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Article
The Survival of Different Fungal Spores During Tabletting

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Abstract

The survival of dried spores of A.flavus, Penicillia Spp., and Cladosporia Spp.inoculated into multivitamins and folic acid tablets were examined at different compression pressures.Survival of fungal spores decreased with increasing compression pressure. The level of survival at particular pressures was shown to depend on the size of the contaminating fungal spores.The lethal effect of tabletting was attributed to shearing forces upon the contaminating spores generated by interparticulate movement. This hypothesis was supported by the dependence of survival upon spore size.

لقد تم تصنيع نوعين من الأقراص الدوائية الصيدلانية وهي حامض الفولك ومجموعة الفيتامينات وتم إدخال ثلاثة انواع من٤۱۰ سبور/غرام وتم كبسها بطريقة الكبس المباشر تحت ضغوط , الفطريات وهي بنيسيليةاسبارجلسكلادوسبورية وبتركيزين ۲۱۰مختلفة وقد تبين إن زيادة الضغط تؤدي الى نقصان في عدد السبورات وان معدل البقاء تحت ضغط معين يعتمد على حجم البوغهذه الفرضيةِ كَانتْ .interparticulate نُسِبَ إلى قَصّ القواتِ على بويغاتِ التَلويث ولّدَ بحركة tabletting الملوث.التأثير القاتل لمدعومة من قبل إعتمادِ البقاءِ على حجمِ البويغةِ


Article
ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FUNGI AND MYCOTOXINS (DEOXYNIVALENOL AND ZARALENONE) IN FISH FEED FROM BAGHDAD CITY.
عزل وتوصيف الفطريات و السموم الفطرية (DEOXYNIVALENOL وZEARALENONE) في الأسماك تتغذى من مدينة بغداد .

Authors: Oday S. Abbas عدي س. عباس --- Dalia K. Abdual-shahid داليا خ.عبد الشهيد --- ZahidE. Mohammad
Journal: Diyala Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20739524 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 38-44
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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ABSTRACTThis research provides a brief review of approaches for the early detection offungi and its metabolites in feedof fish from some Baghdad farms. During amycological analysis of complete feed mixes(15 samples), a total of five generaof moulds were identified. Penicillium spp. was present in considerably moresamples than any other genus 36.4%, followed by the genera Fusariumspp.24.5%. Other fungi from the genera Aspergillus spp. 20%, Mucor spp.11.1% and Alternaria spp. 8% were represented in a smaller amount.Themycotoxinsdeoxynivalenol and zearalenone were detected. Deoxynivalenol wasdetected in 10 samples in the concentration range 0.25–2.5 mg/kg. Zaralenonewere detected in 8 samples in the concentration range 0.2–5.0mg/kg.Thesefindings indicate that there may be a risk for animal exposure tomycotoxins through the consumption of moldy infected feeds.


Article
ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND DETERMINATION OF ANTIFUNGAL SENSITIVITY OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM A SAMPLE OF PATIENTS WITH RHINOSINUSITIS IN BAGHDAD CITY

Author: Israa A. Ali اسراء احمد علي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-70
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background: Rhinosinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses, most commonly caused by a viral or bacterial infection or by allergic (or non-allergic; non-allergic could be due to infection). Fungal infections of the sinuses are uncommon and usually occur in individuals who are immunocompromised. However, recently, the occurrence of fungal sinusitis has increased in the immunocompetent population.Objective:Isolation and identification of fungi in Rhinosinusitis with antifungal sensitivity..Methods:The study was carried out on 112 patients who were suffering from rhinosinusitis, and then identification was done for the isolated fungi associated with rhinosinusitis 1-Specimens (Swabs (from nose and sinuses) and Water nasal washing) collection. 2- Direct microscopic exam. 3-Fungal isolation and diagnosis. 4-Anti-Fungal sensitivity test. 5- Patients (112 patient) were diagnosed by specialist Doctors according to the clinical symptoms and CT scan findings and biopsy. attending Al-Yarmouk Teaching hospital, and Baghdad Medical City. From February to June 2015.Results:The results showed that 38 (33.9%) patients were suffering from fungal infection in this study. The most common fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp. 18 (47.3%), followed by Rhizopus spp. 7 (18.4%), Trichophyton spp. 5 (13.1%), Penicillium spp. 3 (7.8%), yeast Candida spp. 2 (5.2%), Alternaria spp. 1 (2.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans 1 (2.6%) and Blastomyces dermatitidis 1 (2.6%). The antifungal of the most common three fungi isolated, which were (Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., and Trichophyton spp.,) was determined for Amphotericin B, Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole. The result showed that tested fungi were sensitive to Amphotericin B and resistant to Griseofulvin and Ketoconazole.Conclusion:Fungal rhinosinusitis was moderate infection. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp. and Trichophyton spp. were the most commonly fungus iolated from rhinosinusitis. They were sensitive to Amphotericin B and resistant to grisofulvin and ketoconazole.Keywords:Fungal sinusitis, rhinosinusitis, sinusitis, fungal infection in the nose.


