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MAGNESIUM SULFATE, KETOROLAC, PROPOFOL, KETAMINE, AND XYLAZINE ANESTHETIC PROTOCOL IN RABBITS
استخدام المغنيسيوم سلفيت و الكيتورولاك والبروبوفول والكتامين والزيلازين كبرنامج تخدير في الأرانب

Author: Ahmed A. AL- Mramudhi haier A. Abid أحمد عبد الحسين المرمضي ثاير علوان عبد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2014 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 70-81
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The study aimed to evaluate the combination of Magnesium sulfate (Mg), ketorolac (Kr), Propofol (P), Ketamine (K), and Xylazine(X) anesthetic protocol in anesthesia and analgesia of rabbits. Twenty healthy male rabbits, weighing (1.300 0.200 kg) were used in the study. All rabbits were randomly assigned to four groups of five rabbits injected with the different protocols (G1(p10k50mg50 ), G2(p10k50kr10 ), G3(p10 k50 kr10mg50 ), and G4(p10 k50 kr10mg50x5)) of anesthesia intravenously in the marginal ear vein. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) were taken before giving the drugs (Time 0 (control reading)), and then after 5,10,15,20,30,45,60,and 75 minutes of giving anesthesia. The induction time, duration of anesthesia, degree of analgesia, muscle relaxation and recovery time were recorded also. The anesthetic protocol in G3 (p10 k50 kr10mg50) is seen suitable for short operations (gives 24.2 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and the anesthetic protocol in G4 (p10 k50 kr10mg50x5) is seen suitable for long operations (gives 43.5 minutes of surgical anesthesia), and no signs of pain with the intravenously injection of propofol.

أجريت الدراسة لتقييم خلط المغنيسيوم سلفيت (M) و الكيتورولاك (Kr) و البروبوفول (P) والكتامين (K) والزيلازين (X) كبرنامج تخدير في الأرانب . استخدمت في هذه الدراسة (20) ذكر أرنب وزنها (1,300 ± 0,200 كغم ). قسمت الأرانب بشكل عشوائي إلى أربع مجاميع كل مجموعة خمسة أرانب وحقنت كل مجموعة بخلطة تخدير مختلفة وريديا في الوريد الاذني . المجموعة 1 (P10K50Mg50 ) , المجموعة 2 P10K50Kr10 ) ) , المجموعة 3P10 K50 Kr10Mg50) ) , والمجموعة 4 ( P10 K50 Kr10Mg50X5). تم قياس معدل ضربات القلب HRومعدل التنفس RR ودرجة حرارة المستقيم RT ودرجة التسكين ودرجة ارتخاء العضلات قبل إعطاء خليط العقار ( عند وقت الصفر, واعتبرت قراءة السيطرة لذلك الحيوان ) وبعد إعطائه في الفترات 5 , 10 , 15 , 20 , 30 , 45 , 60, 75 دقيقة ولكل حيوان , بالإضافة إلى تسجيل وقت أحداث التخدير وطول فترة التخدير والتخدير الجراحي ووقت الإفاقة بعد إعطاء العقارات . أظهرت النتائج أن برنامج التخدير في المجموعة الثالثة P10 K50 Kr10Mg50) ) كان مناسبا للعمليات الجراحية ذات المدة القصيرة (حيث أعطى تخدير جراحي لمدة 2 .24 دقيقة ) . أما برنامج التخدير في المجموعة الرابعة ( P10 K50 Kr10Mg50X5) ظهر انه مناسب للعمليات الجراحية ذات المدة الطويلة (حيث أعطى تخدير جراحي لمدة 43.5 دقيقة) , مع عدم وجود علامة للألم في منطقة الحقن الوريدي للبروبوفول .

Keywords

Ketamine --- Heart rate --- Rabbits


Article
Assessment of heart rate variability in patients with chronic stable angina
تقييم تقلب معدل ضربات القلب في المرضى الذين يعانون من الذبحة الصدرية المستقرة المزمنة

Author: Mohammed Hassan Alwan
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: A prospective study performed in Ibn-Albitar hospital a tertiary center to assess the effect of ischemic heart disease on heart rate variability.Methods: Thirty nine consecutive patients all with history of chronic stable angina &with positive treadmill test underwent 24 hours holter test to assess heart rate variability. Compared it with 25 age & sex matched control volunteer group.Results: Thirty one (79.48%) male of patients group& 20 (80%) male of control group . heart rate variability expressed as (SDNN) standard deviation of normal to normal interval, (RMSSD) square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals& (pNN50) the proportion derived by dividing (NN50) the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds (ms.) by the total number of normal to normal intervals all were significantly lower in patients group.Conclusion: This study showed that heart rate variability significantly lower in patients with chronic stable angina.

