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Article
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Assessment Among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in AL-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital

Authors: Jawad K. Mnuti --- Fadhil A. AL- Abbudi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 460-464
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as an emerging problem in dialysis patients, and viral hepatitis remains a major hazard for both patients and medical staff of hemodialysis (HD) units.The reported yearly incidence of anti-HCV antibody worldwide between HD patients ranges from 10.5% to 24%, while the prevalence of anti-HCV antibody among dialysis patients varies in different countries (5-85%) worldwide, and may exceed 95% in the Middle EastOBJECTIVE:To asses the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the hemodialysis unit in AL-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital and to identify the risk factors of infection in relation to age, sex, blood transfusions and duration of dialysisPATIENTS AND METHODS:Across-sectional study was conducted in AL-Nahrain College of Medicine in AL-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital in dialysis unit during the period from April 2008 to December 2010. 100 patients(58 male and 42 female their ages ranged from (15—75). are known cases of end stage renal failure on regular haemodialysis. All patients underwent a history and physical examination at baseline and investigations include blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum calcium, phosphorus, liver function test and screen for hepatitis C virus antibodies were tested by using Murex anti-HCV ELISA , Positive cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reactionRESULTS:The prevalence of HCV infection in patients in the dialysis unit was 41%. This study showed that there was an association between the history of blood transfusions, duration of the dialysis and kidney transplantation and the prevalence of HCV infection,( P.value <0.001.)Although the levels of AST and ALT were higher in the positive HCV marker group, there was no statistically significant difference between them.CONCLUSION:HCV infection is high in hemodialysis unit in alkadhmiya teaching hospital, HCV-related liver disease in patients on long-term dialysis often appears clinically mild, with only modest elevations in AST and ALT levels but most of them asymptomatic. Observation of appropriate preventive measures in the hemodialysis center is highly recommended


Article
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Assessment Among Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in AL-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital

Authors: Jawad K. mnuti --- Fadhil A. AL- Abbudi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 460-464
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as an emerging problem in dialysis patients, and viralhepatitis remains a major hazard for both patients and medical staff of hemodialysis (HD) units.The reported yearly incidence of anti-HCV antibody worldwide between HD patients ranges from10.5% to 24%, while the prevalence of anti-HCV antibody among dialysis patients varies indifferent countries (5-85%) worldwide, and may exceed 95% in the Middle EastOBJECTIVE:To asses the prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) among the hemodialysis unit in ALKadhmiyaTeaching Hospital and to identify the risk factors of infection in relation to age, sex, bloodtransfusions and duration of dialysisPATIENTS AND METHODS:Across-sectional study was conducted in AL-Nahrain College of Medicine in AL-KadhmiyaTeaching Hospital in dialysis unit during the period from April 2008 to December 2010. 100patients(58 male and 42 female their ages ranged from (15—75). are known cases of end stage renalfailure on regular haemodialysis. All patients underwent a history and physical examination atbaseline and investigations include blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum calcium, phosphorus, liverfunction test and screen for hepatitis C virus antibodies were tested by using Murex anti-HCVELISA , Positive cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reactionRESULTS:The prevalence of HCV infection in patients in the dialysis unit was 41%. This study showed thatthere was an association between the history of blood transfusions, duration of the dialysis andkidney transplantation and the prevalence of HCV infection,( P.value <0.001.)Although the levels of AST and ALT were higher in the positive HCV marker group, there was nostatistically significant difference between them.CONCLUSION:HCV infection is high in hemodialysis unit in alkadhmiya teaching hospital, HCV-related liverdisease in patients on long-term dialysis often appears clinically mild, with only modest elevations inAST and ALT levels but most of them asymptomatic. Observation of appropriate preventivemeasures in the hemodialysis center is highly recommended.


