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Article
Attenuation of the cardiovascular response during rigid bronchoscope a comparative study using intravenous lidocaine and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate

Author: Muhanad A. Ahmed
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 2 Pages: 115-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: one of the complications of rigid bronchoscope is the cardiovascular responses that may carry a dangerous drawback during and after the procedure. Prevention and control of these events will be crucial, especially for the old and cardiovascular debilitated patients.Objective: The study aims to control and attenuate the unwanted hemodynamic responses to the rigid bronchoscpe using intravenous lidocaim and GTN.Method: a study was performed on three groups of patients undergone a diagnostic procedure of bronchoscope. Each group consists of 20 patients at the same age and relatively similar pathology. The three groups (group one, two and three) received lidocaine, glyceryltrinitrate and no drug respectively. The changes in mean arterial pressure, heart rate and rhythm were taken and monitored. Several readings were taken through a five to ten minutes interval and at recovery. The doses are calculated equally for all patients.Results: marked changes were noticed in mean arterial pressure which has been increased especially during the introduction of the instrument through the trachea. The same were happened for the heart rate, which increased tremendously at the same intervals. The same was applied for the rhythm. Lidocaine has attenuate the change in the rhythm, while the glyceryl trinitrate prevented the high elevation in mean arterial blood pressure more than the other drug did.
Conclusion: Hemodynamic responses to the rigid bronchoscope, can be attenuated and blunted by the usage of anti-arrhythmic drug (lidocaine) and the vasodilator glyceryl-trinitrate, intravenously and sublingual respectively. Lidocaine I.V given 3 – 5 minutes prior to the procedure will protect the heart from grand changes in its rhythm. And to a lesser extent control the high elevation in mean arterial pressure. Glyceryl-trinitrate (GTN). The two drugs successfully attenuate the hemodynamic responses to the tracheal instrumentation by the rigid bronchoscope.


Article
Comparison of the Hemodynamic & Respiratory Parameters between Smokers & Non Smokers in Lower Abdominal Surgery Under General Anesthesia

Authors: Iyad Abbas Salman --- Musrey Younis Jahn
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 202-207
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Smoking is a very widespread habit , it had been proved to affect adversely on many systems of the body especially the cardiovascular (CVS) & the respiratory system, and such effects wouldbe exaggerated perioperatively because of the effect of general anesthesia (GA) especially whenthere is no any period of abstinence from smoking (as when occurred during emergencyprocedures).OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemodynamic & respiratory effects of smoking perioperatively in patientsundergoing emergency lower abdominal operations. PATIENT AND METHODS: A prospective case control study carried on 80 patients in Baghdad teaching hospital/Medicalcity / Baghdad / Iraq, from September 2011 to March 2012, the 80 patients have been allocatedinto 2 groups, (each of 40 patients): group 1 who were non smoker patients, & group 2 thesmoker patients. The 2 groups were undergone emergency lower abdominal surgery under GA, all the patientsreceived similar pre. & intraoperative managements. Pulse rate (PR), systolic blood pressure(BPsys), diastolic blood pressure (BPdias),oxygene saturation (SPO2), and airway pressure(Paw) were monitored with the standard non invasive technique, at the baseline period(preoperative); immediate postintubation; 10, 20, 30, & 40 minutes intraoperatively; immediatepostextubation; & 10 minutes in the recovery period.RESULTS: Regarding the pulse rate, there were no statistically significant variations between the 2 groupsapart from the immediate postextubation period (105 ± 6.95 in smokers vs 100.3 ± 8.3 in nonsmokersRegarding the systolic blood pressure, there was statistically significant increase in the systolicBP especially at the immediate postintubation period in smoker patientsRegarding the diastolic BP, apart from the immediate postextubation period ,there wassignificant increase in the diastolic BP between the 2 groups especially at the immediatepostintubation Regarding the SPO2%, there were no statistically significant reduction in the SPO2 readingsbetween the 2 groups apart from the intraoperative period Regarding the P airway , there were no significant increase in the P airway perioperativelybetween the 2 groups CONCLUSION: There were statistically significant CVS derangements in the smoker group versus the nonsmokers especially around intubation period.