Keywords

Heart rate --- Stable angina


Article
Effect of Midazolam on Heart Rate in Pediatric Anesthesia

Author: Sanaa Fareed Qassim
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 4 Pages: 441-445
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND : Midazolam is one of benzodiazepines. It is most lipid soluble as a result has a rapid onset and short duration of action, used in anesthesia for sedation or intravenous induction according to the dose used.OBJECTIVE: Is to notice if there is an effect of midazolam on heart rate in pediatric patients with using ketamine as induction agent under general anesthesia.PATIENTS AND METHODS: 60 peadiatric patients undergoing surgery randomly allocated in 2 groups(A and B). Aneasthesia was standardized for all patients (except addition of Midazolam in sedative dose (0.03 mg/kg) i.v. preinduction to group( B). Heart rate measured preoperatively as abaseline and 5 and 15 minutes after induction.RESULTS: Adding midazolam associated with a reduction in HR by an average of 10 beats/min 5 and 15 minutes after induction of anaesthesia. This effect failed to reach the level of statistical significance although it was clinically significant.CONCLUSION: Midazolam have well known sedative effect but have no significant effect on heart rate in paediatric patients.


Article
Low Cost Heart Rate Monitor Using Led-Led Sensor
مراقب عدد دقات القلب واطئ الكلفة باستخدام متحسس الثنائي الباعث للضوء

Author: Ahmed Mahrous Ragib احمد محروس راغب
Journal: Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal مجلة الخوارزمي الهندسية ISSN: 18181171 23120789 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 23-27
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A high sensitivity, low power and low cost sensor has been developed for photoplethysmography (PPG) measurement. The PPG principle was applied to follow the dilatation and contraction of skin blood vessels during the cardiac cycle. A standard light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been used as a light emitter and detector, and in order to reduce the space, cost and power, the classical analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs) replaced by the pulse-based signal conversion techniques. A general purpose microcontroller has been used for the implementation of measurement protocol. The proposed approach leads to better spectral sensitivity, increased resolution, reduction in cost, dimensions and power consumption. The basic sensing configuration presented is capable of detecting the PPG signal from a finger or toe, and it is very simple to extract the heart rate and heart rate variability from such a signal.

تم تطوير متحسس قليل استهلاكه للقدرة وعالي الحساسية وقليل التكلفة لاستخدامه في الجهاز الذي يراقب عدد دقات القلب عن طريق مراقبة جريان الدم (بي بي جي). مبدأ الـ (بي بي جي) طبق ليتبع ارتخاء وانقباض الأوعية الدموية خلال الدورة القلبية. استخدم الثنائي الباعث للضوء كمشع للضوء وككاشف، ولغرض تقليل الحيز والتكلفة والقدرة المستهلكة فقد تم استبدال محول الإشارة التماثلية إلى الرقمية التقليدي تم استبداله بتقنية تحويل الإشارة بالاعتماد على النبضة. معالج دقيق متعدد الاستخدامات قد استخدم للتنفيذ والقياس. أدت الطريقة المقترحة إلى تحسس اكبر، زيادة في الدقة، تقليل في الكلفة، وكذلك الأبعاد والقدرة المستهلكة. التراكيب المقدمة قادرة على كشف إشارة الـ (بي بي جي) من الإبهام لليد والقدم وإيجاد معدل دقات القلب وتغيراته بصورة سهلة جدا.


Article
Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Responses to Exercise Testing in Relation to Age in Healthy Men

Author: Affan Ezzat Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-20
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:There are many circulatory changes that occur during exercise including the stimulatory effects on the circulation by the mass sympathetic discharge, the increased arterial pressure and cardiac output.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of aging process on the heart rate and blood pressure responses during exercise in normal Iraqi male subjects.METHODS:The subjects involved in the study were normal healthy people, their total number was 80 persons all of them were males. They were grouped into three age groups; 20 ≤ 29 years, 30 ≤ 39 years and 40 ≤ 50 years. Each subject performed the exercise on motor driven treadmill device. Testing was conducted at The Medical City Teaching Hospital-Treadmill and Echo unit. Blood pressure was measured indirectly by auscultation. The heart rate was determined by ECG.RESULT:There was a significant differences in heart rate after the exercise between the three age groups, a significant differences in systolic blood pressure after the exercise between group2 and group3 was also noted, a non significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure among the three age groups and there was a significant increase in mean blood pressure between group2 and group3.CONCLUSION:There was a negative linear correlation between heart rate after the exercise and increasing age, while a positive linear correlation between systolic blood pressure and increasing age was found and there was a positive linear correlation between age and the mean blood pressure after the exercise.

