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The Prevalence of Rotavirus Infection in Baquba- Diyala Province

Authors: Mehdi SH. AL-Zuheiry --- Abbas A. Al-Duliami --- Abdul-Razak SH. Hasan --- Abdul-Kadir Y. Al-Azawi
Journal: Diyala Journal For Pure Science مجلة ديالى للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 83732222 25189255 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 16-27
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Background: Rotavirus infection is the leading single cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. More than 500,000 children under 5 years of age die from rotavirus infection each year, and almost 2 million more become severely ill.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection among patients with diarrhea in Baquba- Diyala province, and to explore the effect of certain relevant factors.Materials and methods: The present study was extended from 1/July/2007 to 1/September/ 2008 in Baquba city. A total of 300 fecal specimens were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The patients include 136 (45.3%) females with mean age (7.8 ± 4.7) years, and 164 males with mean age (5.3± 3.4) years. BioRad-Rota kit is a highly sensitive agglutination test was used for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. Bacterial co-infections were identified by culturing on differential and selective media, and the final diagnosis followed the standard bacteriological criteria. Parasitic co-infections were detected by general stool examination. All data were statistically analyzed.Results: The results showed that the overall infection rate by rotavirus among patients was 20.3%, and the highest infection rate was among those below 5 years of age. Rotavirus infection among adult patients was also recorded. Females had an insignificantly higher infection rate compared to males (22.1% vs. 18.9%). Patients consuming river's water had significantly higher infection rate compared to those used municipal or tank water (34.5%, 14.1% and 18.5%) respectively. Patients (below 2 years) feed artificially had higher infection rate com College of Vet. Med. Diyala University pared to those on breast or mixed feeding (28.2%, 19.1% and 18.8%) respectively. Although, the rotavirus infections were recorded around the year, the highest infection rate was during spring and winter seasons (22.5% vs 21.4%). It was also found that neither bacterial nor parasitic co-infections were significantly associated with rotavirus infection.Conclusion: Rotavirus infection as a cause of acute diarrhea was common in Diyala province, and particularly affects children below 5 years of age.


Article
The Prevalence of Rotavirus Infection in Baquba - Diyala Province
معدل الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي في مدينة بعقوبة- محافظة ديالى

Author: Abdul-Razak Sh. Hasan د.عبدالرزاق شفيق حسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 200-204
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Rotavirus infection is the leading single cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children. More than 500,000 children under 5 years of age die from rotavirus infection each year, and almost 2 million more become severely ill.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection among patients with diarrhea in Baquba- Diyala province, and to explore the effect of certain relevant factors.Materials and methods: The present study was extended from 1/July/2007 to 1/September/ 2008 in Baquba city. A total of 300 fecal specimens were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The patients include 136 (45.3%) females with mean age (7.8 ± 4.7) years, and 164 males with mean age (5.3± 3.4) years. Demographic information regarding the patient's age, sex, residence, type of water supply, and type of feeding (for those below 2 years of age) were collected through a special questionnaire prepared for this study. BioRad-Rota kit is a highly sensitive agglutination test was used for detection of rotavirus in fecal specimens. All data were statistically analyzed.Results: The results showed that the overall infection rate by rotavirus among patients was 20.3%, and the highest infection rate was among those below 5 years of age. Rotavirus infection among adult patients was also recorded. Females had an insignificantly higher infection rate compared to males (22.1% vs. 18.9%). Patients consuming river's water had significantly higher infection rate compared to those used municipal or tank water (34.5%, 14.1% and 18.5%) respectively. Patients (below 2 years) feed artificially had higher infection rate compared to those on breast or mixed feeding (28.2%, 19.1% and 18.8%) respectively. Although, the rotavirus infections were recorded around the year, the highest infection rate was during spring and winter seasons (22.5% vs. 21.4%).Conclusion: Rotavirus infection as a cause of acute diarrhea was common in Baquba, and particularly affects children below 5 years of age. Keywords: Rotavirus, acute diarrhea, gastroenteritis

