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Article
The Effect of Exposure to Formaldehyde Vapor on the Structure of Testes in the Rabbits

Author: Abduljabar Y. Al-Hubaity
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 230-233
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: This study has been performed to detect any structural changes in the testes of rabbits that have been exposed to formaldehyde vapor.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen male rabbits has been used in this study, 12 of them were exposed to formalin vapor for 2 month, while the other 6 were exposed to the vapor of distilled water for 2 month too. All animals were killed at the end of experiments, and then pieces of testes were prepared for light microscopic examination. Sections were collected from the paraffin wax blocks and stained by H & E and finally examined by Olympus light microscope.
Results: Most of the seminiferous tubules from the formaldehyde exposed group were atrophied with no evidence of spermatogonia and lined only by Sertoli cells, in addition some sections showed multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: This is the first study to report that formaldehyde induces damage to spermatogenesis without a reduction in the number of Sertoli cells and Spermatogenic damage can be seen in most of the formaldehyde exposed rabbits.


Article
The Effect of Formaldehyde on the Histological Structure of Pancreas in Rabbits
تاثير الفورمالبن على التركيب النسيجي للبنكرياس في الارانب

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Abstract

Formaldehyde is an important chemical agent which is widely used in medical fields and industries; but it has been associated with excess risk of cancers.The present experimental study was designed to know the effect of formaldehyde effect on the pancreas. Therefore 24 male rabbits were randomly subdivided into 3 groups (I,II,III) and exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm) for the following periods: 2, 4 and 6 months respectively; beside 8 rabbits were exposed to vapour of distilled water as a control group. The physical observations of the exposed rabbits showed general signs of loose of appetite and aggressive behaviour. Light and electron microscopical observation of the exposed groups revealed no changes in the sections which had been examined and they have the same structures of those sections which obtained from the control group. From these findings, it can be concluded that formaldehyde has no effect on the pancreas. Key words: formaldehyde; Pancreas; rabbits.

يعتبر الفورمالين من المواد الكيميائية المهمه التي تسنعمل بصورة واسعه في المجال الطبي و الصناعي ولكنه يعتبر ماده مسرطنه. الدراسه الحاليه اجريت لمعرفة تاثير الفورمالين على البنكرياس. لذالك تم تقسيم 24 ارنب ذكر الى ثلاثة مجاميع وتم تعريضهم الى بخار الفورملين 10% (12 جزء لكل مليون) وللفترات التاليه: 6,4,2 أشهر وبالتعاقب, بالاضافه الى 8 ارانب عرضوا الى بخار الماء المقطر على اساس مجموعة السيطره. المشاهدات أظهرت قلة تناول الارانب للطعام مع تصرفات انفعاليه. الدراسه المجهرية بواسطة المجهر الضوئي و الالكتروني اوضحت عدم وجود اي تغير مرضي لكل المجاميع التي عرضت لبخار الفورمالبن وهي مشابه في تركيبها لمجموعة السيطره.من هذه النتيجه يمكن الاستنتاج بأن الفورمالين ليس له أي تأثير على البنكرياس, وان بحوث تجريبيه مستقبليه أخرى يمكن اجرائها للتأكد من العلاقه بينهما.

Keywords

formaldehyde --- Pancreas --- rabbits.


Article
HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN RAT ORGANS UPON CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO FORMALDEHYDE VAPOR

Author: Ahmed Hamdi Mehdi, Azad Kareem Saeed, Snur Muhammad Amin Hassan , Nabil Abdul-Massih Salmo ,Nali Abdulqadr Maaruf
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 127-140
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to detect histopathologic lesions in different rat organs after chronic exposure to formaldehyde vapor. Forty adult albino Wistar rats were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into two groups; Control group (n=10; 5 males and 5 females) which were not exposed to formaldehyde at all, while the remainders regarded as the experimental group (exposed to formaldehyde for 21 days, n=30; 15 males and 15 females). The histopathologic examination in our study revealed several changes in exposed group such as; chronic tracheitis, squamous metaplasia of lining epithelium and tracheal glands with occurrence dysplasia in the lining epithelium, interstitial pneumonia, hydropic degeneration in the hepatocytes, epidermal hyperplasia, interstitial glomerulonephritis with atrophy of glomeruli. We concluded that the overexposure of formaldehyde produced lesions in different organs but their toxic effects were seen predominantly in respiratory system.


