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Article
Physicochemical characteristic of unstimulated and stimulated saliva with different chewing gum stimulation

Authors: Alhan A. Qasim الحان قاسم --- Eman K. Chaloob ايمان جلوب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 94-98
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Gum chewing is a common habit in many countries. Both sucrose containing and sugar-free gumstimulate salivary flow, increase in saliva flow lead to more frequent replenishment and greater supply ofantibacterial factors, saline, buffers, minerals and other beneficial constituents, increase pH and buffer capacity ofwhole saliva. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different chewing gums on the salivaryconstituents including some elements (Magnesium, Calcium, Copper and Zinc)(chemical),PH and flowrate(physical)characteristic.Materials and Methods: Saliva samples was collected from dental students/college of dentistry 23 age stimulated bythree types of chewing gum (mastic, Arabic, sugar) and control group (unstimulated saliva), pH and saliva flow ratewas recorded for four groups. Biochemical analysis was assessed for some salivary elements, (Magnesium, Calcium,Copper, and Zinc) and its relation with different chewing gum and control group. Student's t-test, ANOVA and LSDtest was used for statistical analysis. Also mean and standard deviation was recorded.Results: Mean value of pH was found to be high in three types of chewing gum with highly significant differencecomparing with control group. A significant difference in flow rate was found between control and sugared gumgroup. Mg and Ca ione was found to be highly significant between mastic gum group and other three groups , aswell as highly significant difference was recorded among four groups of saliva in Cu ione, while no significantdifference was showed between Zn ione and four groups.Conclusion: Chewing gum include natural (mastic and Arabic) and sugared was increases salivary pH. Use ofchewing gum especially mastic and Arabic can enhance the remineralizing potential of the mouth, probably bystimulating salivary flow which may lead to rise salivary elements


Article
Some Variables Affecting the Formulation of Oral Loratadine Suspension

Authors: Hala S.Yousif هالة صادق يوسف --- Yehia I. Khalil يحيى اسماعيل خليل
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2008 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 18-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Loratadine is a long acting non-sedating anti-histaminic agent that was developed for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, whose anti-histaminic action is more effective than the other anti-histaminic drugs available commercially. This project was carried out to prepare an acceptable suspension through studying the release of drug in presence of different types and concentrations of suspending agents such as polysorbate 40, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC), aluminum magnesium silicate (veegum) and sodium alginate. The effects of these suspending agents were studied at pH 1.2 (0.1N HCl) and 37 ْC. The results showed that the release rate of loratadine in the presence of these suspending agents was dependent on their types and concentrations. The results showed that loratadine release from the formula prepared from xanthan gum is more than that prepared from other polymers in the following order: Sodium alginate < NaCMC < veegum < xanthan gum. However, elegancy of suspension was better on using xanthan gum in a concentration of 0.5%. The obtained results were utilized to formulate 0.1% suspension of loratadine which is physically stable with an optimum drug release. The rheology, sedimentation volume, resuspendability and expiration date were evaluated for the selected formula. The formula that contains loratadine, xanthan gum, glycerol, sorbitol, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, sodium edetate, raspberry flavor at pH 5.0 appears to be a promised formula to be present with estimated shelf life of about 3.8 years.

اللوراتادين عقار مضاد للهستامين طويل المفعول و غير مسبب للنعاس , اكتشف لعلاج حساسية الانف الموسمية و ان مفعوله المضاد للهستامين اكثر فاعلية من الانواع الاخرى المتوفرة تجاريا. تم إجراء هذا البحث لتحضير معلق مقبول من الناحية الصيدلانية من خلال دراسة تحرر الدواء بوجود انواع مختلفة من المواد المعلقة و بعدة تراكيز مثل: البولى سوربات 40, صمغ الزانثان, كاربوكسى مثيل سليلوز الصوديوم, فيكام (سليكات المغنسيوم و الالمنيوم) و الجينات الصوديوم. تمت دراسة هذة التاثيرات بمحلول حامض الهيدروكلوريك عيارية ١,٠ و بدرجة حرارة 37 ْم. اشارت النتائج الى ان تحرر اللوراتادين من التركيبة التى تحتوى على صمغ الزانثان اسرع من التراكيب التي تحتوى على الانواع الاخرى من المواد المعلقة و بالشكل التالى: الجينات الصوديوم> كاربوكسى مثيل سليلوز الصوديوم > فيكام ≥ صمغ الزانثان. تم الاستفادة من هذه النتائج فى تحضير صيغ تركيبية تحتوى على مادة اللوراتادين بتركيز ٠٫١٪ . اختيرت الصيغ التى اعطت احسن تحرر للدواء و افضل استقرارية للتقييم من خلال قياس جريان المعلق و حجم ترسب و تجانس المعلق بعد تحريكه و تاريخ الصلاحية لافضل تركيبة. لقد وجد بان احسن تركيبة هى التى تحتوى على اللوراتادين , صمغ الزانثان, كليسيرول, سوربيتول, مثيل بارابين, بروبيل بارابين, ايديتيت ثنائى الصوديوم و نكهة التوت عند الاس الهيدروجينى 5 . اما مدة صلاحية المعلق المحضر فكان بحدود ٣٫٨ سنوات.