Article
Bacterial and Fungal Contamination in Three Brands of CosmeticMarketed in Iraq

Author: Huda J. Muhammed هدى جاسم محمد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2011 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 38-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cosmetic products must be safe for use by consumers , It is also regulated and required thelegislation of countries all over the world . In this study out of 80 cosmetic products analyzed and32.5% were found to be contaminated .Products such as mascara, lip pencil and eye pencil wereanalyzed . The contaminants including bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylocoocusepidermidis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia which wereranging in number from (103-104 ) C.F.U. /ml and fungi such as Penicillium spp. , Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans which were ranging in number from (102-104) C.F.U /ml . The water and other nutrients present in cosmetic make them susceptible to microbial growth . Microorganisms detected in recent study considered as pathogenic to human.

مستحضرات التجميل يجب أن تكون آمنة لاستخدامها من قبل المستهلكين ٬ وتنظم قوانين لهذا الغرض في كل بلدان العالم أيضا.في هذه الدراسة من أصل( 80 ) منتجات التجميل تم تحليلها وعثر على 32.5 ٪ منها لتكون ملوثة. المنتجات التي تم تحليلها شملتStaphylococcus aureus ,Staphylocoocus epidermidis المسكرة ٬ قلم الشفاه وقلم العين .وان الملوثات بما في ذلك البكتيريا.410تراوحتاعدادها بين 310 Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia.410تراوحتاعدادها بين 210 Penicillium spp. , Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans والفطريات شملتالماء والمواد الغذائية الأخرى الموجودة في مستحضرات التجميل جعلها عرضة لنمو الميكروبات . ان معظم هذه الملوثات تعتبرممرضات خطرة على صحة الانسان .


Article
Isolation and Identification of fungi associated with Conocarpus lancifolius Engl. and testing the pathogenicity of some of them
عزل وتشخيص الفطريات المصاحبة لنبات الداماس .Conocarpus lancifolius Engl وإختبار إمراضية بعض أنواعها

Author: Manal M.Qassim منال محمود قاسم
Journal: Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences مجلة البصرة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18175868 Year: 2012 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 66-78
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

During the study of the mycobiota associated with Conocarpus lancifolius from 167 samples were taken from different locations at Basrah governorate, 26 species identified , belonging to16 genera and one sterile mycelium. The majority of fungi were signed to Deutromycotina 73.07% followed by Zygomycotina and Ascomycotina 11.5% for each one,with three species for each one belonginig to 2 and 3 genera respectivily. The most common genus recorded was Aspergillus 100% and the last in occurrence was sterile mycelium(2.3%). The pathogenicity was tested for three species Alternaria tenuissima ,Cladosporium herbarum and Ulocladium chartarum on C.lancifolius ,the clear symptoms on C.lancifolius for all species were conspicuously obserrved. The activity of three fungicides Elsa, Glazer and Vacomil MZ-72 were laboratorly tested against the three pathogenic fungi .Vacomil MZ-72 recorded a high significant inhibition for the three pathogenic growth in a percent of 70.02% .

خلال دراسة المجموعة الفطرية المصاحبة لنبات الداماس Engl. Conocarpus lancifolius من 167 عينة مأخوذة من مناطق متفرقة في محافظة البصرة ,شخص 26 نوعا فطريا عائدا الى 16 جنسا وفطر عقيم ملون , وكانت الفطريات الناقصة Deutromycotina هي السائدة اذ شــــــــــــــــــكلت 73.07% شـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــملت 19نوعا تعود الى 11جنس , تلتها الفطريات اللاقحية Zygomycotina والكيسية Ascomycotinaبنسبة %11.5 لكل منهما , وشملت ثلاثة أنواع لكل منهما تعود إلى جنسين وثلاثة أجناس على التوالي . ظهر الجنس Aspergillus بنسبة 100% في حين كان الفطر العقيم الملون اقل الفطريات ظهورا اذ ظهر بنسبة 2.3%, واختبرت أمراضية ثلاثـــــــــــــــــــة فطريات هي Alternaria tenuissima و Cladosporium herbarum وUlocladium chartarum على نبات C.lancifolius وأعطت أعراض مرضية واضحة ,كما اختبرت فاعلية ثلاثة مبيدات فطرية هي Elsaو Glazer وMZ 72 Vacomil ضد الفطريات الممرضة مختبريا, وسجل المبيد Vacomil أعلى نسبة تثبيط للفطريات الممرضة الثلاث بلغت %70.02.