Keywords

smoking --- hemodynamic --- respiratory


Article
EFFECT OF DIALYSATE TEMPERATURE ON HEMODYNAMIC STABILITY AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

Authors: Tarik A. Hussein طارق حسين --- Arif S. Malik عارف سامي مالك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 173-179
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Hypotension is one of the complications of hemodialysis treatment. It increases morbidity and mortality and can compromise the dialysis efficacy. Cooling the dialysate below 36.5°C is an important factor that contributes to hemodynamic stability in patients during hemodialysis.Objective:To assess the effect of dialysate temperature on hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis sessions, post dialysis fatigue and the adequacy of dialysis.Methods:A total of 40 patients were assessed during six dialysis sessions; in three sessions, the dialysate temperature was (37 °C) and in three other sessions, the dialysate temperature was (35 °C). Specific scale questionnaires were used in each dialysis session, to evaluate the symptoms during the dialysis procedure as well as post-dialysis fatigue, and respective scores were noted. Blood pressure, heart rate, temperature were recorded. Also dialysis efficacy using Kt/v, urea reduction ratio were measured.Results:The results showed that usage of low dialysate temperature was associated with the following : higher post dialysis systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) and lower post dialysis heart rate (P < 0.05), better intra-dialysis symptoms score and post-dialysis fatigue scores (P < 0.05 and P < 0.05, respectively), shorter post-dialysis fatigue period (P < 0.05) as well as Similar urea removal and Kt/V .Conclusion:Cool dialysis is an important factor in hemodynamic stability during hemodialysis. Also it improves symptoms during and after hemodialysis. Cool dialysis has no effect on adequacy of dialysis.Key words:Hemodialysis, Cool dialysate, Hypotension, Hemodynamic


Article
Determination of aortic valve efficiency through vortex physical parameters in normal, regurgitate, and stenotic valve by using Doppler-mode echocardiography
تحديد كفاءة الصمام الأبهري من خلال المعلمات الفيزيائية الدوامة في الصمام الطبيعي ، الارتجاعي ، والتضيقي باستخدام تخطيط صدى القلب باستخدام وضع دوبلر

Authors: Ahmad Khalid Abdullah --- Katayon Nazm Khurshed --- Abdulredha Sahib Younis
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 443-449
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Doppler ultrasound technique has been proposed as a noninvasive means of quantifying diastolic and systolic cardiac function by measuring flow propagation into the left ventricle and ejection blood to the body. The relationship between Doppler-derived parameters and underlying fluid dynamics is still unclear.Methods: The purpose of this study is to deduce effective physical parameters used in measuring the change in the geometrical shapes of the aortic valve leaflets during the vortex formation. These parameters are defined as the “Blockage factor, Strouhal number and Formation number”. One hundred fifty subjects were selected; The B-factor was correlated with Strouhal number and Formation number for 100 normal aortic valve subjects, and 50 abnormal subjects divided equally into regurgitate (25), and stenotic aortic valve (25), other physical parameters are also calculated. Doppler Echocardiography technique as a noninvasive technique that provides unique hemodynamic information which can not be achieved by any other means.Results: The accuracy of the results depends, however, on meticulous technique and an understanding of Doppler principles and flow dynamics. This technique recommended through scientific literature. It has been found that the mean values and standard deviation of (ST-No) and (F-No) for normal aortic valve are (l.55 ± 0.55) and (10.12 ± 3.16), regurgitate (2.823± 0.992) and (5.722± 1.68), and for stenotic aortic valve subjects are (0.939± 0.14) and (l5.82± 2.20) respectively.Conclusion: The results show that (St-No) of normal aortic valve is larger than that for stenotic, which may indicate that the inertial effects of normal valve are larger than those of stenotic valve. This because pressure energy is expanded to overcome inertia rather than converted solely to kinetic energy. The results obtained showed significant elevation of (ST-No) with aortic valve dimensions, and the improvement in efficiency decreases with increasing Strouhal number. A significant elevated (F-No) has been also noted to be increased with aortic valve area. The study of the Formation number and Strouhal number' is important to determine the severity of the stenotic and regurgitate aortic valve and gives a good parameters that can be used in medical diagnosis.