Keywords

age --- exercise --- heart rate --- blood pressure.


Article
The Effect of Intra‑abdominal Carbon Dioxide Pressure on Blood Pressure in Laparoscopic Surgeries

Author: Nzar Nuri Rasheed Sherwani, Tayeb Sabir Kareem1
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 286-291
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Backgrounds: The high intra‑abdominal carbon dioxide (CO2) gas pressure of the pneumoperitoneum may result in physiological changes.Objectives: This study aimed to examine the impact of high CO2 pressure on intraoperative blood pressures (BPs) in patients undergoinglaparoscopy surgeries. Materials and Methods: In this quasi‑experimental clinical trial, 36 patients diagnosed with different intra‑abdominaldiseases were undergone laparoscopic surgeries under a standard of CO2 pressure (≥13 mmHg). In another group, 39 patients who were matchedin age and gender were undergone laparoscopic surgeries under low CO2 pressure (≤12 mmHg). Results: The patients in both high and lowCO2 pressure groups were comparable in age (37.65 vs. 42.37 years; P = 0.114), gender (P = 0.212), and operation time (36.18 vs. 34.64 min),respectively. The patients underwent high CO2 pressure had significantly lower levels of diastolic BP after anesthesia (72.28 vs. 77.89; P = 0.020),lowest systolic BP (SBP) (94.69 vs. 102.26; P = 0.006), and lowest diastolic BP (DBP) (59.00 vs. 68.36; P < 0.001) in contrast with higherlevel of postoperative diastolic BP in high CO2 group (111.23 vs. 78.11; P < 0.001). SBP and DBP and heart rate were decreased significantlyfrom preoperative to postanesthesia and postoperative surgery in groups. Conclusion: The present study showed that BP parameters weredeceased following laparoscopy surgeries (higher pneumoperitonial CO2 pressure has lower BP in comparison to lower pneumoperitonial CO2pressure). Low CO2 pressure is recommended during laparoscopic surgeries as much as possible, especially in patients with comorbiditiessuch as heart diseases, old ages, and for operations that take longer time.


Article
ASSESSMENT OF AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS BY MEASUREMENT OF HEART RATE TURBULENCE AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY

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BackgroundHeart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) illustrate regulation of the heart by autonomic nervous system (ANS). The autonomic nervous system plays an important role not only in physiological situations, but also in various pathological settings such as diabetic neuropathy Diabetic autonomic neuropathy is a serious and common complication of diabetes.ObjectiveTo determine the association between HRT, HRV and diabetes control monitored by concentrations of HbA1c.MethodsIn 52 patients with diabetes mellitus type II of either sex attending Cardiac Care Unit (CCU) in Al-Kadhimya Hospital, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring was performed to evaluate time domain HRV parameters (SDNN, SDNNI, SDANN, rMSSD, pNN50) and HRT parameters (TO and TS). HBA1c was measured in all patients. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between tested parameters.ResultsSignificant correlation has been observed between TO and SDNN, SDNNI and SDANN. TS correlated significantly with SDNN, SDNNI, SDANN, rMSSD, pNN50. We noted no correlation between HbA1c and HRV or HRT parameters.ConclusionWe concluded that HRV time domain parameters correlate with HRT in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes control estimated on basis of HbA1c value did not show correlation with HRV and HRT.Key wordsHeart rate turbulence HRT, Heart rate variability HRV, Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy. HbA1c.


Article
Classification of fetal abnormalities based on CTG signal
تصنيف الحالات غير السوية للجنين باستخدام اشارات تخطيط معدل ضربات القلب CTG

Authors: Israa R. Swadi اسراء رزاق سوادي --- Safa'a S. Mahdi صفاء سعود مهدي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 عدد خاص بالمؤتمر النسوي الثاني Pages: 681-689
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The fetal heart rate (FHR) signal processing based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN),Fuzzy Logic (FL) and frequency domain Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT) were analysis in order to perform automatic analysis using personal computers. Cardiotocography (CTG) is a primary biophysical method of fetal monitoring. The assessment of the printed CTG traces was based on the visual analysis of patterns that describing the variability of fetal heart rate signal. Fetal heart rate data of pregnant women with pregnancy between 38 and 40 weeks of gestation were studied. The first stage in the system was to convert the cardiotocograghy (CTG) tracing in to digital series so that the system can be analyzed ,while the second stage ,the FHR time series was transformed using transform domains Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT) in order to obtain the system features .At the last stage the approximation coefficients result from the Discrete Wavelet Transform were fed to the Artificial Neural Networks and to the Fuzzy Logic, then compared between two results to obtain the best for classifying fetal heart rate.