Article
The Rate of Superficial Fungal infections among Patients with Different Skin Diseases in Diyala IRAQ
معدل شيوع الأخماج الفطرية الجلدية السطحية بين المرضى المصابين بالأمراض و الأخماج الجلدية المختلفة في محافظة ديالى

Author: Khudair Kh. Al-Kayalli د. خضير خلف ألكيالي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 264-266
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Superficial fungal infections of the skin are relatively common skin diseases all over the world including Iraq, caused by a distinct kingdom called fungi, which are of two types, the moulds and the yeasts. The fungal infections of the skin are divided into superficial and deep infections according to the level of skin involvement. Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the rate of superficial fungal infections of the skin among patients with different skin diseases in Diyala province, Iraq. Patients and Methods: A total number of 9027 patients with different skin diseases was seen and examined in a private and out patient clinic of Baquba Teaching Hospital, during the period, from the first of July 2005 to the end of September 2006. Only 893 patients with superficial fungal infections were involved in this study, they were 596 males and 297 females. The diseases were diagnosed clinically and or by investigations. Results: The results reveled that the rate of superficial fungal infections was 9.9 % (893), among patients with different skin diseases (9027) and 36.7% among those with different skin infections (2435). Dermatophytosis was the most common type 509 patients (57%), then the pityriasis (tinea) versicolor 241 (27%) and the candidiasis was the least common143 patients (16%). Tinea corporis was the most common type of dermatophytosis 121 patients (23.8%), and then the tinea capitis and both were the diseases of male's children. Pityriasis versicolor was more common in adult males, while candidasis was more common in adult females. Conclusion: It was concluded that the superficial fungal infections of the skin were a common diseases among Iraqi patients with different skin diseases, dermatophytosis was the most common type, tinea corporis was the most common type of dermatophytosis and male's children were more liable to develop the infections.Keywords: fungal infection, dermatophytosis, candidasis, tinea.

المقدمة: تعتبر الأخماج الفطرية الجلدية السطحية من الأمراض الشائعة نسبياً في مختلف أقطار العالم ومنها العراق,حيث إنها تسبب بواسطة مملكة متميزة من الكائنات الحية تسمى الفطر والذي هو على نوعين, حيث تصيب الإنسان محدثة أخماج سطحية أو عميقة حسب طبقة الجلد المصابة. الأهداف: أُجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة معدل الاخماج الفطرية السطحية في المرضى المصابين بالاخماج الجلدية المختلفة في محافظة ديالى. الطرق: تم فحص تسعة ألاف وسبع وعشرين مريضا مصابين بأمراض جلدية مختلفة , في العيادة الخاصة والعيادة الاستشارية لمستشفى بعقوبة التعليمي, للفترة الأول من تموز 2005 إلى نهاية أيلول 2006 . حيث تم اختيار عينة تكونت من 893 مريض منهم 596 من الذكور و 297 من الإناث من المصابين بالاخماج الفطرية السطحية المختلفة , حيث تم تشخيص المرض سريرياً أو بإجراء الفحوصات المختبرية أو الاثنين معاً .النتائج: أظهرت الدراسة بأن معدل شيوع الأخماج الفطرية السطحية هو %9,9 من مجموع الأمراض الجلدية للمرضى المفحوصين و36,7 % من الأخماج الجلدية. وأن الأخماج الفطرية التي تسمى بالنخالية (Tinea) هي الأكثر شيوعاً (57%) ثم النخالية المتعددة الألوان (27%) ثم الاخماج المبيضية (candidiasis) (16%), وان نخالة الجسم (Tinea Corporals) هي الأكثر شيوعاً بين أنواع النخاليات الأخرى (23,8%) حيث إنها أكثر شيوعاً في الأطفال من الذكور,بينما النخالة المتعددة الألوان أكثر شيوعاً في الذكور البالغين وان المبيضات أكثر شيوعا في الإناث البالغات. الاستنتاج: نستنتج من هذه الدراسة بان الاخماج الفطرية الجلدية السطحية هي من الإمراض الشائعة في العراق مقارنة بالأقطار الأخرى وان النخاليات هي الأكثر شيوعا من الأنواع الأخرى وان نخاليه الجسم هي الأكثر شيوعاً بين أنواع النخاليات المختلفة.