Article
Comparative Effects of Fentanyl, Medazolam, Lignocaine and Propranolol on Controlling the Hemodynamic Pressor Response during Laryngoscopy and Intubation

Author: May S. Al-Sabbagh مي صديق طه الصباغ
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 16833597 Year: 2010 Volume: 19 Issue: 2 Pages: 24-30
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are considered the most invasive stimuli in anesthesia. They provoked cardiovascular responses that include hypertension, tachycardia and dysrhythmias. Various pharmacological approaches have been used to blunt or attenuate such pressor responses. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of medazolom, lignocaine and propranolol as a valuable adjuvant to fentanyl in attenuating hemodynamic responses to endotracheal intubation in normotensive patients. Thirty two patient with physical status I or II according to the score of American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA), scheduled for elective surgery under standard general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into four groups (8 patients in each group), assigned as F, M, L and P groups. Each patient in the four groups received 1 µg/kg i.v fentanyl. Patients in groups M, L and P are treated with 0.2 mg/kg i.v medazolam, 1.5mg/kg i.v lignocaine and 0.01mg/kg i.v propranolol respectively. Induction of anesthesia was then accomplished with 2mg/kg thiopental sodium followed by1.5mg/kg succinylcholine. Tracheal intubation was performed 2 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and rate pressure product were measured before induction, after induction and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes after intubation. The results indicated no significant variation in the hemodynamic pressor response in all four groups with tracheal intubation. In conclusion, a minimum effective dose of i.v pre-medications (fentanyl, medazolom, lignocaine and propranolol) were found to be individually successful in attenuating and providing a reliable control of all hemodynamic response changes accompanied the process of laryngoscopy and intubation. Therefore, all are proved effective premedication and no one being superior.

يعتبر تنظير الحنجرة والقصبة الهوائية وكذلك التنبيت محفز غزوي أثناء التخدير , كلاهما يثير ردود أفعال القلب والأوعية الدموية التي تشمل ارتفاع ضغط الدم وعدم انتظام ضربات القلب وخلل النظم , وقد استخدمت أساليب مختلفة من شانها أن تحد أو تخفف ردود الفعل من هذا القبيل . لقد تم تصميم هذه الدراسة لتقييم تأثير كل من الميدازولام , اليكنوكين والبروبرانولول باعتبارها مواد مساعدة ذات قيمة للفنتانيل في الدورة الدموية لتخفيف ردود الفعل غير المرغوب فيها خلال عملية التنبيت الرغامي للمرضى ذو الضغط الطبيعي . تم التوزيع العشوائي لاثنين وثلاثين حالة صنفت اعتماداً على نظم الجمعية الامريكية لأطباء التخدير , حال الأول أو الثاني من المرضى , من الذين تقرر إجراء عملية جراحية لهم تحت التخدير العام بالانتخاب القياسي . تم تقسيمهم إلى أربع مجاميع ( 8 مرضى في كل مجموعة ) ، ورمز لهم بالأحرف فاء ، ميم ، لام وياء . تلقى كل مريض في الأربع مجموعات 1 ميكروغرام / كغم من الفنتانيل وريديا . وتعالج المرضى في مجموعات ميم ، لام ، ياء بمقدار 0.2 ملغم / كغم ميدازولام وريديا 1.5 ملغم /كغم لكنوكين وريديا 0.01 ملغم / كغم بروبرانولول وريديا على التوالي . تم بعدها استقراء التخدير مع 2 ملغم /كغم من الصوديوم ثايوبنتون يتبعه 1.5ملغم /كغم من السكسنيل كولين .نفذ التنبيت الرغامي بعد 2 دقيقة من تحريض التخدير ، وتم قياس معدل نبضات القلب وضغط الدم الانقباضي ، ضغط الدم الانبساطي ، الضغط الشرياني ومعدل ضغط المنتج قبل الاستقراء ، وذلك عند الحث ثم بعد 2 ،4،6،8 دقائق بعد التنبيت ، أوضحت النتائج عدم وجود اختلاف كبير في استجابة إثارة ردود القلب أو الدورة الدموية في جميع الفئات الأربعة أثناء تنبيت القصبة الهوائية . في الختام تبين إن جرعة الحد الأدنى الفعالة من قبل الأدوية الأربعة ( الفنتانيل ، الميدازولام ، الكنوكين والبروبرانولول) ناجحة في تخفيف حدة جميع التغيرات التي تصاحب عملية تنظير الحنجرة والتنبيت وتوفير مراقبة موثوق بها لذا فكل من هذه المواد المساعد تعتبر مفضلة وليس هنالك من هو أفضل من الآخر بينهما .


