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Article
Assessment of tongue space area in a sample of Iraqi adults with class I dental and skeletal pattern

Author: Mohammed A. Kadhum
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 1 Pages: 117-120
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Lateral cephalometric radiography is commonly used as a standard tool in orthodontic assessment andtreatment planning. This study aimed to determine the tongue and surrounding space area in a sample of Iraqiadults with class I dental and skeletal pattern.Materials and methods: The study included thirty healthy subjects (15 males and 15 females) with an age rangedbetween 23-34 years and class I dental and skeletal pattern with no history of any sleep related disorders. Theassessed cephalometric measurement included length and height of the tongue and position of hyoid bone fromcervical line. Descriptive statistics were obtained for the data. Genders difference was evaluated by independentsample t-test.Results: There were significantly higher values in males as compared to females in most of the measurements.Conclusions: The study provides preliminary details of tongue space area assessment in normal class I profile subjects


Article
An Evaluation of Gutta-Percha Penetration Depth into Simulated Lateral Canals by Using Three Different Obturation Techniques (A Comparative Study)

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Abstract

Background:sThe aims of this study were to evaluate and compare the ability of three different techniques toobdurate simulated lateral canals, evaluate the effect of the main canal curvature on obturation of lateral canalsand compare the gutta-percha penetration between coronal and apical lateral canals.Materials and methods: Resin blocks with 30 straight and 30 curved were used in this study. Each canal has twoparallel lateral canals. The main canal has 0.3 mm apical diameter and 0.04 taper. The canals were divided into sixgroups according to canal curvature and obturation techniques used (n=10): Groups C1 and C2: straight andcurved canals obturated with continuous wave technique using E&Q masterTM system. Groups O1 and O2: straightand curved canals obturated with Obtura II. Groups T1 and T2: straight and curved canals obturated with Thermafilobturators. Soapy water was used to simulate sealer in all obturations performed. The depth of gutta-perchapenetration into lateral canals was measured using computerized stereomicroscope.Results: There were very highly significant differences between the obturation techniques at each lateral canal levelin both straight and curved canals. Continuous wave using E&Q masterTM system exhibited the greatest guttaperchapenetration into lateral canals with very highly significant difference from both other techniques at majorityof lateral canals. There was non- significant difference between Thermafil and Obtura II except at coronal lateralcanal of straight main canals where the difference was very highly significant.The gutta-percha depth was greater in coronal than apical lateral canals in all groups of both straight and curvedcanals, and gutta-percha depth was greater in straight than in curved canals within each obturation technique.Conclusion: This study showed that all the three obturation techniques used were able to obturate simulated lateralcanals with the continuous wave technique being the best. Gutta-percha depth was less in the apical than thecoronal lateral canals. Canal curvature can influence the gutta-percha depth


Article
Lateral Performance for Long Pile Subjected to Simultaneous Axial and Lateral Loads in Dense Sand: An Experimental Study

Authors: Jasim M. Abbas جاسم محمد عباس --- Qasim I. Hussain
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2019 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 110-114
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

The present study focus on the investigation ofthe response of single pile when subjected to both axial and lateral loads simultaneously in dense sand. To study this issue, laboratory model was locally improved to examine the piles under this kind of loading. The dense sand provided using raining technique. The slenderness ratio of the tested pile is ( L/D=45). On the other hand, the vertical and horizontal loads are divided into 5 stages to assess the influence of load intensities on the lateral pile response. It can be concluded that the lateral pile response is affected by changing the load intensities


Article
Embedded In Sandy Soils with Cavities

Authors: Saheem M. Al-Taie --- Yousif J. Al-Shakarchi --- Mosa J. Al-Mosawe
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2007 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 1168-1185
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A program of laboratory testing is carried out to study the performance of laterally loaded piles embedded in soil, which contains cavities. The testing apparatus is manufactured for carrying out the tests and a simple technique was used to simulate the cavities.The program of testing consists of five groups: Group One was carried out on pile embedded in soil without cavities. The Second and Third Groups are performed on pile embedded in soil contains single cavity located in front and in touch with pile face for the Second Group and in back and in touch with pile face for the Third one. Group Four is performed on pile with the existence of two cavities located in front and in touch with pile face. Group Five is performed on pile with the existence of three cavities located in front and at a variable distance from pile face. All tests are performed on a free head pile subjected to horizontal load.The results of this study indicate that the number of cavities and their location have a combined effect on the behavior of laterally loaded pile The effect of cavities located in front of the pile is marginal at X/D > 8 where X is the spacing between cavity and pile and D is the diameter of the pile.