تمهيد: يعتبر الفيروس العجلي المسبب الرئيسي الوحيد لحالات الإسهال الشديدة لدى الرضع والأطفال يبلغ عدد الوفيات لدى الأطفال تحت سن الخامسة من العمر من جراء الإصابة بهذا الفيروس أكثر من نصف مليون حالة وفاة سنويا، فضلا عن حوالي مليوني حالة من حالات الإسهال الخطيرة.أهداف الدراسة: لتحديد مدى انتشار الاصابة بفيروس العجلي بين المرضى المصابون بالاسهال في مدينة بعقوبة- محافظة ديالى، وكذلك لمعرفة تاثير بعض العوامل ذات العلاقة بنسب الاصابة.المواد وطرق العمل: أجريت هذه الدراسة في مدينة بعقوبة للفترة من الاول من تموز/2007 الى الاول من ايلول/2008 ، جمعت نماذج البراز من 300 مريضا يعانون من الاسهال الحاد، شملت مجموعة المرضى 136 (45,3%) اناثا بمعدل عمر (7,8 ± 4,7) سنة، و 164 ( 54,7%) ذكور وبمعدل عمر (5,3 ± 3,4) سنة، جمعت المعلومات التي تخص المرضى كالعمر، الجنس، السكن، مصدر مياه الشرب، نوعية التغذية ( لمن هم دون السنتين من العمر) من خلال استمارة خاصة اعدت لهذه الدراسة0 استخدم فحص التلازن عالي الحساسية من شركة (Bio-Rad Rota Kit) للكشف عن الفيروس في نماذج البراز، جميع النتائج حللت احصائيا. النتائج: أظهرت النتائج ان نسبة الاصابة الكلية بالفيروس العجلي بين عينة الدراسة كانت 20,3%، وكانت الفئة العمرية دون الخمس سنوات من العمر الاكثر تعرضا للاصابة، سجلت الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي بين البالغين والكبار ايضا، كانت نسبة لاصابة بين الاناث اعلى بشكل غير معنوي مقارنة بالذكور (22,1% مقابل 18,9%)، كانت نسب الاصابة لدى المرضى الذين يستخدمون مياه الانهر للشرب اعلى بشكل معنوي مقارنة باولائك الذين يستخدمون مياه الاسالة او مياة الصهاريج (34,5%، 14,1% و 18,5%) على التوالي، بالرغم من ان الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي قد سجلت على مدار السنة، فان اعلى نسب الاصابة كانت في فصلي الربيع والشتاء ( 22,5% مقابل 21,4%).الاستنتاج: ان الاسهال الشديد بسبب الاصابة بالفيروس العجلي شائع في مدينة بعقوبة، وان الفئة العمرية دون الخمسة سنوات من العمر هي الاكثر تضررا.


Article
seasonal gastroenteritis associated with bacterial species among Iraqi children

Author: Maha Abdul -Jabar مها عبد الجبار
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 2 Pages: 177-180
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Article
Efficacy of Rotavirus Vaccination in Prevention of Hospital Admission of Gastroenteritis among Children Under Two Years of Age

Author: Suzan Salam M. Hussein*, Saba Abbas Fadhil*, Raed Yehya Salman**
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 225-231
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. OBJECTIVE :To find out the efficasy of rotavirus vaccine in prevention or reduce the number of cases and hospital admission of gastroenteritis among children under two years of age.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted in Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatric in Baghdad,from the first of February to 31st of May 2016,on a total of(524) child under two years of age, grouped into two groups,first group(260)vaccinated with rotavirus vaccine,second group(264)non-vaccinated.RESULTS:According to development of gastroenteritis and vaccination state of rotavirus vaccine,the acute gastroenteritis in non-vaccinated group was more compared with vaccinated group,192out of264(72.8 %)and128 out of 260(49.2%) respectively,and this association statistically significant.The number of cases that is admitted to hospital is48(37.5%)in vaccinated group with acute gastroenteritis which is significantly lower as compared to148(77.1%)in non-vaccinated group with acute gastroenteritis.This study showed that males and females were found to be equally affected of gastroenteritis.CONCLUSION:Rotavirus vaccine have reduced the number of cases and hospital admission of gastroenteritis among children under two years of age in Central Teaching Hospital of Pediatric in Baghdad.