Article
PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C AMONG PREOPERATIVE SURGICAL PATIENTS AT BASRAH GENERAL HOSPITAL

Authors: Mazin H AL-Hawaz --- Mohammed H AL-Hijaj --- Shatha A AL-Mansori
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2014 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-65
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Viral hepatitis is a worldwide health problem which requires a thorough knowledge and orientation. Clinical awareness of medical and paramedical staff regarding hepatitis portfolios so important to avoid serious short and long term sequel of hepatitis distribution to other individuals therefore a fundamental strategy has been planned and made in our local surgical field to highlight that issue in different types of surgery. Patients and methods: Retrospective descriptive study was carried out at Basrah General Hospital; Department of Surgery between Sept 2012 and Sept 2013 for patients underwent elective surgery in surgical department. Data was collected on the patients’ clinical history and laboratory findings of hepatitis screen for preoperative patients. The findings were recorded in a structured compilation. Results: A total of one thousand and seven hundred and thirty patients entered the study and those were analyzed in terms of general patient data in respect to age and sex as well as analysis of hepatitis screening findings. There were 1034 (59.7 %) males and 696 (40.3 %) females, with ages ranging from 8 months -70 year. The highest prevalence of Hepatitis B and C occurred in the same age group of 40 to 49 years. The sex related distribution of Hepatitis in general patients revealed more female patients than male ones (45/43).This figure is similar among patients in Hepatitis C (22/19) and both Hepatitis B and C (2/1). Hepatitis B showed a reverse pattern of being male predominance with a male to female distribution (23/21). In conclusion: Clinical awareness is the master of prevention of Hepatitis spread as proper knowledge about transmission and precautions could be of value in reducing disease transmission.


Article
Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Antigen Among Patients with Lichen Planus in Alkhalis City

Authors: Hayder Mahdi Idan --- Mohammed Ahmed Mahdi
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2014 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 60-65
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease with characteristic clinical and pathologic features affecting the skin, mucous membranes, nails, and hair. It is likely that both endogenous (genetic) and exogenous (environmental) factors such as some drugs or some infection(s) may interact to elicit the disease.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antigen among the patients with lichen planus and comparison with healthy control group. Materials and methods: Twenty patients with lichen planus were included in this study (12 males and 8 females) and (40) healthy control (28 males and 12 females), their ages ranged from (15-60) years, obtained from Alkhalis hospital during the period from 1st February to 30th September 2013, using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti HCV antibody in patients serum and control group. Results: Two (10 %) had positive results for hepatitis C virus antigen (2) out of (20) patients suffering from lichen planus, while none of the within healthy control group had positive result. Statistically significant relationship was observed between both of them.Conclusion: The frequent study showed a difference in prevalence of hepatitis C virus in patients with lichen planus and healthy control.


Article
Epidemiology of viral hepatitis B and C in Iraq: a national survey 2005-2006
وبائيات التهاب الكبد الفيروسي B و C في العراق: دراسة استقصائية وطنية 2005-2006