Article
THE TEMPERATURE EFFECT ON THE VISCOSITY AND DENSITY OF XANTHAN GUM SOLUTION
تأثير الحرارة على اللزوجة والكثافة لمحلول XANTHAN GUM

Author: Asmaa Hasan Dhiaa
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 17-30
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Xanthan gum is a nontoxic polysaccharide with a good gelling, thickening and stabilizing attributes, and used widely in food and cosmetic industries. Effect of temperature on the viscosity and density of various solutions of xanthan gum (0.1 ,0.2,0.3,0.4 and 0.5 w/v %) were studied experimentally with temperatures range of 30 to 60C. The experimental tests were performed using DV-II+Pro viscometer at different speeds (50, 100 and 150rpm). It has been noticed by measuring the viscosity changes, that efficiency of higher polymer concentrations , lower speeds and lower temperatures also.The density increase by increasing concentration and decrease with temperatures

يمتاز لبان الزانثان بأنه من عديدات السكريات غير السامة ذات الهلامية والكثافة والاستقرار الجيد، ويستخدم لتراكيز مختلفة بشكل واسع في الأطعمة وصناعة مستحضرات التجميل. تمت دراسة أثر درجة الحرارة عملياً على اللزوجة و الكثافة لمختلف التراكيز 0,1 -0,2-0,3-0.4 و0,5 وزن / حجم , لمديات درجة حرارة من 30 إلى 60 درجة سليزية باستخدام جهاز اللزوجة DV-II+Pro وبسرع زمنية مختلفة (50,100,150) دورة دقيقة . نلاحظ نقصان اللزوجة عند تعريض المحاليل لسرع ودرجات حرارة عالية وزيادة اللزوجة عند زيادة التركيز. وزيادة الكثافة عند درجات الحرارة المنخفضة والتراكيز العالية .


Article
Antibacterial effect of the extracts and essential oils prepared from Pistacia lentiscus L. mastic gum against pathogenic bacteria
التأثير التثبيطي للمستخلصات والزيت الأساسي المفصول من صمغ نبات المستكي ضد عدد من البكتريا المرضية Pistacia lentiscus L.

Author: Hassan F. Al-Mola حسن فيصل حسين المولى
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2011 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 35-39
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The water, ethanol, chloroform, acetone extracts and isolated essential oil of the mastic gum resins of Pistacia lentiscus L. were investigated for their antibacterial activity against seven different species of pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion and microdilution assay. All extracts showed antibacterial activity against most tested bacteria except, P. mirabilis and E. coli which were resistant to chloroform and acetone extracts. The ethanol extract exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus whereas the water extracts exhibited some degree of activity and the chloroform and acetone extracts exhibited no or least activity. The isolated compound (essential oil) with a concentration of 50 mg/ml achieved good antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria (zone of inhibition range: 18-27 mm).Minimal inhibitory concentrations of The ethanol extract achieved best results against all tested bacteria and S. aureus was the most susceptible bacteria with a MIC value of 0.097 mg/ml, whereas the lowest susceptibility results were seen against C. diphtheria using the aqueous and acetone extracts. Finally the essential oil showed best results against P. aeruginosa and the least activity was calculated against E. coli and S. typhi.