Article
USING ELISA TECHNIQUE IN DETECTION OF MOLD CONTAMINATION OF TOMATO PAST
إستعمال تقنيه الإيلايزا في كشف التلوث الفطري لمعجون الطماطة

Author: Abdul Ghani I. Yahya
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 163-174
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Indirect ELISA was used for determining antibodies titer in antisera using Anti – IgG – HRP (Goat Anti – IgG-Horse Radish proxidase), the titer of these anti bodies for Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer were 1/160, 1/80. Conjugate was prepared by labeled antisera against A. flavus , R. stolonifer (After precipitation by ammonium sulfate) with alkaline phosphatase, titration of conjugate to each one was carried out using ELISA test, results showed that the titer of A. flavus conjugate was 1:10 and R. stolonifer conjugate was 1:5 The sandwich ELISA test was used for detecting several concentrations of A. flavus, R. stolonifer and their extracts in carbonate buffer solution pH 9.5 involved: 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56, 0.78, 0.39 micrograms per milliliter. ELISA test also used in detecting their concentration: 1, 2, 3 micrograms of these two fungi per milliliter of tomato paste diluted 1:5 diluted with PSB solution results showed that the absorbance of these concentration in carbonate buffer was more than in tomato paste and positive correlation was found between concentration of mold and the absorbance , ELISA test was compared with biological method (plating culture) for detecting the three concentrations of mold in tomato paste, results showed that ELISA test was more sensitive than plating culture which detect viable mold spores only.

إستعمال الفحص المناعي الأنزيمي الإيلايزا النوع الغير المباشر في قياس معيار الأجسام المضادة في الأمصال المحضرة ضد الفطريات Aspergillus flavus و Rhizopus stolonifer. إستعمل المصل المضاد المرتبط بأنزيم الهيدروكسيدزAnti –IgG-HRP (Goat Anti – IgG-Horse Radish proxidas) إذ بلغ معيار الأجسام المضادة لكل من الفطر ِ A. flavusوR. stolonifer 1/160 و 1/80 على التوالي. تم تحضير المقترن لكل من الفطر A. flavusوR. Stolonifer وذلك بربط المصل المحض ضد كل منها (بعد ترسيبه بكبريتات الامونيوم) بأنزيم الفوسفاتيز القاعدي (Alkaline phosphatase) وتم تقدير أفضل تخفيف للمقترن المحضر ضد الفطر A. flavus 1:10 و للفطرR. stolonifer 1:5. إستعمل فحص الأيلايزا نوع Double-sandwich للكشف عن تراكيز معينه من الفطر A. flavus وR. stolonifer أو خلاصتهما في محلول دارئ الكاربونات ذي الرقم الهيدروجيني 9.5 وهي 25 , 1.5 , 12.5 3.125 , 6.25 ، 0.39 , 0.78 مايكروغرام لكل مليلتر كما إستعمل فحص الإيلايزا للكشف عن ثلاث تراكيز من الفطرين المشار لهما هي 3,2,1 مايكروغرام لكل مليلتر في نموذج معجون الطماطة المخفف5:1 بالمحلول المنظم PBS . وأظهرت النتائج إن قيم الامتصاص الضوئي لتركيز الفطر في محلول دارئ الكاربونات أعلى مما هو عليه في نموذج معجون الطماطة كما أظهرت النتائج بأن هناك علاقة طردية بين تركيز الفطر المضاف وقيم الامتصاص الضوئي وأظهرت أيضاً وجود فروقات عاليه المعنوية عند الكشف عن الفطر في معجون الطماطة وبمقارنه فحص الإيلايزا مع طريقه الزرع بالأطباق التي إستعملت للكشف عن التراكيز الفطرية نفسها في نموذج معجون الطماطة.


Article
Use of clotrimazole eye Suspension for fungal keratitis as monotherapy or sequentially with amphotercin-B