Authors: Ali Rijab Omer --- Ahmed S. Al-Naaimi --- Wijdan A. Akram --- Ataallah M. Tarky
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 370-380
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Viral Hepatitis Type B&C is serious public health challenge throughout the world.Hepatitis B and C viruses still remain to be the major causes of chronic hepatitis.It is estimated that around 350-400 million people in the world are chronic carriers of HBV, which represents approximately 7% of the total populationwhereas infection with HCV is found in approximately 3% of the world population, which represents 160 million people. Hepatitis B infection has a wide range of seroprevalence in the Mediterranean countries ranging from intermediate (=>2% ) to high prevalence ( =>7%). World Health Organization estimated a prevalence rate for HCV infection of about 4.6% in Eastern Mediterranean in 1999. During the eightieths years of the last century, Iraq was considered to be of intermediate endemicity with hepatitis B as reflected by 3% seroprevalence of HBsAg in normal population. Hepatitis C was found to be of low endemicity among blood donors 0.5%. There were no national wide epidemiological studies regarding the prevalence of hepatitis B&C accordingly we conduct this study to determine the prevalence of both types all over the Iraq. Methods: From the 1st of January 2005 to 31st of December 2006, a community based cross-sectional study was conducted all over Iraqi governorates. A total of 9610 persons, recruited by surveying a nationally representative random sample of households were analyzed. A stratified random sample proportional to size of each of the 18 Iraqi governorates, both urban and rural areas were included. Prevalence estimates were therefore weighted and age-adjusted. Five (5ml) of blood samples were taken from the study subjects, and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C antibodies . Results: The national prevalence rate of HBs Ag was 1.6% and correlated positively with age. The prevalence rate of anti-HBs antibodies was 17%. The prevalence of anti-HBc was 9.7%. The prevalence of anti-HCV was low (0.4%). The prevalence rate of anti-HBs antibodies in <10 years children is only 32.2%, which raise the issue of incomplete coverage of hepatitis B vaccine during the years preceding the study years. Conclusion: The findings revealed that Iraq is of low prevalence with HBsAg.On the other hand,hepatitis C was found to be of very low prevalence. As a marker of exposure to hepatitis B, Anti HBcIgG was found to increase with age.

Keywords

hepatitis B --- hepatitis C --- Iraq


Article
Evaluation of T- Helper (Th-1) Cytokines during the Treatment Responses of chronic Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Eman Sh. AL- Obeidy --- Khalid A. Al-Khazraji
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 464-466
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:It is widely assumed that cellular immune response and cytokine (especially proinflammatory cytokines) production play an important role in the course and treatment effectiveness of chronic hepatitis C infection.
Aim of the study: evaluate the level of Th-1 cytokines during treatment of chronic HCV infection and their dynamic changes in response to treatment.
Patients and methods: The study was performed on sixty patients with chronic HCV infection, the patients were recruited from medical city gastroenterology and hepatology teaching hospital for the period from February 2007 till February 2008 and 50 healthy control group. Diagnosis was made using third generation ELISA-based screening test, RIBA-based test and PCR-based test. On the other hand, Cytokines (serum level) were determined by ELISA method before, during (6, 12, 24 weeks) and after the treatment.
Results: This study showed that after 6 weeks from the initiation of the treatment by pegilated interferon-α in the combination with ribavirin, concentration of serum cytokines IL-1β, TNF- α and INF- γ have significantly changed and at the end of the treatment concentration of all cytokines have decreased and this change was statistically significant for all cytokines.Conclusion: dynamic changes of some cytokines during INF- α and ribavirin treatment may be used as a predictor factor for evaluation of the therapy effectiveness.


Article
Prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies among blood donors and risky groups in Diyala

Author: Abdul-Razak S. Hassan
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 4 Pages: 467-470
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among blood donors and risky population in Diyala province.
Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, the records of HCV screening and confirmatory tests were reviewed for the period 1996-2001.Third generation Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and Enzyme immunoblot assay were used as screening and confirmatory tests respectively.
Results: The prevalence of HCV infection among blood donors was 0.15%, with the highest in 1997. The highest prevalence rates were found among multiple blood recipient; hemophilia, thalassemia and hemodialysis patients (27.3%, 16.9% & 14.3%) respectively. Whereas, the patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and those with acute icteric hepatitis showed slightly elevated prevalence (2.9% & 2.1%) respectively. The overall prevalence in the province was 9.9/105 population. The mean age of infected patients was 29.7 years and the male: female ratio was 3:1.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HCV infection in Diyala population is relatively low. However, the HCV infection is concentrated in certain risky groups, particularly multiple blood recipients.