Article
Role of rotavirus as the cause of acute pediatric diarrhea in Al-Diwaniyah, Iraq

Author: Abbas Attya Shaalan Al-Saidy
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences مجلة القادسية لعلوم الطب البيطري ISSN: 18185746 23134429 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-72
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Rotavirus illness is associated with significant rate of morbidity and is a common cause of hospitalization worldwide. This study was performed to evaluate the role of rotavirus in children presenting with acute diarrhea in maternity and pediatrics hospital in Al-Diwaniyahduring the period from March 2007 to February 2008. Stool specimens from 600 children (between 2 months and 5 years of age), 380 were males and 220 were females, suffering from diarrhea were tested for the antibodies against rotavirus by use of latex agglutination card test. The antibodies of rotavirus were detected in 240 (40%) of stool samples that 150 (62.5%) in males and 90 (37.5%) in females. The affected age of 210 patients (87.5%) were in 5 months to 5 years whereas 30 patients (12.5%) were below 5 months. According to the living areas, 140 patients (58.33%) were from urban areas while 100 patients (41.67%) were from rural areas. According to the type of feed, 136 patients (56.67%) were artificially fed, 36 patients (15%) were breastfed and 68 patients (28.33%) were of mixed feeding. It can be concluded that rotavirus infection was significantly less frequent in breast-fed than among bottle-fed babies.


Article
SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF ROTAVIRUS INFECTION IN BOVINE AND HUMAN
الكشف المصلي والجزيئي لاصابات الروتافايروس في الابقار والانسان

Author: Enas R. Mohsin, Khalid H. Al-Jaff
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 349-359
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Rotaviruses, causing acute gastroenteritis, that infect humans and animals around the world. There are many assays had been developed for the detection of rotavirus or the viral antigens. The present study was done on 79 samples of stool collected from pediatric patients with acute watery diarrhea aged from one months to 5 years admitted to Basrah Maternity and children hospital in Basrah province, during the period from October 2014 to February 2015. Ninety diarrheic fecal bovine samples were included in this study. All samples were used for the investigation and detection of rotavirus antigen by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA).According to ELISA results, 10 out of 79(12.7%) pediatric stool samples rotavirus antigens were detected in children. Percentage (20.7%) of positive rotavirus antigen were detected in the patients at second age group (>6 months). Followed by 8% of patients at first age group (<6 months) these differences were not significant (P>0.05). The percentage of rotavirus antigen was higher in males patients (16.7%) compared to females (P>0.05) and also the differences were not significant differences (P>0.05). These results of rotavirus antigen detection in 90 diarrheic bovine fecal samples showed that this antigen was excreted by 56.7%of diarrheic calves. Additionally the higher non-significant (P>0.05) excretion percentage according to age was observed in 63.4 % of calves > 1 year old and the lower percentage(51.1%) was observed in the first age group( < 1year) calves old. The differences in sex were not significant (P>0.05) in the percentage of rotavirus antigen detection were also detected as 63.5% of male fecal samples show positive rotavirus antigen excretion whereas only 47.4% of female fecal samples were positive.


