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Article
Comparative Lectins Histochemical Study of Vertebrates' Retina.
دراسة كيميانسجية مقارنة بواسطة اللكتينات لشبكية الفقريات

Author: Hayder J. Mubarak. Assistant prof. Department of Human Anatomy. College of Medicine/ Al-Nahrain University.
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 147-154
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

30 experimental animals of three species of vertebrates was used; 10 adult Carp fishes, 10 adult doves, and 10 adult Albino rats. Both eyes were taken. 5 paraffin sections were prepared from each eye with 6 µm thickness for histochemical study with 5 lectins which are: UEAI, PNA, SBA, Con-A, and LFA.The aims of the study were comparing the types of carbohydrates by lectin histochemistry that present in the retina of three vertebrates species habituating in different environmental conditions.This study found a clear variation in types of carbohydrates in each one of the ten layers of vertebrates' retina.

اُستخدمت عينة من 30 حيوان؛ 10 اسماك كارب، 10 حمامات، و10 جرذان بيض و أُخذت العينان من كل حيوان. حضرت 5 شرائح بارافين زجاجية من كل عين بسمك 6 مايكرون للدراسة الكيميانسجية لمعاملتها بخمس لكتينات هي :UEAI, PNA, SBA, Con-A, and LFAالهدف من الدراسة كان لمقارنة أنواع الكاربوهيدرات الموجودة في شبكية العين بواسطة اللكتينات في ثلاث حيوانات فقرية تعيش في ظروف بيئية مختلفة.أظهرت الدراسة اختلافا واضحا في نوعية الكاربوهيدرات الموجودة في الشبكية في الفقريات المدروسة في كل طبقة من طبقات الشبكية العشرة


Article
A SIMULTANEOUS COUPLING AZO-DYE METHOD FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ASSAY OF ESTERASES: BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

Author: Muthanna AA Al-Kaabi مثنى عبد الامير الكعبي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2012 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 306-311
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Enzyme activity is a subject of continuous research. Comparison of data obtained from various quantitative methods needs standardization of techniques in order to verify the results of histochemical and biochemical assays utilized in the study of tissue enzyme activity.Objective:Establishment of a biochemical method for the quantification of enzyme activity in α-naphthyl acetate esterases (ANAE) containing solution using hexazotized pararoseaniline (HP) as a coupling agent.Methods:Wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax) of coupled HP in solution was analyzed spectrophotometrically based on the simultaneous-coupling method of ANAE demonstration.Results:λmax of the coupled HP was found to be at 425 nm. The relationship between the optical density of the final reaction product (FRP) and the enzyme concentration was linear with the use of azo dye in solution.Conclusion:Data obtained from the biochemical assay of ANAE activity was in agreement with those documented by the histochemical methods in use. Thus, characterization of enzyme activity may be standardized when studying tissue sections and tissue homogenates.Keywords:Esterases, Biochemical assay, Histochemistry, Spectrophotometry


Article
THE EFFECTS OF DEXAMETHASONE ON THE HISTOLOGY AND HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THYROID GLAND IN FEMALE RABBITS

Author: Khalida I Shaya خالده ابراهيم شيعا
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 209-217
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundThe adverse effects of corticosteroids are widely recognized but there are few qualitative data on which they adversely act on the tissue of thyroid gland, in this paper we scrutinize how these corticosteroids affect the thyroid tissues.ObjectiveTo investigate the histological and histochemical changes, due to the effects of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, in the thyroid gland of female rabbits using a light microscope.MethodsTwo groups, each one with seven female rabbits were used in this study. The control group received 0.9% saline solution intramuscularly and the treated group received a daily intramuscular injection of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1.5 mg/kg b.w.) for 15 days, the thyroid glands obtained from these animals were dehydrated, cleared and embedded in paraffin and then sectioned and stained by Haematoxylline and Eosine and histochemically were stained by periodic acid- Schiff reagent, periodic acid- Schiff reagent with enzyme diastase, Toludine blue and Masson′s trichrome.ResultsMarked changes were observed in the thyroid glands treated with dexamethasone. Histolgically, these changes include a decrease in the height of the follicular cells to become low cuboidal and even squamous, and the follicles distended with colloid accumulation. These changes affected both central as well as peripheral follicles. Histochemically, the thyroid follicles showed a low positive reaction to glycoprotein which might indicate a decrease in the activity of the follicular cells of dexamethasone treated thyroid glands.ConclusionDexamethasone causes morphological changes in the thyroid gland consistent with a decrease in thyroid activity and is considered as side effects of this drug.Key words: Dexamethasone, histochemistry of thyroid gland, rabbits