لدراسة تصرف الركائز المحملة أفقيا والمدفونة في تربة تحتوي على تكهفات ، فقد تم وضع برنامج فحوص مختبري يتضمن دراسة تصرف نماذج من ركائز صغيرة مدفونة في تربة رملية مفككة صيغت بداخلها فجوات. وقد تم تصنيع جهاز لتنفيذ البرنامج مع استعمال تقنية بسيطة لتمثيل الفجوات .هذا ويحتوي برنامج الفحص خمس مجاميع:المجموعة الأولى: أجريت على ركيزة مدفونة في تربة خالية من الفجوات.المجموعة الثانية: أجريت على ركيزة مدفونة في تربة تحتوي على فجوة واحدة وموقها أمام الركيزة ومتماسة مع سطحها.ويتغير بعد الفجوة عن سطح التربة في كل فحص. المجموعة الثالثة: مماثلة للمجموعة الثانية باستثناء موقع الفجوة حيث ان موقعها في هذه المجموعة خلف الركيزة .المجموعة الرابعة: أجريت على ركيزة مدفونة في تربة تحتوي على فجوتين وموقعيهما أمام الركيزة ومتماستين معها، المجموعة الخامسة : أجريت على ركيزة مدفونة في تربة تحتوي على ثلاث فجوات وموقعها هو أمام الركيزة وتبعد مسافات مختلفة عن سطح الركيزة في كل فحص.هذا وان الفحوص أجريت على ركائز حرة في حركة الراس free head ومعرضة لقوى افقية مع تغيير في نسبة اللامركزية.وبينت نتائج الفحوص ان هنالك تاثيرا مشتركا بين عدد الفجوات وموقعها على أداء الركائز المحملة افقيا. ويتلاشى تاثير الفجوات على سلوك الركائز عندما تكون على بعد X/D اكبر من 8 حيث ان X هو المسافة الافقية بين سطح الفجوة وسطح الركيزة و D هو قطر الركيزة.

Keywords

Cavities --- Pile --- Lateral load --- Sand


Article
A comparison of spreader penetration depth and load required in curved canal using two types of spreaders

Author: lman M. Al-Zaka B.D.S., M.Sc د.ايمان محمد الزقة
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 167-172
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to compare nickel titanium and stainlesssteel spreaders penetration depth and load in lateral compaction. Thirty curved mesialcanals of extracted mandibular molars were used in the study. The canals wereprepared using step-back technique with Gates-Glidden. Afterward the teeth weredivided randomly into 2 groups. In part 1 of the study, the force required to inserteach spreader to within 1 mm of the working length in an empty canal was measured .In part 2, the force required to insert each spreader to within 2 mm of the workinglength was measured in canal containing a master cone. ln part 3, the depth ofpenetration of each spreader with a master cone in place using a 1.5 kg force wasmeasured. Using a t-test for paired samples, the results from pan 1 showed that nickeltitanium spreader required high significantly less force than stainless steels reader P<0.01 . ln part 2, a nickel titanium s reader re uired high si niticantl lessforce than a stainless steel spreader .As expected in part 3, a nickel titanium spreaderpenetrated to a significantly high depth than stainless steel spreader (P<0.0l


Article
EFFECT OF LATERAL PROPAGATION OF SELECTED FOLDS ON STREAMS, SULAIMANIAH AREA, NE IRAQ
تأثير النمو الجانبي للطيات على الأنهار، منطقة السليمانية، شمال شرق العراق

Authors: Manal Sh. Al-Kubaisi منال شاكر الكبيسي --- Mawaheb F. Abdul Jabbar مواهب فاضل عبد الجبار
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-124
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

This study is an attempt to conduct morphotectonic analysis for some selected streams in the folded belt, and to deduce their relationship with the geological structures, which control the drainage system. This work was executed using remote sensing and GIS application. The study area lies within Sulaimaniyah Governorate, NE Iraq. Tectonically, the study area is a part of the High Folded Zone, within the Unstable Shelf of the Arabian Plate.Geologically, the study area is highly complicated, where wide range of geological formations is exposed.Hundreds of streams, of different sizes and types, and many rivers dissect the studied area, some of which form gorges along their courses, partly of canyon type. Some of these streams and rivers dissect the anticlines, oriented almost perpendicularly to their trends which oriented NW – SE.The present folds, and even those surrounding the rivers have played big role on the extension of the basins and the sub-basins of the rivers. Locally, they have formed water and wind gaps. This study demonstrates that the anticlines have developed from several embryonic folds, which have merged during lateral propagation and form extended fold trains. The merging points of the individual fold segments have major effect on the pattern of the regional drainage system. Along all investigated anticlines, direct evidence for lateral propagation in form of distinctive drainage patterns and wind gaps are found. Furthermore, various geomorphologic parameters, describing tectonic activity and basin maturity, are analyzed. The interpretation of the calculated geomorphologic ratios indicates a high tectonic activity and a low maturity of the drainage basins.

