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Article
Mesiodistal axial teeth angulations of permanent anterior teeth using postero–anterior cephalometric radiograph

Author: Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 6 Pages: 114-120
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present study aimed to determine the mesiodistal axialangulations of upper and lower permanent anterior teeth inyoung Iraqi adults having normal occlusion using postero–anteriorcephalograph. Also to detect the sex difference in themesiodistal axial angulations of such teeth.The sample consisted of 33 young Iraqi adult students,17 males and 16 females aged 20–23 years old who were havingClass I normal occlusion. Postero–anterior cephalographwas taken for each subject and was traced to determine themesiodistal axial angulation of upper and lower permanentanterior teeth.The results revealed that the mean values of mesiodistalaxial teeth angulations in both sexes showed very limited variation.No significant bilateral differences were found for rightand left sides for both jaws (for males, females and totalsample).From the above results, it could be concluded that no significantbilateral differences in mesiodistal axial tooth angulationswere found for both jaws, for total sample and for bothsexes. Also, male–female comparison showed no significantdifference in mesiodistal axial teeth angulations and for bothjaws.


Article
COMPARATIVE MORPHOMETERIC STUDY OF SALT GLAND IN SOME DOMESTICATED AND WILD MARINE BIRDS
دراسة مقارنة للقياساث الشكليه للغذة الملحيه في بعض الطيور البحريه الداجنه وغير الداجنه

Author: Maysoon A. Ahmad ميسون عبد القادر احمد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 349-354
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The histological structure and statistical of the salt glands were investigated in somedomesticated and wild marine birds. Both species have a well-developed bilateral salt glands lie under the skin in the supraorbital depression of the frontal bone. The salt glands consist of many concentric polygonal lobes arranged in rows and separated by richly vascularized interlobular connective tissue. Each lobe is made up of branched secretory tubules lining with single layer of radialy arranged cuboidal cells from a central canal and meshed with connective tissue enriched of blood capillaries. The duct system of each lobe opens into the central canal that drain in a main duct leads to the anterior of the nasal cavity. The measurements of the epithelium heights in the domestic pekin duck were significantly lower than the other birds subjected in the present study


Article
Histopathological evaluation of bone healing using Nanobone in experimentally induced frontal bone defects of rabbits

Authors: Alaa S. Jaber علاء جبار --- Kadhim A. Al-Soudani كاظم السوداني
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 40-45
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The bone substitute biomaterials are used in reconstruction of bone defects and one of them isNanobone. It consists of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite embedded in a highly porous matrix of silica gel. It promotesthe healing of bone defects and increases the amount of new bone formed. It is degraded and resorbed byosteoclasts after a period of time. The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of Nanobone on bone healing inexperimentally frontal bony defects of rabbits.Materials & Methods: Thirty five indigenous rabbits were used in this study. Granules of Nanobone were implanted insurgically induced defects of 5mm size in one side in the frontal bone of rabbits, while the other side defects were leftfree to heal spontaneously as controls. Samples were taken after 2, 6, 9, 12 and 24 weeks and demineralized. Theamount of new bone formed around implanted granules and the inflammation present were analyzed by means oflight microscopy in both Nanobone granules-filled defects and controls.Results: At 2 weeks, there was no new bone formed in both defects with few amount of inflammation whichconsiders normal at this time. At 6, 9 and 12 weeks , the amount of new bone formed in Nanobone filled defects wasmuch more than that formed in controls (statistically significant correlation, P<0.05), no inflammation seen in boths. At24 weeks, the Nanobone granules were degraded and completely replaced by new bone while in controls therewas few spaces not filled with bone (statistically highly significant correlation, P<0.01), no inflammation seen also.Conclusions: Results of present study revealed that Nanobone material promotes healing of bony defects incomparison to controls and is degraded and replaced by new bone after a period of time


Article
The frontal sinus dimensions in mouth and nasal breathers in Iraqi adult subjects