Article
LECTIN HISTOCHEMISTRY OF TRACHEO-ESOPHAGEAL REGION IN CHICK EMBRYOS

Authors: Hayder J Mubarak حيدر جواد مبارك --- Amal A. Al-Taee امال علي الطائي --- Ali Sh. Al-Araji علي شعلان الراجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 4-11
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Glycosylation is an important modification involved during embryonic development. Lectins are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins; they can be employed as specific probes to localize defined monosaccharide and oligosaccharides on cell surface and on cytoplasmic structures, and in extracellular matrix.Objectives:The lectins (SBA, PNA, WGA, SWGA, UEA-I) binding were used as a sensitive, stable, and easy tool that can provide an extraordinarily sensitive detection for changes glycosylation and carbohydrate expression that may occur during embryogenesis and development of trachea-esophageal region.Methods:Fertilized chick eggs were incubated at 38 °C, embryos were fixed with Bouin’s solution. Sections were treated with fluoresce ineisothiocyanate (FITC) labeledlectins.Results:The histochemical study during the 2ndand 3rddays of development revealed variable tempo-spatial variability of lectin bindings to the mesenchymal tissues and other embryonic structures at the trachea-esophageal region.Conclusions:The lectin bindings could be an indicator for the glycoconjucate changes that play an essential role in developmental phenomenon of trachea-esophageal morphogenesis by marking cellular differentiation, cellular migration, and cellular interactions.Key words:Trachea, esophagus, chick, embryo, lectin, histochemistry.

Keywords

Trachea --- esophagus --- chick --- embryo --- lectin --- histochemistry


Article
THE CHANGES IN PNA, WGA, AND UEA I LECTIN BINDING PATTERN IN THE UTERINE TUBE EPITHELIUM BY EFFECTS OF ESTRADIOL AND PROGESTERONE THERAPY IN RAT

Author: Hayder J. Mobarak حيدر جواد مبارك
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 206-212
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:The carbohydrate histochemistry in the epithelium of the uterine tube was found to be related to the uterine tube physiology and morphology.Objectives:This study investigated the changing binding pattern of peanut agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, and ulexeuropaeus agglutinin I lectin to the epithelial cells of the rat oviduct ampullary region in response to the effect of combined estrogen and progesterone hormonal administration.Methods:This experimental study was based on injecting the animals with doses of estradiol and Progesterone hormonesduring the successive estrous cycles. Then, the ampulla of uterine tubes were identified and prepared for paraffin sections. The peanut agglutinin, wheat germ agglutinin, and ulexeuropaeus agglutinin I lectins were used to label the tube section; the sections were examined by fluorescent microscope.Results:The three lectins used in this study showed analogous pattern of binding behavior. The uterine tube epithelium of the controlled group showed bimodality of binding, while that of the treated group showed a third pattern of lectin binding in some of the epithelial cells.Conclusion:The ciliated cells that are transformed to display a secretory function are called the transitional cells, the formation of these cells is influenced by hormonal factors and the pattern of the lectins binding to these cells could be considered as a histochemical marking.Key word: Lectin, uterine tube, carbohydrate histochemistry, hormone.