تمثل هذه الدراسة محاولة لإجراء تحليل مورفوتكتوني لبعض الانهر المختارة في حزام الطي، ولإيجاد علاقاتها مع التراكيب الجيولوجية، التي تسيطر على شبكة التصريف. وقد نفذ هذا العمل بتفسير معطيات التحسس النائي ونظم المعلومات الجغرافية.تقع منطقة الدراسة ضمن محافظة السليمانية شمال شرق العراق وتقع من الناحية البنيوية، ضمن نطاق الطي العالي في الرصيف غير المستقر من الصفيحة العربية.وتتميز من الناحية الجيومورفولوجية، بالتضاريس الجبلية، حيث يبلغ ارتفاع أعلى قمة حوالي 2700 متر (فوق مستوى سطح البحر) وتقع في الزاوية الشمالية الشرقية (جبل بيرة مكرون)، بينما يبلغ أقل ارتفاع حوالي 150 متر وتقع في الزاوية الجنوبية الغربية، وهذا يعني بان منطقة الدراسة تزداد ارتفاعاً باتجاه الشمال الشرقي.وتمتاز المئات من الوديان ذات الأحجام والأنواع المختلفة، إضاقةً الى العديد من الأنهار، منطقة الدراسة، وبعضها يكوّن مضايق في مساراتها، وقسماً منها يكوّن خنادق عميقة (Canyons). إن بعض هذه الأنهر والوديان تقطع الطيات المحدبة عمودياً وباتجاه الشمال الغربي – الجنوب الشرقي، والشرق – الغرب، مشكلةً مضايق باحجام وخصائص مختلفة وذات مناشيء مختلفة.قد لعبت الطيات المحدبة والمقعرة التي تحيط بالانهار في منطقة الدراسة دوراً كبيراً في امتداد أحواض الأنهار وكونت ما يسمى بالفتحات المائية والهوائية. وأظهرت هذه الدراسة ان هناك بعض التراكيب المحدبة قد تطورت من عدة طيات صغيرة التي اندمجت خلال النمو الجانبي وشكلت سلسلة من الطيات الممتدة، ان نقاط التحام الجزء الواحدة من الطية لها دور كبير على نمط شبكة التصريف العام. وفي كل الطيات المحدبة المدروسة، تم ملاحظة دلائل مباشرة للنمو الجانبي على شكل نمط تصريف خاص إضافةً الى الفتحات الهوائية.لقد تم تحليل العديد من العوامل الجيومورفولوجية ووصف النشاط التكتوني ودرجة بلوغ الأحواض كخطوة إضافية للدراسة. ان تفسير النسب الجيومورفولوجية التي تم احتسابها تدل على نشاط تكتوني عالي في المنطقة ودرجة بلوغ واطئة لأحواض شبكات التصريف والتي أيضاً استدل عليها بوجود الفتحات الهوائية المنحنية.

Keywords

Lateral propagation --- Folds --- Stream --- Iraq


Article
Study of Three Dimensional Fluid Flow inManifold-Laterals System
دراسة الجریان ثلاثي الابعاد في نظام الانبوب المتعدد التفرعات

Authors: Jafar M. Hassan --- Wahid S. Mohammad --- Ayad F. Hameed
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2012 Volume: 30 Issue: 7 Pages: 1132-1148
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A three dimensional numerical simulation of fluid flow in a manifold-laterals system was carried out; several geometrical changes were made to study the effect on water flowing inside the manifold. The manifold hydraulic diameter and the length were kept constant in the study. The geometrical changes include the distance between laterals, the length of the laterals, and the laterals size. It is found that for ReynoldsNumber (100 and 1000), increasing the length of the laterals gives uniform flow profile at laterals outlet. Also reducing lateral size will create a similar effect. A good agreement was found between the present and FLUENT6.2 results for mass flow rate from laterals.

تم اجراء دراسة عددية ثلاثية الابعاد لجريان مائع داخل انبوب ذات تفرعات متعددة. تم دراسة تاثير العديد من التغييرات للشكل الهندسي للانبوب على جريان الماء داخل الانبوب. تم تثبيت القطر الهيدروليكي للانبوب وطوله في هذه الدراسة. تضمنت التغييرات في الشكل، المسافة بين التفرعات، طول التفرعات، وحجم التفرع. لقد وجد عند ارقام رينولدز ( 100 و 1000 ) بان زيادة طول التفرع يجعل جريان الماء منتظما عند مخارج التفرعات. كذلك بتغيير حجم التفرعات يمكن الحصول على نفس النتيجة مع ثبوت الابعاد الاخرى. بالمقارنة مع برنامج (فلونت 6.2 ) تم الحصول على تقارب جيد مع نتائج الدراسة الحالية فيما يخص معدل التدفق الكتلي الخارج من جميع التفرعات