Article
Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Under Five Years Children at Al-Alwaiya Paediatric Hospital

Author: Sinan Ghazi Mehdi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 318-321
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Rotavirus is the main cause of diarrhea in <5 years children causing high rates of hospitalizations and high mortality.OBJECTIVE:To estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis among less than five years children attending Al-Alwaiya Pediatric Hospital. To examin the validity of ELISA and Latex screening tests and to find out the concordane rates.METHODS:Across sectional study involved under five years(1-59months) children with acute gastroenteritis attending Al-Alwaiya Pediatric Hospital for the period from 1st of January 2008 to 31st of May 2008. The questionnaire used depended on WHO protocol of the National Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Surveillance Program. LATEX and ELISA tests were used for diagnosis. The period of study included two seasons: Winter and Spring.RESULTS:Stool samples of 342 children with acute gastroenteritis were investigated by general stool examination, stool culture, LATEX and ELISA tests for the presence of any parasite, bacteria and/ or rotavirus antigen respectively. Rotavirus was detected in 162(47.4%) of children with acute gastroenteritis either by LATEX, ELISA or both. Total concordance rate between the two tests was as high as 85.4%. Females were 61(37.7%) and males were 101(62.3%). Age group mostly affected was (>6-12) months which was (31.4%).CONCLUSION:Rotavirus cause 47.4% of acute gastroenteritis cases of the studied sample with no significant statistical difference between rotavirus and other causes of gastroenteritis regarding demographic features (except for gender, more in males), clinical features, and type of treatment and course of disease (except time of onset).Concordance rate between ELISA and Latex was found to be high confirming their validity.


Article
Shigella Gastroenteritis in Children with A Cute Diarrhea in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital

Authors: Dhiaa H. Saeed --- Zainab A. Ali --- Mohammad F. Ibraheem
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 10-15
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Shigellosis is the most common cause of epidemic dysentery and affecting all age groups especially in the first (2) years of life, It is a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity in developing countries .OBJECTIVE:To study the extent of shigella gastroenteritis among children presented with acute diarrhea.METHODS:Three hundred sixteen patient were included in the study (186 males and 130 females),admitted to the children welfare teaching hospital, medical city complex, Baghdad, suffering from diarrhea and their ages ranged from 2 months-10 years, over a 4 months period (from the first of December 2007 till the end of March 2008), History and physical examination were carried out, general stool examination and stool culture were done by taking fresh stool samples collected from these children and submitted to serial investigations.RESULTS :The study showed that out of 316patients suffering from diarrhea, 22(6.9%) patients with shigella positive, 16(6.2%)had watery diarrhea, 6(10.7%) had bloody diarrhea, 262(82.9%) were less than 2 years. Out of 22patients with shigella positive 12(54.5%) of them were less than 2 years. Most of the patients presented with diarrhea consume unboiled tap water 192 (60.8%), with 8 (36.4%) of them are Shigella species positive. The use of filtration and chlorination of water at home shows no shigella species diarrhea and only 2 (0.7%) Shigella species negative diarrhea. Diarrhea is the presenting symptom followed by fever 20(90.9%), vomiting 14(63.64%), Then abdominal pain 4(18.18%).CONCLUSION:Shigellosis was found to be the third most common cause of infectious bacterial diarrhea following Escherichia coli and campylobacter jejuni and also the third most common cause of bloody diarrhea following entamoeba histolytica and Campylobacter jejuni, and the relationship between water supply and its sterilization with shigella infection is significantly different between people who consume purified and sterilized water than those who did not.


Article
Detection of Adenovirus antigen and its correlation with clinical signs among children with gastroenteritis
التحري عن مستضد الفيروس الغدي وعلاقته مع وجود علامات سريرية بين الأطفال الذين يعانون من التهاب المعدة والأمعاء

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A total of 90 stool sample was collected from patients with gastroenteritis to detect adenovirus antigen among diarrhea cases. They were tested by general stool examination (GSE), rapid immunochromatographic test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). GSE showed that adenovirus gastroenteritis infection resulted in non-bloody diarrhea, the existence of RBCs in 7% and Pus in 37% of the samples, Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite and cyst were seen in 3% and 2% of the samples respectively. The rapid test showed that 21% of samples were positive for rotavirus, 8% for adenovirus and 3% for astrovirus. Meanwhile, the ELISA test showed that adenovirus was positive in 9% of the samples. These findings established the evidence that adenovirus is significantly the second viral agent that cause gastroenteritis among children after rotavirus. Furthermore, it must be stated that rapid diagnostic methods are important for detection of adenovirus infection.