Article
Morphological and histochemical studies on the olfactory rosette of bagrid catfish, Rita kuturnee (Sykes, 1839).
دراسة مظهرية وهستوكيميائية لجهاز الشم في أسماك السلور bagrid catfish, Rita kuturnee (Sykes, 1839).

Authors: S.K. Ghosh ساروج كي. غوش --- P. Chakrabarti بي. جاكرابارتي
Journal: Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science مجلة وادي الرافدين لعلوم البحار ISSN: 18152058 Year: 2016 Volume: 31 Issue: 1 Pages: 15-28
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

In the present study, the functional anatomy, histological features and histochemical localization of two enzymes viz., alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) of the olfactory epithelium in Rita kuturnee were described. The structural organization of the olfactory epithelium was studied by using the histological and histochemical techniques. The morpho-anatomical study revealed that the paired olfactory chambers were situated at the dorsal-lateral sides of the snout, which was communicated outside by an anterior and posterior nasal openings. The elongated olfactory rosette lied at the bottom of chamber and supported with 54-56 lamellae on either side of the central narrow raphe. The histological analysis characterized the olfactory epithelium of lamellae which was made up of receptor, flagellated supporting, non-flagellated supporting, labyrinth, mucous and basal cells. Intense alkaline phosphatase and adenosine triphosphatase activity were evidenced in the receptor cells, supporting cells, basal cells and also in blood cells of the central core. Various cells lining the olfactory epithelium were correlated with the functional significance of the fish was concerned.


Article
Endothelin-1 Expression in Placental Tissue Vasculature in Normal Vaginal Delivery and Cesarean Sections

Author: Thaer M. Farhan
Journal: Muthanna Medical Journal مجلة المثنى الطبية ISSN: 2226146x Year: 2019 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 26-36
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The placenta is a temporary organ required for the development of embryo and fetus. It allows the physiological exchange between the fetus and the mother. Endothelin is a human protein has three isoforms, endothelin-1, -2, and -3. Endothelin-1 (ET- 1) is the most potent and long-lasting vasoconstrictor known. Endothelin has two receptors, ETA and ETB, ETA receptors are found on the external surface of the vascular smooth muscle cells of blood vessels, and binding of endothelin to ETA increases vasoconstriction. Objectives: To study the histochemical distribution of vasoactive agent (endothelin -1) in placental tissue after normal vaginal delivery and elective caesarean section, this might be a determinant of the onset of parturition. The current study includes studying forty-two placentas (21NVD&21CS) with an eccentric cord insertion were obtained from a healthy pregnant female (with no hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or gynecological diseases or any other major diseases). The placental tissues were histologically prepared for paraffin sections. Staining procedure includes histochemical stain for endotheline-1 using goat polyclonal IgG antibody against endothelin-1 as primary antibody and biolinylated as secondary antibody. An immunostaining score according to the graduated intensities of the reaction product was defined and scored blindly by two investigators who scored Staining intensity (-, +, ++, +++, ++++). The median intensity of ET-1 was highest in placenta delivered by normal vaginal delivery (++++) and lowest in those by cesarean section (+). The normal vaginal delivery group of placentas was associated with statistically significant higher median ET-1 stain intensity compared to that of cesarean section group. In-conclusion: ET-1 activity in placental tissue is significantly higher in normal vaginal delivery group.


Article
THE PROLIFERATIVE PROFILE OF THE RHOMBENCEPHALICDEMILUNE IN THE DEVELOPING RAT CEREBELLUM: A QUANTITATIVE HISTOCHEMICALSTUDY