Article
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF TREATED ROUGHAGE AND UN-DEGRADED CONCENTRATE ON RUMEN PARAMETERS OF ARABI EWES

Author: Jalal Okaily Yeasar , Murtda F.Al-Hello , Jaffer M. Jassim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 219-227
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study was conducted at the Animal Farm/ College of Agriculture/University of Basrah during the period from 2/12/2012 to 2/3/2013. The studyincluded 24 milking ewes aged around 2-4 years, having single lamb, closely lambingdate and weighted 42 kg. After giving the ewes preliminary period of 10 days, theywere distributed randomly and equally to six feeding groups. The first group was fed60% concentrate and 40% roughages; soya bean meal was treated by formaldehyde.The second group was fed 60% concentrate and 40% roughages with untreated soyabean meal. The third group was fed 50% concentrate and 50% roughages with treatedsoya bean meal. The fourth group was fed 50% concentrate and 50% roughages withuntreated soya bean meal. The fifth group was fed 40% concentrate and 60%roughages with treated soya bean meal. The sixth group was fed 40% concentrate and60% roughages with untreated soya bean meal (control). The ration was given as 4%of live body weight. The concentrate consisted of 40% barley, 20% corn, 30% wheatbran, 7% soya bean meal, 1% salt and 2% Calcium bicarbonate. Roughage was wheatstraw treated with 4% urea and 3kg/ton yeast. Treated soya bean meal reduceddegradable protein from 70% to 60%. There were no significant differences amongfeeding groups in pH, total bacteria and cellolytic bacteria before feeding. However,the differences reached significant level (P<0.05) after 3 hours of feeding. The thirdgroup recorded highest pH value (6.82) and cellolytic bacteria (8.7x 106). The fifthand sixth groups showed highe significant improvement in total number of bacteriawhen compared with other groups (11.37x107 and 11.86x107).Propionic acid leveland the percentage of acetic: propionic were significantly (P<0.05) influenced bydifferent treatments, comperation with fivth and sixth treatment.

Keywords

Soya bean --- formaldehyde --- Ewe.


Article
Effects of Toluene and Formaldehyde on Oogenesis in Adult Female Mice

Authors: Layla A Kareem --- Hiwa B. Banna --- Kameel M. Naoom
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-40
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of toluene and formaldehyde inhalation on the ovaries of adult female mice at room temperature. Material & Methods: Mice were divided into three groups: control group, toluene exposed and formaldehyde exposed groups. The female mice were exposed to (3 ml = 300 ppm toluene) and (2.5 ml=300 ppm formaldehyde) 3 hours daily for 21 days. In this study a haemotoxlyin and eosin stains as well as the periodic acid Schiff (PAS) were used in order to illustrate the histological structures of the ovaries. Results: Female exposed to both solvents showed a significant decrease in their weights. Histological examination of the ovaries of the exposed mice (either to toluene or formaldehyde) revealed an increase in thickness of zona pellucida of ovarian follicles, significant increase in the number of primary, secondary and Graffian follicles with decrease in the number of primordial follicles after inhalation comparisons to the normal groups. Discussions: The results indicate that exposure to these organic solvents may suppress the central nervous system that contains vital centers which leads to reduction of mice weight. Conclusion: Both solvents may cause injuries to the ovaries followed by changes of the histological structure for them. This might be due to disruption of endocrine function which leads to suppression of the releasing of gonadotropins hormones.

Keywords

Toluene --- Formaldehyde --- Oogenesis


Article
The effect of the addition of anise to the Holstein cattle in the locally yoghurt and cheese
تأثير إضافة اليانسون إلى علائق أبقار الهولشتاين في اللبن والجبن المحلي المصنع