تم في هذه الدراسة التحري عن التأثير التثبيطي للمستخلص المائي و الايثانولي و الاسيتوني و الكلوروفورمي لصمغ نبات المستكي Pistacia lentiscus ضد سبعة أنواع مختلفة من البكتريا المرضية: Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium diphtheria, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa بأستخدام طريقة الانتشار بالأقراص وطريقة .microdilution assay جميع المستخلصات أظهرت تأثيرا تثبيطيا ضد جميع أنواع البكتريا قيد الدراسة ماعدا E. coli وP. mirabilis اللذان قاوما المستخلص الاسيتوني و الكلوروفورمي.اظهر المستخلص الايثانولي تأثيرا تثبيطيا عاليا بينما اظهر المستخلص المائي تأثيرا اقل في حين أن المستخلص الاسيتوني و الكلوروفورمي تباينا في التأثير بين التأثير الضئيل وعدمه. اظهر الزيت الأساسي المفصول تأثيرا تثبيطيا جيدا ضد جميع أنواع البكتريا قيد الدراسة وبقطر تثبيط تراوح بين (18-27 mm ). كما وجد أن التركيز المثبط الأدنى للمستخلص الايثانولي اظهر نتائج جيدة ضد جميع أنواع البكتريا قيد الدراسة وكان بكتريا S.aureus أكثر الأنواع البكتيرية حساسية وبتركيز مثبط أدنى( (0.097 mg/ml في حين أن اقل حساسية أظهرت من قيل بكتريا C. diphtheria وذلك باستخدام المستخلص الاسيتوني والمائي.وأخيرا اظهر الزيت الأساسي نتائج جيدة ضد بكتريا P. aeruginosa كما وأظهرت النتائج اقل تأثير ضد بكتريا E. coli و S. typhi .


Article
Study of some physicochemical properties and bioactivity of gum extracted from Linum usitatissimum
دراسة لبعض الخصائص الفيزيائية-الكيميائية والفعالية الحيوية للصمغ المستخلص من Linum usitatissimum))

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Abstract

Gum was extracted from linseed (Linum usitissimum) in north of Iraq, which it annual growth plant. Organoleptic characterization of: color, odor, taste, fracture and texture. Physico-chemical properties were determined: pH, bulk density, tapped density, bulkiness, swelling index, ash values, carr's index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. Thin Layer Chromatography paper was used to monitor the extracted saccharides by comparing the spots with the of the standards and flow rate Rf calculated. The FT-IR spectrum of the product showed an absorption bands at 3666.29 cm-1(–OH), 2966.76 cm-1(C-H), 2640.44 cm-1 (C=C), 1826.62 (C=O), 1420.04 (C-H bend). Anti-microbial activity evaluated of the gum and observed that gum does not any significant antibacterial activity such as cell wall destruction.

استخلص الصمغ من بذور الكتان في شمال العراق, الذي ينمو النبات سنويا. قيمت المميزات الحسية : لون، رائحة، ذوق، الكسر والتكوين. قدرت الخصائص الكيميائية-الفيزيائية المختلفة : الدالة الحامضية، كثافة الحجم، كثافة النقر, التضخم, عامل الانتفاخ، قيم الرماد, عامل كار, نسبة هاوسنير وزاوية السكون. استخدمت كروموتوغرافيا الطبقة الرقيقة لمراقبة السكريات المستخلصة بواسطة مقارنة البقع مع تلك القياسية وحسب معدل الجريان. بينت قمم امتصاص لطيف الاشعة تحت الحمراء عند:3666.29 cm-1(–OH), 2966.76 cm-1(C-H), 2640.44 cm-1 (C=C), 1826.62 (C=O), 1420.04 (C-H bend)قيمت الفعالية ضد الاحياء المجهرية للصمغ ولوحظت ذلك الصمغ لا يعمل أي أهمية فعالية ضد البكتريا مثال لذلك تحطم جدار الخلية.


Article
The Use of Arabic Gum in Treatment of Patients with Chronic Gingivitis: A Clinical Trial

Author: Husamuldeen S. Mohammed Saeed حسام الدين سالم محمد سعيد
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 64-71
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Chronic gingivitis is a well known periodontal disease. Bacterial plaque plays a key role in the pathogenic initiation and progression of periodontal disease. More attention directed toward the use of herbal drugs to treat them. Arabic or Acacia gum as mouthwash pharmaceutical preperation used in this study to manage thirty patients complaining from chronic gingivitis, age range from 20 to 45 years old with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study was a randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. The patients followed at baseline, day 7th, 30th and 60th . Results show that Arabic gum mouthwash found to be effective in controlling dental plaque level and inflammation those causing periodentitis.