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BackgroundStudies have shown that the cerebellum develops within the dorsal metencephalon creating a rhombencephalicdemilune (RD) which represents the formation site of the cerebellum granular cells progenitors. These studies used different histological techniques but all have provided qualitative information regarding the biosynthesis and cell mitosis at the RD.ObjectiveQuantifying the proliferative activity of the cellsat the RD during the embryonic period.MethodsSix age groups from day 16 to day 21 albino rat embryos Rattusrattusnorvegicus were investigated with Ag-NOR staining technique to quantify cell proliferation.ResultsThere wasa statistically significant difference (p<0.01) between cellular activity at different age groups with a surge during embryonic day 18.ConclusionsCorrelation with other studies revealed that Ag-NOR staining technique, which reflects protein biosynthesis and nuclear mitotic activity, provided a valuable quantitative measure of cellular proliferation in the developing rat cerebellum.Keywords Rhombencephalicdemilune, Rat, Developing Cerebellum, Ag-NOR, Quantitative, Histochemistry


Article
Morphological Description and Histological Structure of Adrenal Gland in Black Iraqi Partridge Francolinus francolinus
الوصف المظهري والتركيب النسجي للغدة الكظرية في طائر الدراج العراقي الاسود Francolinus francolinus

Authors: Nusaibah Amer Ahmed نسيبة عامر احمد --- Hussain A.M. Dauod حسين عبد المنعم داود
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 1B Pages: 330-337
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the morphological description and histological structure of adrenal gland in Iraqi black partridge Francolinus francolinus from Iraqi environment. Twenty adult healthy birds (male and female) were used in present study. They were measured and adrenal glands were removed, measured and fixed by 10% formalin and formalin and chromate fixative then stained with rotein histochemical stain (Harris hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E), periodic acid Schiff (PAS), Azan and Mallory stain). The partridge had a small couple of adrenal glands of yellow colour they are located in abdominal cavity nearby the margin of superior kidney lobe. These are small, ovoid glands lying just cranial to the kidneys and gonads on either side of the aorta and posterior vena cava. There was no difference in shapes between adrenal gland of male and female. There were no significantly differences in the measurement of the right and left adrenal gland of the partridge. Histologically the adrenal gland of partridge was mainly compose capsule of dense connective tissue, the thickness of capsule increased according to the different point of blood vessels and large nerve trunk, nerve cell bodies and chromaffin cell embedded in connective tissue, and the cortex is composed of three zones: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis, these zones were interfered with others. The cells of Zona glomerulosa were arranged in irregular ovoid clusters, the nuclei stain strongly, and the cytoplasm is less pale than that of the next zone, zona fasciculata, The secretary cells were arranged in cords, the nuclei of these cells stain strongly, and the cytoplasm looks pale due to the presence of lipid droplets. The cytoplasm of Zona reticularis stained more darkly, and contains fewer lipid droplets. However the layer of gland where interfered together without clear zone contain sinusoid capillary blood vessels extend from capsular region to medulla whih contain basophilic staining cells, with a granular cytoplasm and no stored lipid. Medullary cells were found between the large and comparatively dark cells of the cortex