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Abstract

Background: The frontal sinus area can be used as a diagnostic aid to recognize mouth breather subjects. The aimsof this study were to determine the gender difference in each group, to compare the frontal sinus area betweenmouth breather and nasal breather group, and to verify the presence of correlation between the frontal sinus areaand the cephalometric skeletal measurements used in this study.Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs were taken for 60 adults (30 mouth breathers and 30 nasalbreathers) age range (18-25), for each group 15 males and 15 females, in the orthodontic clinic in the college ofDentistry at Baghdad University. The control group (nasal breather) with skeletal class I and ANB angle rangedbetween 2-4º, and have clinically class I occlusion. The cephalometric measurement for each group were taken, thecephalometric radiographs were analyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 program.Results and Conclusions: In comparison to nasal breather the mouth breather has larger Gonial angle giving atendency to posterior rotation with growth of the mandible. The mouth breather has less maxillary length than thenasal breather. No effect of gender in mouth breather on gonial, SNA and SNB angles, no effect of gender in nasalbreather on gonial angle, while the other cephalometric measurements were higher in males than females in eachgroup. The mouth breather showed more anteroposterior extent of anterior cranial base; also the mouth breathershow an increase in all facial height than the nasal breathers, the frontal sinus area is smaller in mouth breather thanin nasal breather. The frontal sinus area showed correlation for both groups (Mouth and nasal breather) with maxillaryLength, mandibular length, ramal length, S-N length, TAFH, UAFH, LAFH, TPFH, LPFH, and UPFH. There is only correlationof frontal sinus with the SNA and SNB angles in nasal breather and no significant correlation for both groups with thegonial angle


Article
EFFECT OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO KETAMINE ON NEWBORN RAT FRONTAL CORTEX: IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY WITH TUNEL TEST

Authors: Hayder A.R. Jaffar حيدر عبد الرسول جعفر --- Haidar J. Mubarak حيدر جواد كاظم --- Nameer F. Gaeb نمير فاضل غاب
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2016 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 119-124
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Ketamine as an analgesic drug is widely used to provide sedation for minor procedures. It was reported that the use of this drug causes deletion of large numbers of neurons from the developing brain.Objectives:To investigate the effect of prenatal ketamine exposure on the newborn rat frontal cortex using immunohistochemical TUNEL test.Methods:Seventy two pregnant rats were divided into three groups: I, II, and III (24 rat for each group), and exposed to ketamine at the 7th day, 11th day, and 18th day, of gestational age. Each group was subdivided into control subgroup A injected intraperitoneally with normal saline, and the subgroups B, C and D injected with intraperitoneal ketamine with 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Paraffin block sections of newborn rat frontal cortices were investigated by TUNEL test. Results:Counting of fluorescent cells showed progressive increase in mean values with increased dose of ketamine injection and advancing age of prenatal exposure to ketamine. Significant variability was demonstrated between the control subgroup A and the other subgroups, and between the subgroups of each group, whereas, non-significant variability was observed between the counted mean differences values obtained for subgroup B in all groups (I, II, and III) compared to that of the control subgroup A.Conclusion:Prenatal exposure to ketamine in a dose of 5mg/kg was a relatively non-toxic in all studied groups compared to the control subgroup. Apoptosis in frontal cortical tissue was involved in the mechanism of neuronal death caused by ketamine exposure during pregnancy.Keywords:Frontal, cortex, prenatal, ketamine, neurotoxicity, immnuohistochemistry.


Article
The Value of the chest X-Ray for diagnosing left ventricularDysfunction

Authors: Kasim M. AL- Doori --- Layth R. Shareef
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 23-26
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The use of the chest x-ray measurements which includes the cardiothoracic ratio(C-T) and frontal area (FA) of the heart by the CXR are useful measures for primary assessment of the cardiac dysfunction.
Patients and Methods: A Prospective study was done from the 1st of January 2005 to the 1st of October in the same year on a 120 consecutive patients who have been admitted for coronary and L.V angiogram at IBN-AL-BITAR hospital. The C-T ratio and the frontal area were measured.
Results: The study comprised 120 subjects who were admitted for coronary and L.V angiogram for diagnostic reasons. 89subjects (74.2%) are male and 31subjects (25.8%) are female .17(14%) subjects have left ventricular dysfunction and dilated L.V with EDV&#8805;110 cm^2 by angiogram. (76) Subjects (71%) had LAD (Left anterior descending artery disease), (40) subjects (37%) had LCX (Left circumflex artery disease), 10subjects (9%) had LMS (Left main stem artery disease) and (38) subjects (34%) RCA (disease). 13subjects (10%) had valve disease , 2subjects (1%) of them have aortic stenosis , 5 subjects (4%) had A.I (aortic inche), 4 subjects (3%) had M.S(Mitral stenosis) , 6 subjects (5%) had M.R Mitral regurgitation and combined valve disease .The abnormal chest radiogram C/T Ratio had a sensitivity of 56.6%, a specificity of 78.6%, and positive ,negative predictive values and accuracy of 95.2% ,19.3% and 59.2% respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction.while the abnormal chest radiogram FA/BSA £ had a sensitivity of 47.2%, specificity of 42.9%, and positive ,negative predictive values and accuracy of 86.2% ,9.7% and 46.7% respectively.
Conclusion: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with ventricular dysfunction should be reevaluated.