Article
The Common Complications of Chemotherapeutic Agents and the Effect of Xylitol Chewing Gum on Oral Dental Hygiene in Patients Having Malignant

Author: Jawnaa K Mammdoh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: SpIss Pages: S70-S77
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study were to estimate the percentage of general and oral complications among patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents and correlate the oral complications with the age of the patients and with the drugs either used singly or in combination with the other chemotherapeutic agent and the effect of xylitol chewing gum on oral dental hygiene in patients having malignant diseases. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial, 70 patients with ages ranging between 7–65 years treated with different cancer chemotherapy for a duration from 3 months to 3 years. The patients were selected from those who treated in Hazim Al–Hafith center for treatment cancer in Mosul City. General and oral complications of chemotherapeutic agents were recorded and the agent recorded either used singly or in combination with the other chemotherapeutic agent. Twenty patients from those who had oral complications were examined and the plague and gingival indices were measured according to Silness and Loe (1963) at the base line. Then those patients were instructed to take xylitol chewing gum (4 grams/day); four times immediately after eating. The plague and gingival indices were measured again after 3 weeks of using the chewing gum. Results: The results of this study revealed that approximately half of the patients have general and oral complications while the others either had only general complications or had no complications (48.57%, 27.14%, 24.29% respectively). The incidence of oral complications correlated with the increasing in patients' age (P<0.01). The distribution of general and oral complications were correlated with the agent used either singly or in combination, where 100% of patients medicated with single therapy had general and oral complications while the patients medicated with multiple therapy 70.69% of them had general and oral complications and 29.13% had no significant complications. The patients who had taken xylitol chewing gum had a significant reduction in plague index while there is no significant reduction in gingival index (p<0.01). Conclusions: the study concluded that the general and oral complications arising in cancer patients can be attributed to the various modalities of cancer chemotherapy. Routine oral hygiene and elimination of preexisting dental disease and sources of mucosal irritation with a giving of salivary substitutes like xylitol reduce the incidence and severity of a number of oral complications of chemotherapy.


Article
Modification of gypsum products (Part I): physical and mechanical properties of adding some additives on different types of gypsum products

Author: Nadira A Hatim
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 10 Pages: 206-212
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: A pilot study was done to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of the Iraqi plaster (Al- Ahliya gypsum) and Plaster of Paris (British Gypsum), and to improve the quality by the incorporation of some additives. Materials and Methods: Two types of gypsum products were used in this study (Iraqi plaster, Plaster of Paris). Three types of additives {gum arabic at a concentration of (0.1%, 0.25%,0.35%, 0.50%), calcium oxide at a concentration of (0.1%, 0.25%, 0.35%, 0.50%, 0.75%), and ferric oxide acts as a pigment (blue or red) at a concentration of (0.1%, 0.2%)} were incorporated afterpreparation into the weighted dried gypsum powder. The effects of these additives on the physical andmechanical properties of the experimental gypsum products (Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris) have beenevaluated by measuring the water/powder ratio, setting time, linear setting expansion, and compressive strength. Four hundred sixty gypsum samples were prepared for this study. Mean, standard deviation, variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range tests were used to analyze the measurements. Results: ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference in the water/ powder ratio, setting time, linear setting expansion, and compressive strength between Iraqi plaster and Plaster of Paris depending upon the type and the concentration of each additive used. Conclusions: The last concentration of each additive (gum arabic 0.5%, calcium oxide 0.75%, or ferric oxide 0.2%) in all the experimental measurements that are incorporated within the two gypsum products showed


Article
A Comparative Study Between Co2 Laser And Mechanical Rotary System Abrasion Of Hyperpigmentation Of The Gingiva
دراسة مقارنة بين استخدام ليزرثاني اوكسيد الكاربون والقشط المكانيكي بواسطة الة الحفر السريعة لرفع تصبغ اللثة

Author: •Mahdi A.S.AL-Faraaon
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 230-237
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Gingival pigmentation is one of most difficult cosmetic problems to treat through conventional ways. Although physiological and ethnic melanin pigmentation is not a medical problem. The black pigmentation was removed with Er-YAG laser and Nd-YAG laser. CO2 laser is revealed an easy, safe, short operation time, and not discomfort to the patient post operatively. This way of removing unwanted pigmentation relieved a good result clinically. Eighty patients were submitted in comparative study between CO2and mechanical bur abrasion. CO2 laser is revealed an easy, safe, short operation time, and not discomfort to the patient post operatively. The results were evaluated in histological lab in al-sadar teaching hospital.