أن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو التعرف على الوصف الشكلائي والتركيب النسجي للغدة الكظرية للدراج العراقي الأسود Francolinus francolinus من البيئة العراقية. استخدم في هذه الدراسة 20 طائر بالغ من الذكور والإناث. تم تشريح الحيوانات و تم ازالة الغدد الكظرية وقياسها وثبتت الانسجة بالفورمالين 10% ومثبت الكرومات واستخدامت الصبغة الاعتيادية (الهيماتوكسيلين والايوسين، وصبغات خاصة -صبغة شيف وصبغة الازان وصبغة مالوري-). يحتوي الدراج على زوجين من الغدد الكظرية صغيرة الحجم ذات اللون الأصفر الواقعة في تجويف البطن بالقرب من الحافة العلوية للكلى. هذه الغدة بيضوية الشكل صغيرة تقع على الفص القحفي للكليتين والغدد التناسلية وكذلك على جانبي الأبهر والوريد الأجوف الخلفي. تشير النتائج الى عدم وجود اختلاف في اشكال الغدة الكظرية للذكور والإناث وكذلك عدم وجود اختلافات معنوية في القياسات للغدة الكظرية اليسرى واليمنى للدراج. اما تشريحيا فالغدة الكظرية للدراج العراقي الاسود تتكون أساسا من كبسولة تحيط بالغدة من الخارج مؤلفة من النسيج الضام الكثيف وتتكون القشرة من ثلاث مناطق: المنطقة الكبيبية، المنطقة الحزمية، والمنطقة الشبكية، وتتداخل هذه المناطق مع بعضها. يتم ترتيب الخلايا من المنطقة الكبيبية بشكل مجاميع بيضوية غير منتظمة، تصطبغ النوى بشدة، والسيتوبلازم يصطبغ بصبغة فاتحة، اما المنطقة الحزمية، فترتيب الخلايا فيها بشكل حبال، ونواة هذه الخلايا تصطبغ بقوة، و السيتوبلازم يبدو شاحبا بسبب وجود قطرات الدهون اما السيتوبلازم من المنطقة الشبكية يصطبغ بشدة، ويحتوي على عدد أقل من قطرات الدهون. ومع ذلك فان طبقات الغدة تتداخل مع بعضها تحتوي على أوعية دموية شعرية جيبانية؛ تمتد من منطقة المحفظة إلى النخاع التي تحتوي عل خلايا تصطبغ بصبغة قاعدية مع سايتوبلازم محبب وتتوزع خلايا النخاع بين خلايا القشرة وتكون كبيرة وداكنة مقارنة بخلايا القشرة.


Article
Histochemical study of alkaline phosphatase enzyme in gallbladder containing cholesterol stones
تحليل نسيجي كيميائي لإنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدي في الحويصلة الصفراوية في حالات الحصى الصفراوية الحاوية على الكولسترول

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ABSTRACTObjective: To study the alterations in the expression pattern of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in gallbladder mucosa in cases of cholelithiasis (cholesterol type) in order to find its role as an indicator of functional alteration in gall bladder mucosa in these cases.Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 2 months started from July 1st 2010 to September 1st 2010 at the laparoscopic unit in Al-Jumhori Teaching Hospital, Mosul, Iraq, and the Laboratory of postgraduate studies at the Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, College of Medicine, University of Mosul. Analysis of the sections which were obtained from twenty-two surgically resected gallbladder specimens using laparoscope was done. Mean age was 50.5±2.1 years (range 21-77), while the male:female ratio was 1:6. Clinical details were retrieved from the records. The cholecystectomy specimens that were received were fixed in 10% formalin. The findings on gross examination were noted, and the stones recovered from the gallbladder were analyzed by chemical examination. Multiple sections were taken from each cholesterol stone-containing gallbladder (body, neck, and fundus) for paraffin blocks and were examined after staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Microscopic examination was done to assess the type of histological changes. To evaluate the enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase, sections were stained using alkaline phosphatase stain (Gomori's method- Cobalt). Results: Light microscopic examination using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that 13 (59.09%) out of 22 cases were diagnosed as cholerterosis, while sections obtained from 3 (13.6%) out of 22 cases showed inflammation. Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses were noticed in 6 (27.27%) out of 22 cases. Using alkaline phosphatase stain (Gomori's method- Cobalt), the amount of alkaline phosphatase activity varied considerably among the different areas in the same sections, and often among different areas of the same layer of gallbladder, thus making the assessment difficult. However, this study showed 14 (63.63 %) out of 22 cases with moderate reaction to ALP stain in the mucosa, while 8 (36.36%) cases showed weak to negative reaction to that stain.Conclusion: The changes in ALP localization patterns may represent functional alterations either preceding or running concurrently with morphological damages in gallbladder with cholesterol stones. Futural studies will be recommended to localize ALP with different gallbladder disorders especially on ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and biomolecular levels.Keywords: Gallstones, histochemistry, alkaline phosphatase.