تقدم هذه الدراسة طريقة التحليل لإشارات معدل ضربات قلب الجنين بأستعمال الشبكة العصبية الأصطناعية،المنطق المضبب وتحويل المويجة المتقطع (DWT) لغرض التحليل التلقائي بأستعمال الحاسوب الشخصي. مخطط ضربات قلب الجنين هو طريقة اولية لمراقبة الجنين ويستند تقييمَ آثاره المطبوعة على التحليلِ البصريِ للأنماطِ التي تَصِفُ تغيّرَ إشارةِ معدّل نبضات القلب. وقد أخذت بيانات معدل ضربات قلب الجنين من جهاز مراقبة الأم والجنين من نوع (operator manual P/N 15457AA REV.C from GE medical system)في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي.استعملت شبكة متعدد الطبقات مع خوارزميه طريقة الانتشار العكسي لإشارة الخطأ في تدريب الشبكة العصبية وقد تم استعمال برنامج أل MATLAB v7.7. تمضمنت المرحلة الأولى في النظام هو تحويل تخطيط قلب الجنين إلى متسلسلة رقمية يمكن النظام من تحليلها. بينما تم في المرحلة الثانية التحويل بأستخدام تحويل المويجة المتقطع(DWT) وذلك للحصول على صفات النظام.تضمنت المرحلة الأخيرة من البحث إدخال المعاملات التقريبية الناتجة إلى الشبكة العصبية الصناعية والمنطق المضبب. حيث تمت مقارنة النتائج لغرض الحصول على افضل نتائج لتصنيف اشارة معدل ضربات قلب الجنين.


Article
Effect of intravenous atropine on treadmill stress test results in patients with poor exercise capacity or chronotropic incompetence

Author: Abdul ammeer J.Awad عبد الامير جواد عواد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 / 24108057 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 2 Pages: 141-143
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Article
Effect of Umbilical Cord Abnormalities on Fetal Heart Pattern Leading to Operative Delivery

Author: Abdulrazak Alnakash*, Lubna Zuhair Almukhtar**, Sahar Jassim Abid
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 4 Pages: 360-365
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Umbilical cord abnormalities may be associated with fetal heart rate irregularities this mightchange the mode of delivery from vaginal delivery to cesarean delivery and may be responsible foradverse perinatal outcomes.OBJECTIVE:To verify the association between umbilical cord abnormalities and fetal heart irregularities thatlead to urgent cesarean delivery.MATERIALS AND METHODS:One hundred and six full term singleton pregnant women were enrolled in this study, 51 of themdeveloped non reassuring fetal heart rate (Abnormal CTG) and emergency cesarean delivery wasdone for them, those represent the study group, the other 55 women had reassuring CTG anddelivered vaginally, those represent control group. Umbilical cord and the neonate were examinedafter delivery for abnormality. The data obtained were fixed on questionnaire papers and thensubjected to analysis.RESULTS:Umbilical cord abnormalities were present in higher significant rate (43.1%) in emergencycesarean delivery group than vaginal delivery group. Although single umbilical cord abnormalitieswas present more than multiple umbilical cord abnormalities but the latter associated significantlywith increase rate of cesarean delivery (P value is 0.05). Nuchal cord was present in (31.3%) ofwomen of study group and in (16.4%) of control group. The most fetal heart abnormality foundwas fetal deceleration (96.1%) and most commonly was late deceleration (42.8%).Newborns with multiple umbilical cord abnormalities had significantly lower weight and lowerApgar scores than those with single cord abnormalities, P value 0.018, 0.037 respectively.CONCLUSION:Umbilical cord abnormalities are associated with increase rate of cesarean delivery because of fetalheart rate irregularities. The most common abnormality is umbilical cord entanglement around thefetal neck.Multiple umbilical cord entanglement are responsible significantly for increased cesarean rate andadverse perinatal outcomes.

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