Article
Engineering Modeling of Human Cardiovascular System
نـمذجـــــــة هـندسيـــــة للجهــاز القلبــي الوعائـي فـي جسم الإنســــان

Author: Hassanain Ali Lefta Mossa, حـســــــــــنـيـن عـلــي لـفـتـه مـوســـــــــى
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 307-314
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Cardiovascular system is primarily considered as the human body's transport system. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and other vital substances to the various tissues of human body are carried by the blood which circulates in a closed circulation. The cardiovascular system has been comprised of a combination of several basic compartments, which are structurally connected to and functionally interact with each other.Engineering modeling of such important system has become a useful tool to diagnose the cardiovascular diseases and recommend the appropriate way of their medical treatment. This paper presents a quantified model describing the relationship between the input and output variables of the hemodynamic regulation of the system through implementing a set of first order differential equations that governing this performance and describing its parameters such as pressures, volumes and flows in a closed-loop lumped system. Construction of this model was based on the interaction between the pulsating heart and the vascular circulations of the system through mapping the physiological parameters to the electrical analog elements (resistor, capacitor and inductor and diode) depending upon the close correspondence between the electrical circuits and the cardiovascular system in order to obtain a reasonable investigation for the behavior of the system in normal and pathophysiological conditions.

يعتبر الجهاز القلبي الوعائي المنظومة الأساسية لنقل الأوكسجين ، ثنائي أوكسيد الكاربون ، الغذاء وغيرها من المواد الحيوية الأخرى إلى كافة أنسجة جسم الإنسان عن طريق دوران الدم خلال دورة مغلقة. من الممكن جداً تقسيم هذا الجهاز إلى عدة مركبات فرعية ترتبط مع بعضها البعض تشريحياً ووظيفياً. لقد أضحت النمذجة الهندسية لمثل هذه الأنظمة الفسلجية المهمة وسيلة مفيدة لتشخيص الأمراض التي تصيب هذا الجهاز مما سيسهل بدوره في تحديد الطريقة الملائمة لعلاجها.يُقدم هذا البحث أنموذج كمي لتوصيف العلاقة ما بين متغييرات الإدخال والإخراج الخاصة بتنظيم أداء ديناميكية دوران الدم عبر مكونات الجهاز القلبي الوعائي في جسم الإنسان وذلك من خلال تشكيل مجموعة من المعادلات الرياضية التفاضلية ذات الدرجة الأولى التي تحكم هذه الآلية الحيوية وبالإعتماد على ميكانيكية التغذية المغلقة. إن تنفيذ هذا الأنموذج أعتمد وبشكل أساسي على إمكانية التنسيق ما بين القلب النابض ومنظومة الأوعية الدموية للجهاز من خلال التوافق ما بين العوامل الفسلجية الخاصة بتلك الأوعية الدموية (كالحجم والضغط ومعدل الجريان) مع العناصر الأساسية للدوائر الكهربائية الضمنية (كالمقاومة والمتسعة والمحاثة والدايود) بهدف الحصول على نتائج مقبولة ومنطقية قدر الإمكان والتي ستحدد بدورها الأداء الصحيح للجهاز القلبي الوعائي في حالته الطبيعية أو تشخص الإضطرابات المرضية التي تصيب هذا الجهاز الحيوي


Article
Intrarenal Hemodynamic Changes In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Author: Akeel AM Zwain, PhD (UK)
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2010 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 205-213
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

AbstractBack ground: A frequent and early manifestation of diabetic nephropathy is hyaline arteriolosclerosis, characterized by hyaline deposition in the arterioles. Measurement of the resistive index (RI) by Doppler sonography may be used as a noninvasive method for estimating the severity of arteriolosclerosis instead of invasive renal biopsyObjectives: To study the effect of type 2 DM on intrarenal hemodynamics.Methods: Nineteen patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this study (10 males, 9 females) aged 44±10 years, mean duration of DM was 7±5 years. The resistive index (RI) of interlobular renal arteries was used to assess the intrarenal hemodynamic changes in diabetic patients and compared to that of the normal subjects Results: Statistically there was significant intrarenal hemodynamic changes in type 2 diabetic patients compared to normal subjects as reflected by higher values of RI in the former. Also there was significant effect of the duration of DM on intrarenal hemodynamics.Conclusions: Type 2 diabetic patients have higher values of RI compared to non-diabetics, and this increment is proportional to the duration of DM.