الخلاصةهدف الدراسة: مناقشة التغييرات فى طريقة تعبير إنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدي في الطبقة المخاطية للمرارة الحاوية على الحصى (نوع الكوليسترول) لغرض إكتشاف أي دور له كمؤشر للتغيرات الوظيفية فى خلايا الطبقة المخاطية في تلك الحالات.طريقة الدراسة: أجريت الدراسة خلال فترة شهرين من الأول من تموز إلى الأول من أيلول/ 2010 في وحدة الجراحة الناظورية في مستشفى الجمهوري التعليمي في الموصل ومختبر الدراسات العليا في كلية الطب, جامعة الموصل. تم أخذ التقارير السريرية والمرضية المفصلة من سجلات المرضى. وقد تم أخذ العينات من الذين أخضعوا لعملية إستئصال المرارة عن طريق ناظور البطن أو فتح البطن. وتم حفظ العينات وهى الحويصلات الصفراوية (المرارة) في الفورمالين بنسبة تركيز عشرة بالمئة وذلك بعد التحليل الكيميائى للحصى. وتم تحضير الشرائح البارافينية من مناطق العنق والجسم والقمع من تلك الحويصلات الحاوية على الكوليسترول. وتم فحصها بالمجهر الضوئي بعد صبغها بصبغتي الهيماتوكسلين والايوسين وذلك للتعرف على وجود التغييرات النسيجية التي تشمل الإرتشاح الإلتهابي, وتكدس الكولسترول النسيجي, وخلل التنسج, وحالات من التبدل الكامل (الحؤؤل), ووجود تغييرات ورمية أو شبه ورمية. ولغرض تقييم النشاط الإنزيمي لإنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدى تم صبغ الشرائح بصبغة كمورى –كوبلت.النتائج: تم تحليل النتائج للعينات المأخوذة من 22 مريضا أجريت لهم عملية إستئصال الحويصلة الصفراوية عن طريق ناظور البطن. كان معدل أعمار المرضى فى هذه الدراسة 2,1± 50,5 سنة, وكانت الأعمار تتراوح بين 21-77 سنة. وكانت نسبة الذكور الى الإناث هي 1: 6. وبعد الفحص بالمجهر الضوئي للشرائح البارافينية بعد صبغها بالهيماتوكسلين والايوسين لوحظ تكدس الكولسترول النسيجي في 13 حالة (59,09%) من 22 حالة، بينما كان وجود الإرتشاح الإلتهابي فى 3 حالات (13,6%)، بينما لوحظ جيب روكيتانسكى اشكوف فى 6 حالات (27,27%). من جهة أخرى لوحظ أنه بعد صبغ الشرائح بصبغة كمورى –كوبلت إن الفاعلية لإنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدى قد تنوعت بين مختلف المناطق فى الشريحة الواحدة وكذلك فى مختلف مناطق الطبقة الواحدة وهذا ما جعل التقييم صعبا. لقد لوحظ فى هذه الدراسة أن هناك 14 حالة (63,63%) كان فيها نشاط إنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدي متوسطا بينما كان نشاط هذا الإنزيم ضعيفا فى ثماني حالات (36,36%).الاستنتاجات: لوحظ فى هذه الدراسة وجود تحويرات فى التعبير عن إنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدي فى الطبقة المخاطية للحويصلة الصفراوية الحاوية على الحصى (نوع الكوليسترول)، وهذا يمكن أن يعتبر كعلامة للتغيرات الوظيفية فى خلايا الطبقة المخاطية. ومن الممكن توصية دراسات مستقبلية على مستوى الجزيئي الحياتي والنسيجي المناعي الكيميائي وكذلك بإستخدام المجهر الالكتروني للإستدلال على دور هذا الإنزيم فى حالات حصى الحويصلة الصفراوية.الكلمات المفتاحية: حصى الحويصلة الصفراوية, كيميائية الأنسجة, إنزيم الفوسفاتاز القاعدي.

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