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Article
Kinetic Models Study of Hydrogenation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Vacuum Gas Oil and Basrah Crude Oil Reaction
دراسة نماذج حركية التفاعل لهدرجة المركبات العطرية لزيت الغاز الفراغي و نفط خام البصرة

Author: Professor Dr. Muzher M. Ibrahim Haidar Akram A'reff
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2009 Volume: 16 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-11
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the kinetic reaction models for catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic content for Basrah crude oil (BCO) and vacuum gas oil (VGO) derived from Kirkuk crude oil which has the boiling point rang of (611-833)K. This work is performed using a hydrodesulphurization (HDS) pilot plant unit located in AL-Basil Company. A commercial (HDS) catalyst cobalt-molybdenum (Co-Mo) supported in alumina (γ-Al2O3) is used in this work. The feed is supplied by North Refinery Company in Baiji. The reaction temperatures range is (600-675) K over liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) range of (0.7-2)hr-1 and hydrogen pressure is 3 MPa with H2/oil ratio of 300 of Basrah Crude oil (BCO), while the corresponding conditions for vacuum gas oil (VGO) are (583-643) K, (1.5-3.75) hr-1, 3.5 MPa and 250 respectively . The results showed that the reaction kinetics is of second order for both types of feed. Activation energies are found to be 30.396, 38.479 kJ/mole for Basrah Crude Oil (BCO) and Vacuum Gas Oil (VGO) respectively.

يهدف البحث الى دراسة نماذج حركية التفاعل للهدرجة المحفزة للمحتوى الأروماتي لنفط خام البصرة و زيت الغاز الفراغي المشتق من نفط خام كركوك ذو مدى الغليان (611-833) كلفن. تم أنجاز التجارب باستخدام وحدة ريادية للمعاملة الهيدروجينية لنزع الكبريت الموجودة في شركة الباسل باستخدام عامل مساعد تجاري نوع كوبلت-موليبدنيوم المحمل على الالومينا. تم تجهيز المغذي المستخدم للدراسة من قبل شركة مصافي الشمال في بيجي. كانت حدود درجات حرارة التفاعل لنفط خام البصرة من 600 إلى 675 كلفن و 583 إلى 643 كلفن لزيت الغاز الفراغي المشتق من خام كركوك، وكانت حدود سرع السائل الفراغية من 0.7 إلى 2 ساعة-1 لنفط خام البصرة ومن 1.5 إلى 3.75 ساعة-1 لزيت الغاز الفراغي وكانت جميع التفاعلات تحت ضغط هيدروجيني ثابت مقداره 3 ميكاباسكال لنفط خام البصرة و3.5 ميكاباسكال لزيت الغاز الفراغي وباستخدام نسبة هيدروجين إلى المغذي 300 لتر/لتر لنفط خام البصرة و 250 لتر/لتر لزيت الغاز الفراغي المشتق من نفط خام كركوك. بينت النتائج أن الحركية الظاهرة لتفاعل تشبع المركبات الاروماتية لنفط خام البصرة ولزيت الغاز الفراغي هي من الدرجة الثانية .


Article
Production of Graphite Electrodes Binder from Iraqi Asphalt

Authors: Tariq M.Naief --- Hussain K. Hussain --- Abdul Halim A.K. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2006 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 219-226
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Basrah crude oil Vacuum residue 773+ K with specific gravity 1.107 and 4.87wt. % sulfur, was treated with hexane commercial fraction provided from Al-Taji Gas Company for preparing deasphaltened oil(DAO)suitable for hydrotreating process.Deasphaltening was carried out with 1h mixing time, 10ml:1g solvent to oil ratio and at room temperature.Hexane deasphaltened oil was hydrotreated on presulfied commercial Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrotreating process was carried out at temperature 660 K,LHSV 1.3 h^ –1, H2/oil ratio 300 l/l and constant pressure of 4MPa.The hydrotreated product was distillated under vacuum distillation unit. It is found that the mixture of 75% of vacuum residue with 25% anthracene satisfies with requirements for graphite electrodes binder.

عومل المتبقي الفراغي لخام نفط البصرة ذو درجة غليان 773 كلفن ووزن نوعي 1.017 و4.87 نسية وزنية كبريت بمقطع الهكسان التجاري الذي جهز من شركة تعبئة الغاز في التاجي لتحضير متبقي فراغي مفصول الاسفلتينيات مناسب لعملية الهدرجة.تم معاملة المتبقي الفراغي بالمذيب بزمن خلط 1ساعة ونسبة مذيب الى المتبقي غم 10:1 مل بدرجة حرارة الغرفة.تم هدرجة المتبقي الذي عومل بالهكسان بوجود العامل المساعد Co-Mo/γ-Al2O3 الذي تم تحويله لصورة السلفايد في مفاعل ثلاثي الاطوار.تمت عملية الهدرجة بدرجة حرارة 660 كلفن وسرعة فراغية 1.3 ساعة-1 ونسبة هيدروجين/المتبقي 300 لتر/لتر تحت ضغط 4 ميكاباسكال.تم تقطير الناتج من عملية الهدرجة في وحدة التقطير الفراغي. لقد وجد ان خليط المتبقي الفراغي بنسبة 75% مع 25% من الانثراسين وافق متطلبات العجينة الرابطة لاقطاب الكرافيت.