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Abstract

This experiment was conducted in the animal field of the Department of Animal Husbandry at the College of Agriculture/ University of Baghdad and used 9 cows Holstein after the highest milk production period 2-4 months, which were divided randomly to three groups of each group 3 cows. The first group was fed on a control diet that consisted of concentrated feed without adding. The second group was fed on a control diet plus 30% anise untreated. The third group was fed a control diet plus 30% anise treated with formaldehyde for protect it from degradable in rumen. Milk from these cows was used Manufacture of yoghurt and jellies N White soft Iraqi after conducting chemical tests for him. The results of the experiment indicated that the addition of anise resulted in a clear increase in the ratio of total solids, which included protein, fat and lactose for milk produced from cows fed on the diet added to the anise, and the increase was more in milk produced from cows fed on a diet added to the unused anise. The results of the chemical tests conducted for these treatments showed no significant differences in corrective acidity and pH values between the three treatments after one day of production. The acidity of all the treatments increased with a decrease in pH by the storage period at ± 2 °C. (7) to reach 0.98- 1.059 after 7 days The results of pH of the fat also showed no significant differences between the values of this characteristic of the three treatments at the beginning of manufacturing, but there was a significant increase in all treatments after seven days of storage cooled at 7 m, Science The differences in the value of the pH of the fat were not significantly between transactions. When the soft white cheese was processed, it was observed that the time of milk coagulation in the control treatment was within the optimal limits for coagulation and the incidence was 45 minutes for full coagulation, while the milk in the dry anise treatment took 40 minutes to coagulate either in the treatment of anise treated with formaldehyde. It was 55 minutes. This may be due to the increase in total solids, including protein, in the treatment of dry anise milk and its reduction in the treatment of the aniseed milk used in formaldehyde. The percentage of humidity in the treated anise plant increased to 68% compared to 63% in dry anise treatment, which was less than the control treatment (65%), while the fat percentage was lower in the last two treatments with a percentage of 24% Control which was 25%. When we observe the percentage of reflux, we find that the highest percentage of filtration was in the treatment of aniseed milk treated with formaldehyde, reaching 15%. Producers of yoghurt and soft cheese produced from the milk produced chemical, microbial and sensory properties that exceeded the treatment of control throughout the refrigerated product maintenance period, which lasted for 7 days. It is concluded from the experiment that adding anise to the feed provided to the cows contributed to improving the quality of the milk produced more than the anise treated with formaldehyde. The use of milk produced in the manufacture of milk and soft white Iraqi cheese contributed to improve the qualities of these products and prolong the life of the reservoir.

أجريت هذه التجربة في الحقل الحيواني التابع الى قسم الثروة الحيوانية في كلية الزراعة/ جامعة بغداد واستخدم فيها 9 أبقار هولشتاين بعد اعلى انتاج الحليب بفترة 2- 4 شهر والتي قسمت عشوائيا بشكل متساوي الى ثلاث مجاميع تضم كل مجموعة 3 ابقار غذيت هذه المجاميع بالشكل التالي: المجموعة الأولى غذيت على عليقة السيطرة والتي كانت منضمنة العلف المركز بدون إضافة، المجموعة الثانية غذيت على عليقة السيطرة إضافة الى 30% يانسون غير معامل، المجموعة الثالثة غذيت على عليقة السيطرة إضافة الى 30% يانسون معامل بالفورمالديهايد لغرض حمايته من التحلل داخل الكرش. استخدم الحليب الناتج من هذه الابقار في تصنيع اللبن الرائب والجبن الابيض الطري العراقي بعد إجراء الفحوصات الكيميائية له. أشارت نتائج التجربة إلى ان إضافة اليانسون أدت إلى زيادة واضحة في نسبة المواد الصلبة الكلية والتي تضمنت البروتين والدهن واللاكتوز للحليب الناتج من الابقار التي غذيت على العليقة المضاف لها اليانسون وكانت الزيادة أكثر في الحليب الناتج من الابقار المغذاة على عليقة مضاف لها يانسون غير معامل. أظهرت نتائج الفحوصات الكيميائية التي اجريت لهذه المعاملات عدم وجود فروقات معنوية في نسبة الحموضة التسحيحية وقيم الاس الهيدروجيني بين المعاملات الثلاثة بعد مرور يوم واحد من عمر التصنيع، وتطورت الحموضة لجميع المعاملات رافقها انخفاض في الاس الهيدروجيني بتقدم فترة الخزن والتي كانت بدرجة حرارة (±2) 7م لتصل إلى (0.98– 1.059 بعد مرور سبعة ايام. ايضا نتائج درجة حموضة الدهن اشارت الى عدم وجود فروق معنوية بين قيم هذه الصفة للمعاملات الثلاثة عند بداية التصنيع، ولكن حصلت زيادة معنوية فيها لجميع المعاملات بعد مرور سبعة ايام من الخزن المبرد بدرجة حرارة 7مْ، علما ان الفروقات في قيمة درجة حموضة الدهن لم تكن معنوية بين المعاملات. وعند تصنيع الجبن الأبيض الطري لوحظ ان وقت تخثر الحليب في معاملة السيطرة كانت ضمن الحدود المثالية لحدوث التخثر والذي كان 45 دقيقة لحصول التخثر الكامل في حين استغرق الحليب في معاملة اليانسون الجاف 40 دقيقة ليتخثر اما في معاملة اليانسون المعامل بالفورماليهايد وجد ان تخثر الحليب تطلب وقت اكثر فقد كان 55 دقيقة، وقد يعود سبب ذلك الى ارتفاع نسبة المواد الصلبة الكلية ومن ضمنها البروتين في معاملة حليب اليانسون الجاف وانخفاضها في المعاملة المصنعة من حليب اليانسون المعامل بالفورماليهايد. ارتفعت نسبة الرطوبة المئوية في معاملة اليانسون المعامل لتصل إلى 68% مقارنة بـ 63% في ومعاملة اليانسون الجاف والتي كانت بدورها اقل من معاملة السيطرة (65%)، في حين كانت نسبة الدهن اقل في المعاملتين الاخيرتين اذ بلغت النسبة المئوية له 24% مقارنة بمعاملة السيطرة والتي كانت 25%. وعند ملاحظة نسبة التصافي نجد ان اعلى نسبة تصافي كانت في معاملة حليب اليانسون المعامل بالفورماليهايد إذ بلغت 15%. حصل منتجي اللبن الرائب والجبن الطري المصنعين من الحليب الناتج على صفات كيميائية وميكروبية وحسية تفوقت على معاملة السيطرة طيلة فترة حفظ المنتجات المبردة والتي استمرت لمدة 7 أيام. يستنتج من التجربة ان اضافة بذور اليانسون الى العليقة المقدمة للأبقار ساهمت بتحسين نوعية الحليب المنتج اكثر من اليانسون المعامل بالفورماليهايد. كما ان استخدام الحليب المنتج في صناعة اللبن والجبن الابيض الطري العراقي ساهم في تحسين صفات هذه المنتجات واطالة العمر الخزني لها.