Author: Faiz Al- Shakarchi
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-13
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: To determine the efficacy of 1% clotrimazole eye drops suspension for treating fungal keratitis as monotherapy or sequentially with topical amphotercin-B.Method:This therapeutic trial was conducted in Ibn Al-Haetham Teaching Eye Hospital/Baghdad between February 2008 and July 2009. The patients with culture proven fungal keratitis were divided into two groups, first group (presented between February 2008 and May 2008) were treated initially with 1% clotrimazole eye suspension. Second group (presented between May 2008 and July 2009) were treated sequentially with 0.1% amphotercin-B eye drops (induction phase) for 2-3 weeks, then switched to 1% clotrimazole eye suspension (maintenance phase). The results in the sequential group were compared with a previous study of using 0.1% amphotercin-B eye drops as monotherapy for treating fungal keratitis. Results: Thirty-two patients with culture proven fungal keratitis were enrolled in this study. Eight cases treated initially with clotrimazole suspension, only two of them had favorable response. While 24 patients treated sequentially and 20 of them had favorable response. Comparing the sequential therapy with a previous study used 0.1% amphotercin eye drops as monotherapy, showed that mean time for therapy was not significantly different in non-severe cases (4.1/4 weeks), while it was shorter in severe cases (9.5/12 weeks).Conclusion: Use of clotrimazole eye drops as monotherapy is not effective in treating fungal keratitis. While Sequential therapy of using topical amphotercin-B during induction phase followed by 1% clotrimazole suspension as clearance, or maintenance phase is an effective and cheaper therapy for treating fungal keratitis.


Article
ALLERGIC FUNGAL RHINOSINUSITIS IN PATIENTS WITH NASAL POLYPOSIS

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Background:Nasal polyposis and chronic rhinosinusitis is much debated subject. Generally speaking, nasal polyposis should probably be regarded as one form of chronic inflammation in the nose and sinuses, which is indeed part of the spectrum of chronic rhinosinusitis. Nasal polyposis is the ultimate form of inflammation for unknown reasons; polyps preferentially develop in subtypes of inflammatory diseases. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is defined the consequence of immunocompetent patient whenever there is allergy to fungus.Objective:To determine the frequency of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis among patients having nasal polyposis.Methods:A prospective study of 60 selected patients with nasal polyposis was studied at Al-Imamein Al-Kadhimein Medical City. After thorough history and full ENT examination, all patients sent for computed tomography (CT) scan of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Patients who needed surgical treatment, the specimens were sent for histopathological analysis to identify the fungi. The diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis was based on analysis of clinical, radiological, and laboratory investigations. Results:The mean age was (41.3±13.7) years; male to female ratio was (1.7:1). Both nasal obstruction 54 (90%) and nasal discharge 51 (85%) were the commonest clinical presentation. CT scans opacities were found in all 60 patients (100%). Fungal elements were detected by histopathological study in 7 (11.7%) of them.Conclusion:Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a significant cause of nasal polyposis.Keywords:Allergy, fungal infection, nasal polyposis.


Article
Effect of Some Storage Conditions upon the Survival ofSome Fungal Spores

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Folic acid and multivitamin tablets containing Aspergillus flavus Penicillia spp. and Cladosporia spores were prepared at a compression pressure of 148 MN/m2 and stored at 35°C under different relative humidifies (75,85, and 95)% within air tight containers, to study the effect of storage condition on them, as well as ,the estimation of the microbial level of the raw materials intended to be used in the two kinds of tablets . Result showed that some raw materials derived from natural origin were heavily contaminated with microorganism compared to that of synthetic origin ,the results also indicated the effect of relative humidity , types of fungal spore , and the hygroscopic nature of exicpient upon survival. Multivitamin tablets showed more survival than folic acid tablets and this is due to the presence of more nutrients. No aflatoxin was obtained from both multivitamin and folic tablets at 35°C temperature; this is due to the temperature which is not an optimum temperature for aflatoxin B1 production.

تم تحضير حبوب حامض الفوليك ومحبوب مجموعة من الفيتامينات تحت ضغط 148 ميكا نيوتن / م2 وتم خزنها في درجة حرارة 35°م ورطوبة نسبية مختلفة كما تم حساب التلوث الميكروبي للمواد الخام المستخدمة في تحضير نوعين من الحبوب ولقد بينت النتائج أن المواد الأولية (الخام ) ذات الأصل الحيواني او النباتية التي تدخل في الصناعة المستحضرات الصيدلانية أكثر ملوثة من المواد الأولية ذات الأصل الصناعي ماعدا التي تبين من البحث احتوائها على بكتريا مرضية .. وقد تبين من خلال البحث إن بعض الأنواع قد قاومت عملية الكبس ولذلك دعت الى دراسة ظروف بدت مختلفة وتأثيرها على هذه الفطريات وقد أظهرت النتائج ان الحبوب التي تحوي مجموع من الفيتامينات تظهر بنسبة اعلى من التلوث بسبب ما تحويه من مواد غذائية وان الفطر اسبارجلاس أظهر على نسبة للتلوث مقارنة ببقية الفطريات ولم يسجل اي نسبة للافلاتوكسين وهذا يعود إلى إن درجة 35°م غير ملائمة لإنتاج افلاتوكسين ب 1.

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