Article
Morphological relationship of face form in lateral and frontal planes of young Iraqi adults (18-25) years in mosul city

Authors: Dr. hakam H. Sabah. ** د.حكم صباح --- Dr. Enas T. M. Al-Jwarry. * د.ايناس
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 325-333
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

To determine the face type of young Iraqi adults in Mosul city and to find out the possible relationship of the face form in frontal and lateral planes.The sample subjects were normal class I molar and canine relationship, all subjects were following special criteria. The sample included: 60 Iraqi young adults (30 males and 30 females), aged (18-25) years. All subjects were radiographic with lateral and frontal cephalometric and the films were traced. The tracing is done including the external and internal contour of cranium, pituitary fossa, nasomaxillary complex and the mandible and it's out lie. The result was subjected to the descriptive statistics, to T-student test and to chi-square test to investigate the sex difference of facial type and means between the two sexes.All the linear measurements are significantly differ with the males having the large value. From the lateral view, the majority of the sample (60,9%) having mesofacial type with no significant difference between the two sexes, followed by dolichofacial type (34,4%) with the females having significantly large value than males, and the least brachyfacial type (4,7%) with the females having significantly large value.From the frontal view, the majority of the sample (84, 4%) having leptoprosopic type with no significant difference, followed by mesoprosopic type (15, 6%) with the females having significantly large value than males.The most frequent facial pattern, of this present sample in lateral view is mesofacial followed by dolichofacial and the least is brachyfacial, while in frontal view is leptoprosopic followed by mesoprosopic type. There is good correlation between facial type in frontal and lateral planes.


Article
Face Detection by Using OpenCV’s Viola-Jones Algorithm based on coding eyes
كشف الوجه باستخدام مكتبة برمجية مفتوحة للرؤية الحاسوبية في خوارزمية فيولا جونز على اساس شفرة العيون

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Facial identification is one of the biometrical approaches implemented for identifying any facial image with the use of the basic properties of that face. In this paper we proposes a new improved approach for face detection based on coding eyes by using Open CV's Viola-Jones algorithm which removes the falsely detected faces depending on coding eyes. The Haar training module in Open CV is an implementation of the Viola-Jones framework, the training algorithm takes as input a training group of positive and negative images, and generates strong features in the format of an XML file which is capable of subsequently being utilized for detecting the wanted face and eyes in images, the integral image is used to speed up Haar-like features calculation for each image in (MIT, FERET) dataset and the adaboost algorithm is implemented to collect the weak classifiers and produce strong classifier. By using classifier cascade process, the speed and accuracy of face detection system is increased .The proposed method has accuracy is about 98.97% for detection faces.

تحديد الوجه هو احد الطرق البيومترية التي تنفذ لتحديد أي صورة للوجه مع استخدام الخصائص الأساسية لهذا الوجه. تقترح هذه الورقة نهج جديد ومحسن لكشف الوجه بناءا على شفرة العينين باستخدام خوارزمية فيولا جونز وبالاعتماد على مكتبة برمجية مفتوحة للرؤية الحاسوبية التي تزيل اخطاء الكشف عن الوجوه المعتمدة على شفرة العينين ، ويتم تنفيذ قالب فيولا جونز باستخدام وحدة التدريب حيث ان خوارزمية التدريب تعتبر كمدخل لمجموعة التدريب التي تضم الصور الايجابية والسلبية ويتم انتاج خصائص صورة مميزة على شكل ملف من نوع (XML) والتي ممكن استخدامها لاحقا للكشف عن العينين والوجه المطلوب في الصورة ، ويستخدم تكامل الصور لغرض تسريع حساب خصائص الهار لكل صورة من قاعدة البيانات (MIT & FERET) ويتم جمع المصنفات الضعيفة لغرض انتاج مصنف قوي عن طريق تنفيذ خوازمية الادبوست . كما ويتم زيادة الدقة والسرعة باستخدام شلال المصنفات حيث اثبتت الطريقة المقترحة ان لديها دقة حوالي 98.97٪ لتحديد الوجوه.