تعتبر تصبغات اللثة واحدة من اصعب مشاكل التجميل معالجة بالطرق التقليدية . ان صبغة الميلانين فسلجية وعرقية وهي ليست مشكلة طبية .حيث ان التصبغات الغامقة ممكن ازالتها بواسطة ليزر ER:YAG وليزر ND:YAG , إلا أن علاجها بليزر CO2 أكثر سهولة وأسرع وآمن جدا والعملية تستغرق وقت أقصر , ولا يتعرض المريض للإزعاج ويكون مرتاح بعد العملية .أن هذه الطريقة لإزالة التصبغات الغير مرغوب فيها نتائجها السريرية مضمونة وجيدة جدا .تم معالجة ثمانون مريضا اربعون منهم بالطريقة الميكانيكية واربعون الباقين بهذه الطريقة الجديدة للعلاج في العراق.كانت النتائج مشجعة باتجاة العلاج بالليزر وذلك لسهولة العملية وسرعة الشفاء وقلت المعانات وتم تقييم النتائج سريريا واخذت بعض العينات لمختبر الانسجة في مستشفى الصدر التعليمي لتقييم الشفاء النسيجي


Article
Antibacterial Effect of Mastic Gum on Aerobic Oral Bacteria
التاثير البكتيري المضاد لعلكة المستك على بكتريا الفم الهوائية

Authors: Esra , H. Al –hashimy --- Nahidha R. AL- Zahid --- Talib , AL – Mofarji
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 136-140
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of mastic gum against the most common aerobic oral bacteria and emphasized on oral streptococci.Methodology: In this study 10 persons (males and females of 18-60 years old) were randomly assigned to chew mastic gum (1.5 gm for 45 minutes). Mouth washes were collected before and after gum chewing .The two mouth washes were diluted (10-1 – 10-6) and cultivated aerobically for 24 hours at 37C0 on BHI agar for total bacterial count and on MSF agar for counting the oral streptococci.Results: The results showed that the total bacterial count for staphylococci, Neisseria and oral streptococci on BHI agar and MSF agar for oral streptococci after mastic chewing were highly reduced and arrived to more than 5 grades according to statistical analysis. Recommendations: To keep your mouth healthy we recommended the followings : Chewing of mastic gum daily , using oral mastic products such as toothpaste and mouthwash, and incorporation of mastic as powder with some type of foods.

المستخلص:الهدف:تعيين التاثير المضاد لعلكة المستك ضد بكتريا الفم الهوائية والتاكيد على مسبحيات الفم.المنهجية : في هذه الدراسه تم تعيين 10 أشخاص (رجال ونساء تتراوح اعمارهم مابين 18 – 60 سنه ) عشوائيآ لكي يمضغو علكة المستك (5 ‚1 غم لمدة 45 دقيقه) . جمعت غسول الفم قبل وبعد مضغ العلكه . خففت غسوليي الفم (10-1- 10-6) وزرعت هوائيآ على الوسط الغني الصلب BHI للعد البكتيري الكلي وعلى الوسط المختار الصلب MSF لعد مسبحيات الفم .النتائج : بينت النتائج بأن العد البكتيري الكلي لبكتريا المكورات العنقوديه ‚ الناسيريا ومسبحيات الفم على الوسط BHI ولمسبحيات الفم على الوسط MSF قبل وبعد مضغ العلكه قد اختزل بدرجه عاليه وصلت الى اكثر من خمس درجات طبقآ للتحاليل الاحصائيه . تمت ملاحظة وجود فروقات معنويه في العد لبكتيري قبل وبعد مضغ العلكه ا لمسبحيات الفم والنايسيريا (P <0.05) ‚ وفروقات غير معنويه للمكورات العنقوديه عند ( P> 0.05).التوصيات : اوصت الدراسه بمضغ علكة المستك يوميآ ولعدة ساعات واستعمال مسحوق العلكه مع بعض انواع الطعام للحفاظ على صحتك العامه وصحة فمك.

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