Article
Changes in the hemodynamic and thyroid functions of rats treated by opium
التغيرات في الدورة الدموية و وظيفة الغدة الدرقية لدى الجرذان المعالجة بالافيون

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Abstract

Opioids are perhaps the most efficacious analgesic agents influencing a large number of body functions. The objective of this study is to observe changes in hemodynamic, electrolytes, and kidney and thyroid functions of opium treatment in rats. Thirty male rats were randomly distributed into three groups. Group 1 regarded as control, while in group 2 and 3, the animals were daily injected intraperitoneally with opium for seven successive days. Intraperitoneal opium injection caused a dose-deponent increase in serum calcium (Ca+2 )and phosphate (PO4-) levels, whereas the nitric oxide (NO), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased in both doses. The significant decrease in serum (NO )level and increase serum (Ca2+) and (PO4-) levels resulted in significant elevation of systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by elevation of serum bilirubin and urea. Our finding suggests that opium causes hypertension, kidney and thyroid function abnormalities mostly in concentration dependent manner.

تعد المواد الأفيونية من المسكنات الأكثر فاعلية عن طريق تأثيرها على عدد كبير من وظائف الجسم. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو المراقبة التغيرات في الدورة الدموية، الاملاح المعدنية، والكلي والغدة الدرقية بعد حقن الجرذان بالافيون، تم توزيع ثلاثين ذكور من الجرذان عشوائيا إلى ثلاث مجموعات. المجموعة الأولى اعتبرت السيطرة، بينما في المجموعة الثانية والثالثة حقن الحيوانات بالافيون عن طريق البريتوني لمدة سبعة أيام متتالية. تسبب حقن الأفيون زيادة في الكالسيوم ومستويات الفوسفات متناسبة مع الجرعات، في حين أن مستويات اكسيد النتريك ثلاثي يودثريونين، وهورمون الغدة الدرقية انخفضت بشكل ملحوظ في كلا الجرعتين . وا دت انخفاض كبيرفي المصل النتريك الأوكسيد وزيادة مستوى الكالسيوم والفوسفات في ارتفاع كبير في ضغط الدم الانقباضي يرافقه ارتفاع البيليروبين واليوريا في الدم. وتشير نتائج البحث بأنالافيون قد يسبب ارتفاع ضغط الدم والكلي و وظيفة الغدة الدرقية وغالبا ما يزداد مع زيادة الجرعات.


Article
HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES FOLLOWING INTRAORAL INJECTION OF LIDOCAINE IN COMBINATION WITH ADRENALINE DURING TOOTH EXTRACTION

Authors: Sarah A Haji --- Nabeel AJ Ali --- Sundus AW Neama
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 14-23
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract Local anesthetic drugs are used in combination with vasoconstrictors, commonly adrenaline which increases their efficacy and duration of action and reduces bleeding at the operative site. However, adrenaline might have adverse hemodynamic effects, especially in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Hypertensive patients represent a risk group in dental practice. One major apprehension of the dentist is the sudden and dramatic increase in blood pressure that could lead to life-threatening complications including sudden death during a dental procedure. The aim of this study is to measure hemodynamic parameters, blood glucose, oxygen saturation and pain score in normotensive and hypertensive patients following intraoral injection of lidocaine with adrenaline and correlate these changes to the level of pain intensity and plasma metanephrine concentration. This prospective study was conducted at Basrah College of Dentistry from October 2016 to June 2017. One hundred patients were included in the study for teeth extraction under local anesthesia. Sixty normotensives, 30 had stage one hypertension (BP=140-159/90-99) and ten healthy volunteers for metanephrine assay. All patients were injected with two cartridges of 2% Lidocaine with 1:80,000 adrenaline. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, visual analogue scale, blood glucose and plasma metanephrine concentration were measured at different intervals; before anesthetic injection, 5 minutes after injection, during extraction and 10 minutes following the end of tooth extraction. Administration of local anesthesia with adrenaline in addition to the surgical procedure resulted in a significant increase in systolic blood pressure during tooth extraction (+8.7% and +16.6% mmHg for normotensive and hypertensive patients respectively, p<0.05), also heart rate similarly affected in both groups (10.6% and 13.4% respectively), this effect was significantly higher in the hypertensive group. The blood glucose showed a significant increase (P=0.00) 30 minutes after injection as compared to baseline. Generally, the peak changes in parameters were observed during tooth extraction procedure in both groups. Metanephrine peak plasma level occurs at 10 minutes following injection and it was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In conclusions, the injection of lidocaine with adrenaline in addition to the surgical procedure produces significant increase in blood pressure and heart rate in both normal and hypertensive patients which were larger in the latter group. Similarly, plasma metanephrine concentration was increased during the dental procedure and linked to the increase in the systolic blood pressure.