Article
Cranial base morphology in different skeletal classes (A cross-sectional lateral cephalometric study)

Authors: Bilal I. Abd بلال عبد --- Fakhri A. Ali فخري عبد علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 108-113
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: It was stated in scientific literatures that the entire craniofacial complex is influenced by the growth ofthe cranial base structures. Nevertheless, many times this is not the case, and this point is subject to great controversyso the aim of this study is to evaluate the possible differences in cranial base shape and flexure between differentskeletal classes for both genders and to investigate any possible correlation between cranial base variables andother skeletal base variables.Materials and Methods: The sample include 75 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi adults aged between 18-25years (39 males, 36 females), collected from patients and undergraduate students in the orthodontic department ofCollege of Dentistry-Baghdad University. The total sample was divided to three major categories depending on ANBangle and dental occlusion into class I control group (12 males, 13 females), class II group (13 males, 12 females) andclass III group (14 males, 11 females).Results: The results revealed that no significant difference in all the angular measurements of both skeletal andcranial bases existed between genders, while all linear and area measurements were usually higher in males thanfemales and there was no significant difference in all the skeletal and cranial bases angles existed between differentskeletal classes in both genders meaning that there is no relationship between cranial base flexure and skeletalclasses. The angles N-S-Ar, N-S-Ba and SN-FH were always correlated negatively with both the angles SNA and SNB inall skeletal classes for both genders, while the angle SBa-FH showed weaker correlation with the angles SNA and SNBthan the angle SN-FHin all skeletal classes for both genders.Conclusion: Cranial base flexure is not the main cause of skeletal malocclusions


Article
A NEW PERSPECTIVE OF THE DEEP TECTONICS OF CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN IRAQ FROM GEOPHYSICAL EVIDENCE
منظور جديد حول البنيوية العميقة لوسط وجنوب العراق من المعلومات الجيوفيزيائية

Author: Jassim M. Al-Bdaiwi جاسم محمد البديوي
Journal: Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining مجلة الجيولوجيا والتعدين العراقية ISSN: 18114539 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 125-131
Publisher: Ministry of Industry and Minerals وزارة الصناعة والمعادن

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Abstract

The basement magnetic anomalies or anomaly sets of the central and southern Iraq are mostly characterized by clear right lateral distortions zones (coupling stress). If this coupling stress had acted during the closure of the Tythian Sea, significant structures within the sedimentary cover should be developed along these zones.

تم استعراض الاهمية التركيبية للانحرافات التي تظهر على شواذ القاعدة البلورية المغناطيسية لوسط وجنوب العراق والتي من الممكن ان تترك أثرها الفعال على نمط تشوهات الغطاء الرسوبي بمستوياته المختلفة والتي يمكن الاستفادة منها في التحريات الهيدروكربونية.


Article
ENGINEERING ASSESSMENTS OF LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL BAGHDAD SOIL UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING
التقييم الهندسي للتسييل المحتمل لتربة بغداد تحت التحميل الديناميكي

Author: Bushra Suhail Albusoda
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2016 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-76
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study isfocused on the evaluation of liquefaction of Baghdad soil. Seven sites have been chosen along Tigris River. Various procedures were followed to evaluate liquefaction susceptibility of Baghdad soil. The variation of safety factor with depth had been investigated. The liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and settlement had been studied. The study revealed that the NCEER, 1997 workshop procedure is recommended for assessment of liquefaction of Baghdad soil while the Japanese highway bridge method is not convenient.A new proposed chart for preliminary assessment of liquefaction for Baghdad soil had been developed. This chart will be helpful in saving cost and time in liquefaction assessment of Baghdad soil.

تركز هذه الدراسة على تقييم التسييل لتربة بغداد. تم اختيار سبعة مواقع محاذيةلنهر دجلةلتقييم قابلية تربة بغداد للتسيلباستخدام طرق مختلفة. تم تحري اختلاف عامل الأمان مع العمق ودراسةالانتشار الجانبي والهبوط الذي يسببه التسييل. كشفت الدراسة أنه من المستحسن اعتماد طريقة NCEER, 1997 workshop لتقييم التسييل لتربة بغداد في حين أن طريقة Japanese highway bridgeغير ملائمة. تم استحداث مرتسم جديد مقترح لتقييم تسييل تربة بغداد بشكل اولي. هذا المرتسمسيكون مفيدا في توفير التكاليف والوقت في تقييم تسييل تربة بغداد

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