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Article
Plant Diversity of the Damietta Branch, River Nile, Egypt: An Ecological Insight

Authors: Yasser A. El-Amier --- Mahmoud A. Zahran --- Shaymaa O. Al-Mamoori
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 109-129
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Damietta Branch; one of the two main branches of the River Nile has a length of about 242 kmwith an average width of 200 m and depth varying between 12 and 20 m. It receives polluted waters from different sources including industrial, agricultural and urban sewage that are causing serious environmental impacts on its vegetation and freshwater. The total number of plant species in the study area is 70, belonging to 54 genera and related to 30 families. These species can be classified ecologically into four major groups, three submerged hydrophytes, six floating hydrophytes, seventeen emergent species and 44 canal bank species. On the basis of duration, the recorded 70 species are grouped into two categories: perennials (46 species) and annuals (24 species). Hydrosoil and water variables which significantly correlated with the abundance and distribution of vegetation groups are soil texture (sand and silt), water-holding capacity, electrical conductivity, soluble anions (chloride and sulphate), total phosphorus and extractable cations (sodium, calcium and magnesium). The successive changes of the macrophytic plant vegetation in the Damietta Branch are frequently results from human activities which are causing considerable change in the hydrosoil and water chemistry, factors linked with species changes.


Article
The Impact of Water Oscillation on Hydrophytes and Macro algae Growth in Tigris River within Mosul Area
تأثير تذبذب المياه على نمو النباتات المائية والطحالب الكبيرة في نهر دجلة ضمن مدينة الموصل

Author: Mazin N. Fadhel مازن نزار فضل
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2013 Volume: 24 Issue: 1E Pages: 17-30
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Two stations have been selected during the course of Tigris River within Mosul city; the first one is before entering the city, while the other located downstream the city. Results clearly exhibit a significant difference in water quality between the two locations.Aquatic plants and macro-algae populations along about 17 Km of the rivers course were identified. Six aquatic plant species have been identified Potamogeton pusillus, Potamogeton nodosus, Ceratophyllum demersus, Phragmites australis, Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.Potamogeton pusillus a species was the predominant species during the study period, on the other hand macro-algae included Hydrodiction riticulatum, Cladophora glomerata, Chara vulgaris, Chara sp. and Nitella sp., the species Chara vulgaris and Cladophora glomerata from green algae phylum were the predominant species of the five algal identified species during the study period.Clear trespass on the river banks was recorded, sand and gravel queries negatively affecting the river by forming shallow ponds and swamps which are perfect for aquatic plants and algae communities to prosper and flourish leads to dramatic detrimental impact on river health.

تم اختيار موقعين للدراسة خلال مسار النهر ضمن مدينة الموصل، الموقع الأول قبل دخوله المدينة، في حين كان الموقع الثاني يقع في مصب المدينة. شخصت النباتات المائية والطحالب الكبيرة لمسافة تقدر بحوالي 17 كم من مسار النهر، تم التعرف على ستة أنواع من النباتات المائية وهي:Potamogeton pusillus, Potamogeton nodosus, Ceratophyllum demersus, Phragmites australis Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. أظهر النوع Potamogeton pusillus سيادة على بقية الأنواع، من ناحية أخرى شملت الطحالب الأنواع :Hydrodiction riticulatum, Cladophora glomerata, Chara vulgaris, Chara sp. and Nitella sp.وكان النوعان Cladophora glomerata, Chara vulgaris العائدان لقسم الطحالب الخضر هما النوعان السائدان من الأنواع الطحلبية الخمسة التي تم تشخيصها خلال مدة الدراسة. سجلت الدراسة انتهاكاً واضحاً لضفتي النهر، مقالع الرمل و الحصو تؤثر سلبيا في النهر من خلال تكوين برك ضحلة ومستنقعات والتي أصبحت بيئة مثالية لازدهار وانتعاش نمو المجتمعات النباتية مما يوْدي إلى أثار ضارة وخطيرة على صحة النهر.

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