ISSN: PISSN: 27066207 / EISSN: 26643154 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Background: Folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy reduces the risks of neuraltube defects. WHO recommended that folic acid supplement of 400 µg should be taken daily by allwomen, from the moment they begin trying to conceive until 12 weeks of gestation.Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of women at childbearing ageregarding folic acid intake.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at the secondAl-Adhamyia primary heath care center/ Baghdad from the 1st of January to end of February2017. One hundred seventy married women at age 15−49 years were enrolled in the study. Theywere selected by non-probability convenient sampling technique. Data was analyzed using SPSSversion 22.Results: Mean age of the study sample was 30.3 ± 8 years. The illiterate and the highly educatedwere 7 (4.1%) and 70 (41.1%) respectively. Their awareness regarding the folic acid need was79%. About 61.2% knew its importance in pregnancy, while only 47.1% knew its benefit in prepregnancy. The practice of folic acid in previous pregnancy was 76.5%, mainly started during thefirst month. More than half (57.7%) used it daily. Results also show that there is a significantassociation between knowledge (heard of folic acid and awareness of its importance) of women andage, education and parity.Conclusion: Knowledge regarding folic acid and its importance among women was fairly good.The practice was also satisfactory. However, more strategies are needed to increase the awarenessabout the preconception use of folic acid in our community.

Keywords

KAP --- Folic acid --- Child bearing age


Article
The Role of Some B Vitamins in Methionine-Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia in Male Rabbits

Authors: Ali A. Al-Beer --- Haydar H. Al-Shalah --- Abdul-Razzak Abdul-Latif
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2013 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 1539-1545
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

ackground: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with an increased risk ofatherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folicacid are essential components in the metabolism of homocysteine.Objective: This study aimed to assess the effects of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, folic acid, andthe combination of them in the prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia.Methods: Thirty six male local rabbits were used in the study. Methionine was given torabbits to induce a model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Rabbits were divided randomly into 6groups (6 rabbits in each group) as the following: control group: they were maintained onstandard chow only; methionine only group: they were maintained on methionine only; B6group: they were maintained on methionine and vitamin B6; B12 group: they weremaintained on methionine and vitamin B12; folic acid group: they were maintained onmethionine and folic acid; multivitamins group: they were maintained on methionine,vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid.Results: Multivitamins group showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in homo-cysteinelevels at day 30 in comparison with day 0 and there are no significant differences (P>0.05) inhomocysteine levels at day 30 between multivitamins group and control group. At day 30 andday 60, serum homocysteine levels in multivitamins group were significantly (P<0.05) lowerthan serum homocysteine levels in folic acid group.Conclusion: Multivitamin combination composed of vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acidreduces the hyperhomocysteinemic effect of methionine and it is better than folic acid alone,while folic acid is better than vitamin B6 or vitamin B12 when they used alone.


Article
Types ,Frequency,Clinical Presentation of Congenital Central Nervous System Anomalies in Al- Kadmayhia Teaching Hospital

Author: Lamyaa Abdul Kareem Hamoodi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 524-531
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The central nervous system (CNS)anomalies are the most severe, difficult to detect its etiology, and predict its clinical presentation and course. OBJECTIVE:To find out the common types of congenital malformations in central nervous system.,determine the frequency and the clinical features of these malformations.And to study the risk factors associated with congenital central nervous system malformations.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This cross-sectional study was performed at Al-Kadhimiyia Teaching Hospital (Neonatal care unit) from the 1st of January to the 1st of July, 2011.One hundred newborn infants were proved to have congenital abnormalities by physical examination alone. Fifty five neonates were diagnosed as having CNS congenital anomalies.neonatal evaluation include: gestational age, sex, body weight, type of CNS congenital anomaly.Maternal age, parity, antenatal care, any history of abortion, previous baby with CNS congenital abnormality, still births, or drug intake during pregnancy.the residency of the family and consanguinity .RESULTS:The number of neonates delivered alive was 2700 neonates, one hundred of them (3.7% of total deliveries) were delivered with congenital anomalies, and 55 cases from those (2% from total deliveries / 55% from congenitally abnormal deliveries) have had CNS congenital anomalies,the most frequent anomalies aremeningocele 25( 45.5%),the second and third in frequency were hydrocephaly 12 (21.8%), and myelomeningocele 10 (18.2%) respectively.There were 34(61.8%) male and 21 (38.2%) female. There were 30(54.5%) full term and 25(45.5%) preterm.Thirty cases out of the total 55 cases (54.5%) with body weight 3-3.5 kg.Most of the affected neonates to mothers with an age range of 20-40 years where 34 mothers (61.8%) aged between 20-30 years .Most of the mothers were multipara (45 cases / 81.8%) .The majority of the neonates were the product of a consanguineous marriage 39 (70.9%).Maternal peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation was not taken in the vast majority of cases (43 cases / 78.2%).Positive family history of CNS congenital anomalies was reported in 4 cases only (7.3%) .Familial residence was documented as urban in 30 cases (54.5%), and rural in 25 cases (45.5%).CONCLUSION:The most common type of CNS anomalies is meningocele with relatively higher male to female ratio.These anomalies occur in full term multipara mothers. Occur more frequent in infants with larger body weight and to younger multipara mothers. Consanguinity is a major risk. There was a low utilization of maternal peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation


Article
Knowledge, attitude & practice of pregnant women about the role of periconceptional use of folic acid in three primary health care centers in Baghdad / AL-Russafa

Author: *Walaa N. Lateef- MBChB, C.A.B .FM and **Ban A. Al-Hashimi- FICMS/FM (Consultant Family physician)
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2016 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 103-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Folic acid (vitamin B9) is one of the important vitamins that are necessary for growth and development of the embryo and preventing the occurrence of congenital malformations which are one of the important health problems in the developing countries and the world as it has a direct effect on the affected babies, their families and the community. It affects an estimated 3% of newborns worldwide.Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (before conception and during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy) was found to decrease many important types of these anomalies. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of periconceptional use of folic acid in pregnant women who are attending antenatal care unit in three Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad / AL-Russafa side. Type of the study: Descriptive cross-sectional study Patients and Methods: The study used a convenient sample technique for pregnant women who are attending antenatal care unit in three primary health care centers in Baghdad/ALـRussafa at the period from January to April 2014. The sample size was 200. Non-pregnant women were excluded. Results: a large proportion (86%) of pregnant women who had been interviewed knew about folic acid. 61% of them gained the information about it from doctors and 44.5% know its importance in protection from congenital anomalies. Although there was a good practice regarding folic acid supplementation during the current pregnancy; only 10% of them had used it in the proper time (at least one month before pregnancy to the end of the first trimester). It has been found that the largest rate of its use was in the second month (28%), Still 22% of them realize that it must be taken before pregnancy. Conclusion: From 200 pregnant women interviewed in the current study, the majority knew about folic acid but nearly only half of them states its importance in protection from congenital anomalies. Most of the women usedfolic acid in the current pregnancy on a daily bases and take it as pure folic acid. Although some of the pregnant women were aware about the proper time of taking folic acid, only few took it before pregnancy. Doctors were the main source of information.

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