Article
The Effect of Formaldehyde Disinfectant on Compressive Strength of Dental Stone (Type IV)

Authors: Musab Mohamed Ibrahim --- Munther Najeeb Kazanji --- Salwa Hachim Mohammed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2016 Volume: 16 Issue: 28 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of 2% formaldehyde on compressive strength of dental stone (type IV), and to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Materials and methods: To study the effect of 2% formaldehyde on compressive strength of dental stone (type IV), ten samples of stone were prepared in cylindrical blocks and divided into two groups, each group contain of (5) samples. First group composed of stone and distilled water as (control group) and the second group composed of stone and (2%) formaldehyde solution. after (1h) the samples were tested for compressive strength using digital compression machine(ALFA Company, Turkey).To study the bacterial effect of formaldehyde 60 stone discs prepared and mixed with formaldehyde 2% divided into 12 group (each group consist of 5 discs) and stored for different intervals between 1-12 days, antibacterial effect against salivary sample for each interval day using disc diffusion test. Results: The statistical analysis of data by analysis of t-test reveals significant different in compressive strength between control group and stone-2% formaldehyde group at (P<0.05). The result showed that second group which contains 2%formaldehydehad higher values compared with control group. Also the results showed that the antibacterial effect of stone-formaldehyde discs continued till 12thday. Conclusions: Adding 2% formaldehyde as chemical disinfectant to dental stone increase the compressive strength in addition of the antibacterial activity of stone - formaldehyde disc continued till 12th day.


Article
Mechanical properties (Tensile, Hardness and Shock resistance) for the phenol formaldehyde resin with Epoxy resin

Authors: Mustafa A. Rajab مصطفى احمد رجب --- Ekhlas I. Kader --- Ali Adwan Hammod علي عدوان حمود --- Abdul Hameed I. Hameed
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 35-43
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Phenolic formaldehyde (resole) resin was used at a different weight (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%), with epoxy resins at varying percentages (90%, 80%, 70%, 60%) at 20 C °. In order to study the mechanical properties (which including: Tensile strength, hardness and shock resistance), for the purpose of analysis and comparison with the mechanical properties of alloys, and the selected part for the purpose of replacing the alloy with the composite materials to reduce weight and improve mechanical properties. The results indicate improved properties with increased epoxy resins due to increased bonding between components.

Keywords

Epoxy --- phenol formaldehyde


Article
Synthesis of Phenolphthalein-formaldehyde resin and study of it's antibacterial activity

Author: Nawar Shaker Hamad
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2010 Volume: 36 Issue: 1A Pages: 94-102
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The Reaction of phenolphthalein with formaldehyde in the presence of Sodium hydroxide afforded phenolphthalein-formaldehyde (PPF), and the structure was confirmed by FT-IR spectrum study. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized polymer was investigated and showed remarkable inhibition against both Escherichia Coli (Gram -) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram +). The MIC (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration) values were determined based on Disc Diffusion Method. Allowing the possibility of using the polymer as water sterilizer.