Article
STUDYING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HYDRO TREATING PROCESS FOR A MIXTURE OF GAS OIL AND LIGHTER FRACTIONS

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Waleed H. Abohameed --- Shakir M. Ahmed --- Salah M. Ali --- et al.
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 4 Pages: 468-485
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

In the present study the applicability of hydrodesulfurization of a mixture of crude oil fractions (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil ) in a single hydrotreating reactor packed with NiCoMo/Al2O3 under various operating parameters such as temperature (310-370 oC), pressure (40-55 bars), weight hour space velocity (1.2 to 3.6 h-1), and hydrogen-to- liquid hydrocarbon ratio (150-300 vol/vol). Experimental results showed that temperature and pressure have a positive effect on process performance while weight hour space velocity gives a different trend. The optimum value of (H2/Hydrocarbon) ratio was found experimentally to be 200 vol/vol after which the increase in this ratio cause reduction in HDS% because decrease in contact between H2 gas and Hydrocarbon in reactor. Results showed that the best conditions (350 oC, 50 bars, 1.2 h-1, and 200 vol/vol) in which gave the hydrotreating (HDS) efficiency of 95.8%.The results confirmed the applicability of the NiCoMo/Al2O3 catalyst for HDS reaction of a mixture of middle distillate (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil). It was found that at higher pressure and temperature (i.e., T> 350 oC; P> 50 bars) a thermodynamic equilibrium was established. As observed, there is a 1.6% reduction in gas oil less than that of the conventional method. However, kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha undergo increases of 0.6%, 0.75%, and 2.75% respectively over these from conventional method. These results reveal that the quantity of fractions is almost the same for both methods. As it can be observed, that measured properties of the oil fractions produced by the proposed method are almost the same as those produced by conventional method. However, specific gravity (sp.gr) of the oil cuts produced by present study (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.785, 0.728, 0.655 respectively) is somewhat less than sp.gr of the same fractions produced by conventional methods (i.e. sp.gr of kerosene, heavy naphtha, and light naphtha 0.788, 0.738, 0.65 respectively), which gives a clear indication of properties improvement of these fractions. Experimental results confirmed the applicability of the proposed method for HDS of a mixture of Iraqi middle distillates (i.e., naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil) simultaneously in a single fixed bed reactor


Article
Parametric Study on Intrinsic Reaction for Straight Run Heavy Naphtha Hydrodesulfurization over CoMo/Al2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Mohammad F. Abid --- Mohammed K. Abdullah --- Salah M. Ali
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 146-153
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The present study aimed to investigate the intrinsic reaction of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for a real Straight Run Heavy Naphtha (SRHN) over CoMo-S/Al2O3 catalyst in a fixed- bed reactor. Influence of the process parameters on sulfur removal was investigated by regulating the temperature (T = 320-380 oC), pressure (P = 20 to 35 bar), weight hour space velocity (WHSV = 2.5 to 5.0 h-1) and catalyst average particle size (dp =361 to 3950 μm). Mears and Weisz-Prater criteria were estimated and utilized to validate the intrinsic reaction condition. Operating variables were optimized at (T = 360 oC, P = 30 bars, WHSV = 2.5 h-1, dp= 361 μm) to obtain an optimum sulfur removal of 93.4% under intrinsic reaction conditions. Experimental results showed that % activity of sulfur removal increases to 93.4% as temperature increased to 360oC but it reduces to 90.3% as space velocity increased to 5.0 h-1. Kinetic parameters of the intrinsic reaction rate were estimated and compared with published data. Long-time test was performed on the sulfided catalyst to investigate its activity.


Article
Hydrodesulfurization of Iraqi Atmospheric Gasoil by Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 Prepared Catalyst
أزالة الكبريت بالهيدروجين لزيت الغاز العراقي بواسطة الحفاز المحضر Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3

