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Article
The Effect of Frying Conditions on Sunflower Oil Attributes

Authors: Hanadi Sibai --- Huda Alrifaie
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2018 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 52-58
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

A sample of sunflower oil, produced from Homs Sugar Company, was used in this study to fry local potato by frying under air at household conditions, and frying under pressure (at 150-180ºC, pressure 10-15kg/cm²) for 12 continuous hours without adding new oil. The results were estimated statistically by using Minitab program version 17.0 at level 0.01. The results showed, in both cases of frying, an increase in the physical properties (density, viscosity, refractive index, and coloring degree) of used oil by increasing frying time. A decrease Iodine Number, increase Peroxide Number, increase the percentage of free fatty acids, increase of C16:0 and C18:1 acids percentage, and decrease of C18:2 and C18:3 acids percentage, associated by increasing frying time. But when frying under pressure we noticed that these changes were slow because of the unadequated oxygen presence during frying under pressure. So we can say that the oil was still usable for frying for a long time when frying under pressure more than when frying under air with the vessel is open.

Keywords

Sunflower oil --- frying --- potato


Article
A Study of Heating Effect on the Structural and Optical Absorbance of Olive Oil

Authors: Mays K. Ali --- Mohammed Sh. Essa --- Bahaa T. Chiad
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2A Pages: 670-675
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study, the number of times of heating of olive oil was studied. For the different refineries, the study was conducted using a temperature of 300K and for several times to determine the validity of the olive oil which is used for frying purposes after it was used for more than once times. It was found that there were significant changes in the behavior of the photophysical behavior like absorption and emission; there are changes in the nature and composition of the olive oil molecule, which makes it not useful for human use. The number of heating times was ten. The heating times also showed significant changes in the nature of the oil, such as color, taste, density, and smell.

Keywords

olive oil --- frying --- cooking --- spectroscopic


Article
The Changes of Some Commercial Oils and Fats during Frying of Falafel

Authors: Ali A. Sahi --- Munir A. Jasim --- Hani S. Sdfanna
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 162-177
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Due to the misuse of fats and oils during deep fat frying for preparing many types of foodlike (Falafel) and its effect on the health and economic aspects and to optimize the use offats and oils . This work includes the chemical and physical changes of local common oil(Al – Bint) and imported oil and fat (CEZER, Two Golden Spoons) before and duringdeep frying operating at 5±180°C, it also includes sensory evaluation of Falafel duringfrying operation. The results of this research were summarized as follows:-1- Significant decrease of Iodine Number for the three fats with increasing frying times.The decrease was from (138.8, 137.9, 54.5) before process of frying to (131.5, 133.9,49.2) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fatrespectively. Consequently the decrease of Iodine Number were (4.3, 4.0, and 5.3) for thethree fats respectively.2- Significant decrease of Smoke Point for the three fats with increasing number offrying times. The decrease of Smoke Point was from (213°C, 200°C, 214°C) beforefrying process to (205°C, 190°C, 206°C) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oil and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the resistance todecrease of Smoke Point of Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZERoil.3- Significant increase in Refractive Index at (40°C) with increasing number of fryingtimes for the three fats. The increase was from (1.4473, 1.4474, and 1.4470) beforefrying process to (1.4710, 1.4740, and 1.4640) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the stability foroxidation for Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZER oil.1- Sensory evaluation of Falafel during deep frying for several times appeared that theappearance, texture, color, flavor and overall acceptance were acceptable. Falafel fried inAl – Bint oil was the best, then that with CEZER oil and then with Two Golden Spoonsfat. Also there were no significant effect of number of frying times on texture, flavor,color and overall acceptance of Falafel.


Article
Chemical and Physical Changes for some types of Commercial Oil and Fats during Deep Frying

Authors: Munir A. Jasim --- Ali A. Sahi --- Hani S. Stephan
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 21-30
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The chemical and physical changes of Al-Bint oil, Cezer and Golden Spoons fat before and during deep frying of Falafil were studied at 180 C°±5. The obtained results were summarized as follows: 1- There were significant different ( P<0.05 ) between types of oils and fat and between the number of deep frying times, there were increased in peroxide value, acid value, saponification number, refractive index and viscosity. The increase in Golden spoons fat of all above values more than Cezer oil and followed by Al-Bint oil after the fourth time . 2- There were significant different( P< 0.05 ) between number of frying times and red color and no significant differences with yellow color, but ,did not notice the effect of oil type on the color. The stability to change color of the Tow Golden spoons fat more than Cezer oil then Al-Bint oil. 3- A decrease in Palmitic in Al-Bint oil and in two Golden spoons fat after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Cezer oil after the fourth frying time. A decrease in stearic in Al-bint oil and Cezer after the fourth frying time, but it increased in Two Golden spoons fat after fourth frying time. The total saturation fatty acids between frying process were in Two Golden spoons fat more than Al-bint oil then Cezer oil, but its present increased in Two Golden spoons fat and decreased in Al-Bint and Cezer oils. Oleic and Llinoleic increased after the fourth frying time in Al-Bint oil, but Oleic present was lower in Cezer oil than in Al-Bint oil before frying process and it's percent decreased after the fourth frying time. Oleic and Lionleic increased in Al-Bint oil after the fourth frying time. Total unsaturated fatty acids in Al-Bint and Cezer oils increased after the fourth frying time, but they were decreased in Two Golden Spoons fat.

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