من خلال تفاعل الفينولفثالين مع الفورمالديهايد وبوجود هيدروكسيد البوتاسيوم كعامل مساعد قاعدي تم تحضير فينولفثالين –فورمالديهايد , أثبتت صحة بوليمر الفينولفثالين- فورمالديهايد الناتج من خلال دراسة طيف الأشعة تحت الحمراء له. كما تم فحص الفعالية ضد البكتيرية مختبرياً للبوليمر المحضر, حيث أبدى البوليمر قابلية تثبيط قوية وواضحة تجاه كل من بكتريا الاشريكية القولونية (سالبة لصبغة غرام) وبكتريا المكورات العنقودية الذهبية (موجبة لصبغة غرام). كما حددت قيم التركيز المثبط الأدنى للبوليمر وبالاعتماد على طريقة الأقراص . مما يسمح بإمكانية استخدامه كمعقم للمياه.


Article
Reaction of Thiols with formaldehyde in Presnce of succinimid and Reduction of Phenyl Tetrazole Derivative with Hydrogen and Borohydraide
تفاعل الثايولات مع الفورملدهايد بوجود السكنتامايد واختزال مشتقات الفنيل تترازول مع الهيدروجين وهيدريد البورون

Author: Abdul faris Hussian Hachiam عبد الفارس حسين حاجم
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 388-393
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One of most the important compounds which have active hydrogen (substrate) is the thiols which used in a wide field in preparation of Mannich bases . A large number of Mannich bases have been prepared as a biologically active compound (pharmaceutical, pesticides, bactericidal, fungicidal and tuberculostatic) and in order to correlate their structure and reactivity with their pharmacological activity such as . It has been reported that the reaction is easily proceeded by using primary and secondary amine beside formaldehyde. But when we tried the reaction of thiols as substrate and formaldehyde and succinimide instead of amine, the reaction did not proceed to give Mannich base but product were methylenene – bis – sulfide . Mannich base can go farther reaction such as (addition, substitution, cleavge, polymerization, hydrogenation) to produce numerous numberbof compound so we tried to hydrogenation tetrazole derivative which gave different product which depened on type of hydrogen on reagent.Reduction of 2 – ethyl benzoyle – phenyl tetrazole which performed with hydrogen gas in methanol solution in presence palladium on carbon as catalyst, the tow products were separated by column chromatography. Reduction of 2 – methyl – 2 (2 – cycloheptane) – 5- phenyl tetrazole. The methanolic solution the ketone was refluxed with equimolar amount of potassium borohydride and the product is isolated and purified to give. and identified by C.H.N analysis and NMR spectra.

ان المواد التي تستعمل بوصفها اساسيات والتي تحتوي على هيدروجين فعال في تحضير (قاعدة مانخ) هي الثايولات وتستعمل بنجاح بوصفها مواداً اولية باضافة الفورلملدهايد والامينات الاولية والثانوية ونشرت بحوث عديدة في الوقت الحاضر عن هذا الموضوع )25(. وفي بحثنا هذا عندما اردنا استعمال الثايول بوصفها مادة اساسية وباضافة السكنمايد بدل الامينات واضافة الفورملديهايد لم نحصل على (قاعدة مانخ) وانما كان الناتج هو methylenene – bis – sulfide (26). وتم تحضير مجموعة من هذه المشتقات والتأكد منها بإجراء التحاليل المختلفة.ان اهم ماتتصف به (قاعدة مانخ) هي القابلية على التفاعلات المختلفة ومنها (الاضافة، الاستبدال، الكسر، الهدرجة والبلمرة) لاعطائها لمواد جديدة لا يمكن تحضيرها بالطرائق التقليدية.وقد تمت هدرجة مشتقات الفنيل تترازول في هذا البحث واعطت نتائج مختلفة باعتمادها على المادة المستعملة بالهدرجة (الهيدروجين مع عامل مساعد أو KBH4 وقد فُصلت المواد الناتجة ونقيت واخذت وعند القيام بهدرجة 2 – ethyl benzoyle – phenyl tetrazole (27) بوساطة الهيدروجين وبوجود عامل مساعد اعطت خليط من مادتين [29, 28]. وتم فصل المادتين بوساطة جهاز Colum chromatography باستخدام السلكاجيل والسلكلوهكسان بوصفه مذيباً وتم اجراء التحاليل اللازمة.وكذلك تمت هدرجة 2 – methylcyclheptan – 1 – one – 5 – phenyltetrazole( 30) أذ فشلت الهدرجة بوساطة الهيدروجين والعامل المساعد حتى في زيادة وقت التفاعل ولكن باستخدام مادة potassium borohydride تمت الهدرجة بسهولة وقد تم فصل الناتج والتأكد منه بوساطة التحاليل المختلفة.

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