تم جمع ما مجموعه 90 عينة براز من المرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب المعدة والأمعاء للتحري عن مستضد الفيروس الغدي بين حالات الإسهال. تم اختبارها بوساطة فحص البراز العام، فحص الترحيل الكروماتوغرافي المناعي السريع وفحص الامتزاز المناعي المرتبط بالانزيم. أظهر فحص البراز العام أن الاصابة بألتهاب المعدة والأمعاء للفيروس الغدي أسفرت عن الإسهال غير الدموي، وجود كرات الدم الحمراء في 7٪ والقيح في 37٪ من العينات، الطور المغتذي والطور الكيسي لطفيلي المتحولة الزحارية شوهد في 3٪ و 2٪ من العينات على التوالي. أظهر الفحص السريع أن 21٪ من العينات كانت إيجابية للفيروس الدوار، و 8٪ للفيروس الغدي و3٪ للفيروس النجمي. في الوقت نفسه أظهر فحص الامتزاز المناعي المرتبط بالانزيم أن الفيروس الغدي كان ايجابي في 9٪ من العينات. انشأت هذه النتائج الأدلة على ان الفيروس الغدي هو ثاني العوامل الفيروسية التي تسبب التهاب المعدة والأمعاء وبشكل ملحوظ لدى الأطفال بعد الفيروس الدوار. علاوة على ذلك, لا بد من ذكر أن طرق التشخيص السريع مهمة للتحري عن الاصابة بالفيروس الغدي.


Article
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ROTAVIRUS GASTROENTERITIS AMONG HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN LESS THAN FIVE YEARS OLD IN SELECTED HOSPITALS IN JORDAN, 2007-2008

Authors: Kareman J. Al-Zein --- Ahmed Alkafajei
Journal: The Medical Journal of Basrah University المجلة الطبية لجامعة البصرة ISSN: 02530759 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 30-39
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Background: Acute gastroenteritis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortalityworldwide. Rotavirus causes more than 130 million episodes of severe diarrhea in children less than five yearsthroughout the world and is considered as main problem in many countries. Few data are available aboutgastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus in Jordan.Objectives: The primary purpose of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristicsof hospitalized cases attributable to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years old in selected hospitalsduring the period May 2007-April 2008 to provide Ministry of Health with evidence upon which to base its futuristicdecision in regard to development of more suitable preventive measures. This study will improve the existing diarrheasurveillance system in MoH, facilitate and support the decision of introducing rotavirus vaccine in nationalimmunization programme.Methods: Descriptive Cross-sectional study was performed on the hospitalized children less than five years old withacute gastroenteritis in three selected hospitals in three governorates (north, middle and south regions) withpopulation about 45.3% of Jordan population for the period May 2007 to April 2008. Standard case definition wasadopted. Analysis was performed using SPSS and Epi Info statistical packages.Results: 377 cases were enrolled with 171 positive for rotavirus. Results showed that Incidence rate of rotavirusdisease is 5.2/ 10000 children less than five years old per year; male: female ratio is 1.8:1 with largest proportion ofcases among children 6-11 months old. Southern region has the highest incidence rate. Vomiting is an outstandingsymptom for rotavirus cases (P< 0.01) in addition to diarrhea and fever which require admission to hospital for fluidreplacement. Majority of rotavirus cases were with some dehydration (30%). Mean stay duration is 3 days.Predominant genotypes are G1P8.G2P4 and G9P untypeable.Conclusions: Although mortality of gastroenteritis is no longer a problem in Jordan due to accessibility to healthservices, morbidity is still high and rotavirus is a relevant cause for gastroenteritis in children less than five years old;which require hospitalization most of the time (45.4% of admitted gastroenteritis).

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