Article
Hemodynamic criteria of the circulatory system in ethnic groups of students with different types of autonomic regulation of the heart rate
مـــعايير الــدورة الدمويــة في الجــهاز الـدوري لمجاميع مختلفــة من الطلبــة الاجــانب مع اختلافــات التنظيــم اللاإرادي لــمعدل ضربات القلــب

Authors: Al-Shammari Mohammed Jasim Ismael --- Hayder Yousif Falih --- Sagalaeva Irina Vladimirovna
Journal: journal of the college of basic education مجلة كلية التربية الاساسية ISSN: 18157467(print) 27068536(online) Year: 2019 Volume: 25 Issue: 104 / علمي Pages: 312-320
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Under physiological conditions, the first years of university studies of the students of Arabic and African subgroups with moderate parasympathetic autonomous regulation) MPAR( and self-regulation )SR( were characterized by toughness, low effectiveness of the system of blood circulation, increased peripheral vascular resistance, vascular type of self-regulation of blood circulation )TSC (; Indian and Latino-American subgroups with MPAR SR revealed the weakness and low efficiency of the circulatory system, the optimal general peripheral blood circulation )GPBC( and cardiovascular type of self-regulation of blood circulation )TSC( were revealed in Indian and Latino-American subgroups with moderate parasympathetic autonomous regulation self-regulation )MPAR SR (and subgroups with prounonced parasympathetic autonomous regulation self-regulation)PPAR SR( showed high endurance of the circulatory system. The Russian subgroup with moderate parasympathetic autonomous regulation self-regulation) MPAR SR (has the highest endurance of the circulatory system and current functional fatigue, the most marked in the subgroup with prounonced parasympathetic autonomous regulation )PPAR (increased general peripheral blood circulation and cardiovascular type of self-regulation of blood circulation.

في ظل الظروف الفسيولوجية، تميزت السنوات الأولى من الدراسات الجامعية للطلاب الاجانب ( العربية والأفريقية) ان لديهم تنظيم ذاتي معتدل بالدورة الدموية متميز بالصلابة وانخفاض في فعالية نظام الدورة الدموية وزيادة مقاومة في الأوعية الدموية الطرفية. في حين كشفت مجموعات من الطلبة الاجانب (هندية وأمريكية لاتينية) ذات تنظيم ذاتي معتدلة من بالدورة الدموية متميز بالضعف وانخفاض في فعالية في الدورة الدموية ، بينما كانت المجموعات الفرعية الأمريكية ذات تنظيم الحركي المعتدل في الدورة الدموية ،حيث كان التنظيم الذاتي لهذه المجموعات ذو قابلية على التحمل العالي للجهاز الدوري . اما طلاب دولة الروسية ذات التنظيم المعتدل للجهاز العصبي السمبتاوي كانت اعلى قدرة على التحمل في الدورة الدموية ، والأكثر تميزًا في المجموعة الفرعية بالتنظيم الذاتي للأعصاب ، وزيادة الدورة الدموية العامة الطرفية ونوع القلب والأوعية الدموية للتنظيم الذاتي للدورة الدموية. الكلمات الــدالة : الـدورة الدمـوية، ونظام الدورة الـدموية ، والتنظيــم الــذاتي، ومــعدل ضــربات القلــب

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