Article
Screening of Hepatitis B- and C- Viral Markers in Iraqi Patients with Proteinuria

Author: Abdul Hadi K . Hussain
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 4 Pages: 362-368
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis may lead to nephropathy as one of its multiple extra hepatic manifestations. Symptomatic proteinuria as detected by dipstick, and qualitative urine collection are simple tests in practice as well as useful cardinal test of underlying renal abnormalities. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections on the occurrence of symptomatic proteinuria amongst adults and pediatrics.PATIENTS & METHODS :A prospective study included (143) adult and pediatric Iraqi patients presented with symptomatic proteinuria, and 108 (age- and sex-matched) apparently healthy individuals (as control group) who were serologically screened for HBV & HCV markers using third generation Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, screening for HIV by ELISA and other related immunological and biochemical profile.RESULTS :It was found that the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc-IgM), anti hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and anti hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) in the proteinuria group as compared to control group, were (7.0% vs. 0.9%, P<0.05) for HBsAg, (2.8% vs. 0% ,P>0.05) for anti-HBc-IgM, (20.3% vs. 23.1%, P>0.05) for anti-HBs antibody, and (6.3% vs. 0%, P<0.01) for anti-HCV.CONCLUSION :Our study demonstrated a significant association between proteinuria and HCV, and HBV infection in the adult and pediatric population. The interpretation of serological patterns of viral hepatitis markers in patients with newly diagnosed proteinuria are important, it might suggest that detailed urinalysis and qualitative urine protein assessment is mandatory when managing patients with HCV or with HBV infections.


Article
How to Decrease the Prevalence of Hepatitis C in Iraqi Hemodialysis Patients

Author: Omar Salem Khattab
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-35
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Hepatitis C virus infection has been recognized as an emerging problem in dialysis patients, its prevalence varies considerably among different areas of the world. The prevalence of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients and its associated risk factors is not well documented in our country. We performed this study aiming to discuss prevention of further transmission of HCV infection among our patients.OBJECTIVE:We performed this study aiming to discuss prevention of further transmission of HCV infection among our patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A cross sectional study done between September 2003 – December 2008 in the Renal Transplant Center, Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad. Including 244 patients with end stage renal failure and had been on hemodialysis for more than 3 months. focusing on the prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients, and the associated risk factors.RESULTS:153(62.7%) were males, and 91(37.3%) were females, with age range 14-67 years. The prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients was 12(4.9%), dialysis in different centers, female sex, ≥ 60 years age, ≤ 6 months on dialysis, blood transfusion, and < 9 hours per week haemodialysis were significant predictors of anti-HCV positivity.CONCLUSION:We conclude that adherence to universal infection precautions; HCV screening of transfusions and of patients on hemodialysis; and the use of separate machines in separate rooms for those who are anti-HCV positive, was important factors, To further reduce the prevalence in our patients, erythropoietin should replace blood transfusions, also to test for HCV RNA using polymerase chain reaction before starting hemodialysis.


Article
•Serum levels of copper, zinc, iron and magnesium in Iraqi`s patient with chronic hepatitis C

Authors: Muhammad A. Aldabagh --- Safaa I. Kader --- Noor M. Ali
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1146-1150
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

objective: This study was conducted to determine the alterations in serum trace elements, including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) in patients with chronic hepatitis C and to compare the results with those of age and sex matched healthy individuals.Methods: The study was carried out in Medical Research Unit, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University from 2009-2010. One hundred and ten subjects, 60 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 50 healthy individuals were included in this study. The serum zinc, copper, iron and magnesium concentrations were measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometery.Results: Serum zinc, copper, iron and magnesium concentrations were found to be 1.081±0.08, 1.143±0.025, 0.0819±0.0188 and 27.455±0.409 mg/L respectively in patients with chronic hepatitis C and 1.086±0.4680, 1.103±0.326, 0.0339±0.0066 and 16.80±0.56 mg/L in healthy individuals, respectively. Serum iron was exhibited to be elevated significantly (p<0.01) and magnesium was observed to be decreased significantly (p<0.01) in patients when compared with those of the control group. However zinc and copper remained without significant variants.

Keywords

Zinc --- Copper --- Iron --- Magnesium --- Hepatitis C

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