Article
11.AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE NEWBORN MICE FRONTAL AND PARIETAL CEREBRAL CORTICES AFFECTED BY PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO KETAMINE

Authors: Mohanad S. Najm مهند سهيل نجم --- Hayder J. Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Lamia H. Mohammed لمياء هادي محمد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 191-200
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Ketamine is N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors blocking drug, it affects the cerebral cortex and play an essential role in learning and memory. Amyloid β (Aβ) is a cleavage product of a large, trans-membrane protein, termed amyloid precursor protein (APP); it may have a role in controlling synaptic activity.Objective: To investigate the immunohistochemical beta APP reaction in newborn mice frontal and parietal cerebral cortices after prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of ketamine as an attempt for scientific judgments of making better understanding for effects of ketamine on developing brain, which may help to reduce adverse effects.Methods: Thirty pregnant mice were divided into two groups named experimental and control groups (15 mice for each groups). The experimental group animals were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg ketamine, the control group animals were injected with intraperitoneal distilled water. Paraffin sections of newborn mice frontal and parietal cortices were stained immunohistochmically with anti-APP antibodies.Results: The immunohistochemical labeling in the experimental group showed scattered clumps of brown staining distributed randomly in the cerebral cortex. The brown stained deposits vary also in shape and size, the larger and more intense staining was seen in the more superficial layers of the frontal cortex. The statistical analysis found non-significant differences in staining pattern between frontal and parietal cortices of control group, while significant differences were found between frontal and parietal cortices in experimental group.Conclusion: The immunohistochemical APP reactivity showed different intensities and different morphology in the frontal and parietal cortices in the all experimental group animals were that injected with ketamine in this study. These differences could be related to the requirement of this substance in repair and differentiation of the developing NMDA dependent interneuron impaired by prenatal ketamine exposure.Keywords: Frontal cortex, parietal cortex, amyloid precursor proteins, ketamine, prenatal, immnuohistochemistryCitation: Najm MS, Mubarak HJ, Mohammed LH. Amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical changes in the newborn mice frontal and parietal cerebral cortices affected by prenatal exposure to ketamine. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(2): 191-200. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.2.11


Article
6.NISSL STAIN EXPRESSION IN THE FRONTAL AND PARIETAL CORTICES OF THE NEWBORN MICE AFTER PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO KETAMINE

Authors: Mohanad S. Najm mohanad.suhail@yahoo.com --- Hayder J. Mubarak --- Hussein A. Jarullah
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2018 Volume: 16 Issue: 3 Pages: 268-278
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Ketamine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blocking agent, which is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. It affects the cerebral cortex and has an impact on learning and memory functions; suggesting that any changes in NMDA receptors function will have an adverse outcome on learning and memory abilities.Objective: To assess the histological changes in the frontal and parietal cortices of mice offspring’s after prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of ketamine.Methods:Thirty pregnant mice were included in this study. They were divided into two groups named experimental and control groups (15 mice for each group). Those of experimental group were injected intraperitoneally with ketamine in a dose of 50 mg/kg/day on the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th days of gestational age to showing effect of the ketamine after injection of it in all trimesters of pregnancy, while those of the control group were injected with distal water only with the same volume. The paraffin block sections of frontal and parietal cerebral cortices of newborn mice were stained by nissl stain.Results: In the control group, the mean number of Nissl stained cells in the frontal cortex showed a statistically significant increase compared to that of parietal cortex, while statistical non-significant decrease in the mean number of nissel stained cells of frontal cortex compared to that of parietal cortex. Conclusion: Iatrogenic apoptotic changes were seen in the cerebral cortex of the experimental mice after prenatal exposure to ketamine and it is more considerable in the frontal cortex than the parietal cortex.Keywords: Frontal cortex, parietal cortex, ketamine, nissl stain, developmentCitation: Najm MS, Mubarak HJ, Jarullah HA. Nissl stain expression in the frontal and parietal cortices of the newborn mice after prenatal exposure to ketamine. Iraqi JMS. 2018; 16(3): 268-278. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.16.3.6

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