Authors: Tariq Mohammed Naife طارق محمد نايف --- Hussain Kasim Hussain حسين قاسم حسين --- Abdul Halim Abdul Karim Mohammed عبدالحليم عبدالكريم محمد
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2017 Volume: 23 Issue: 11 Pages: 13-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study investigates the improvement of Iraqi atmospheric gas oil characteristics which contains 1.402 wt. % sulfur content and 16.88 wt. % aromatic content supplied from Al-Dura Refinery by using hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process using Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst in order to achieve low sulfur and aromatic saturation gas oil. Hydrodearomatization (HDA) occurs simultaneously with hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process. The effect of titanium on the conventional catalyst Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 was investigated by physical adsorption and catalytic activity test.Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst was prepared under vacuum impregnation condition to ensure efficient precipitation of metals within the carrier γ-Al2O3. The loading percentage of metals as oxide; titanium oxide 3 wt. %, nickel oxide 5 wt. % and molybdenum oxide 12 wt. %. The performance of the synthesized catalyst for removing sulfur and aromatic saturation were tested at various temperatures 275 to 350°C, LHSV 1 to 4h-1, constant pressure 40 bar and H2/HC ratio 500 ml/ml.Results showed that the sulfur and aromatic content were reduced at all operating conditions. Maximum sulfur removal was 75.52 wt. % in gas oil on Ti-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 at temperature 350˚C, LHSV 1h-1, while minimum aromatic content achieved was 15.6 wt. % at the same conditions.

هذه الدراسة تحقق تحسين من خصائص زيت الغازالعراقي والذي يحتوي 1.402 ٪ نسبة وزنية من الكبريت و16.88 ٪ نسبة وزنية من المركبات الاروماتية والذي تم الحصول عليه من مصفى الدورة عن طريق إدخاله لعملية ازالة الكبريت بالهيدروجين باستخدام الحفاز المحضر Ti-Ni-Mo /γ- Al2O3 لغرض الحصول على زيت غاز عراقي واطئ الكبريت واشباع المركبات الاروماتية ،عملية معالجة المواد الاروماتية بالهيدروجين تحدث تلقائيا مع عملية ازالة الكبريت بالهيدروجين ،تاثير اضافة التيتانيوم على الحفاز التقليدي Ni-Mo/γ- Al2O3 تحقق بواسطة الامتزاز الفيزياوي واختبار اداء الفعالية ، تم تحضير الحفاز تحت ضغط التحميل الفراغي لضمان كفاءة ترسيب المعادن داخل الحامل γ-Al2O3. نسبة تحميل اكاسيد المعادن على الحامل كانت 3 % نسبة وزنية من اوكسيد التياتنيوم و 5 % نسبة وزنية اوكسيد النيكل و 12 % نسبة وزنية من اوكسيد المولوبدنيوم.تم اختبار اداء الحفاز المحضر لازالة الكبريت واشباع المركبات الاروماتية لمختلف درجات الحرارة من 275 – 350 م˚وسرعة حجمية فراغية للسائل من 1- 4 سا -1 ، وضغط 40 بار ونسبة H2/HC 500مل/ مل .اظهرت النتائج أن محتوى الكبريت واشباع المركبات الاروماتية ينخفض في جميع ظروف التشغيل للحفاز المحضر. اعلى نسبة ازالة للكبريت تم الحصول عليها 75.52 % نسبة وزنية لزيت الغاز باستعمال الحفازTi-Ni-Mo/γ-Al2O3 حصلت في درجة حرارة 350م˚وسرعة حجمية فراغية للسائل 1 سا -1 ، بينما اقل قيمة للمحتوى الاروماتي 15.6 % نسبة وزنية وبنفس الظروف التشغيلية.


Article
Increasing production of gasoline and diesel fuel in medium and small refineries to meet the needs of Iraqi market

Authors: Aed Jaber Imran --- Adnan Abdul jabbar
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 14 Pages: 46-57
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Iraq is considered one of the countries exporters of oil in the world, but the output of motors fuels from the refined crude oil less than (45 wt %), which is associated with the lack of Iraqi refineries with secondary processes.Iraq consist of five big capacity crude oil refineries which include (atmospheric crude distillation, hydrotreating, catalytic reforming and isomerization) and produce high quality motors fuel, in addition five medium and five small in capacity crude oil refineries include only atmospheric crude distillation which produce low quality raw products (light and heavy naphtha, light gasoil and reduced crude).The total capacity of Iraqi oil in the last years changed from 28 to 35 million ton/year. Most of our refineries include old equipment, but in spite of the annual maintenance for these refineries the motor fuels products could not able to cover all the Iraqi requirements of motor fuels 27 million ton/year.In these refineries produce reduced crude (fuel oil) in large quantity and because of this, Iraq imports gasoline fuel (30 wt%) of its requirements and LPG (17 wt%) of its requirements.This situation impose on us to increase the output products quantity from the Iraqi crude oil by development the medium and small capacity refineries via installation thermal processes units instead of vacuum distillation units, by this actual research we will find that the deep of refinery will increase from 54 to 70 wt%, and production of motor fuel will change from 45 to 68 wt%.Purpose of the work: development of the flowchart which is applied in Iraqi small capacity refineries (1.3 – 1.4 million Ton/year) by installation thermal cracking units to produce maximum allowable yield and quality of motors fuels.This research depends on actual experiments which are done by me in Ufa state petroleum technological university on actual crude oil and reduced crude brought from Iraqi’s refineries from the oil fields Basrah (Zubair) and Kirkuk.

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