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Article
Comprehension of Posted Highway Traffic Signs in Iraq
قابلية فهم سائقي المركبات للعلامات المرورية المعلقة في العراق

Author: Aodai Abdul-Illah Ismail
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 1813162X 23127589 Year: 2012 Volume: 19 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-70
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Level of posted highway traffic signs (HTSs) comprehension by drivers is used to investigate the effectiveness of the posted HTSs in Iraq. Twenty four HTSs, different characteristics of drivers, and survey with questions of short answer and multiple-choice is selected for this aim. The study results show that there is an increase in the driver comprehension process of HTSs with the increasing of his level of education, level of urbanization of his residence and driving daily practice. Inverse relation occurred with the increasing of driver number of accidents. The results of this research show that it is very important to modify some of the HTSs so as to be easy for comprehending by making it more legible and more appropriateness, also it is recommended to educate drivers to raise there ability to understand the meanings of all the HTSs.

تم استعمال مستوى فهم سائقي المركبات لمعنى العلامات المرورية المعلقة لغرض تحديد كفاءة أداء هذه العلامات.لأجل هذا الغرض تم استعمال 24 علامة مرورية,استبيان لعدة خصائص مختلفة للسائق, و أسئلة من أنواع متعدد الخيارات و الإجابات القصيرة. أظهرت نتائج البحث تباين في مستوى قابلية السائق لفهم العلامات المرورية يرتفع مع ارتفاع كل من المستوى التعليمي, درجة تحضر منطقة السكن لسائق المركبة, و الممارسة لعملية السياقة. تنعكس هذه العلاقة حيث ينخفض مستوى فهم سائقي المركبات لمعنى العلامات المرورية مع ازدياد عدد الحوادث التي ارتكبها. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة انه من المهم جدا تطوير تصميم بعض العلامات الحالية لتكون أكثر وضوحا و تناسبا مع المعنى المراد منها. مع التوصية بتطوير العلامات المرورية لتكون أسهل فهما , بجعلها أكثر وضوحا وتناسبا مع المفهوم المراد منها. كذلك التوصية بتثقيف سائقي المركبات لرفع قدراتهم على فهم المعنى المراد من جميع العلامات المرورية.الكلمات الدالة: العلامات المرورية, الحوادث, قابلية الفهم, مستوى التعليم.


Article
Gingival health status and oral hygiene among patients attending health centers aged (20-80) years in ERBIL city
الحالة الصحية للثة والنظافة الفموية بين المرضى الذين يحضرون المراكز الصحية الذين تتراوح أعمارهم بين (20-80) سنة في مدينة إربيل

Author: Shahida Rassul Hussein
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Aims of the present study were to investigate the gingival health status in different age groups of both genders in (300) subjects aged 20–80 years, also to fined the effect of the frequency of tooth brushing and education level on gingival health of adult population in Erbil city.Methods: The examination was performed using plaque, gingival and calculus indices. The level of education and frequency of tooth brushing were reported.Results: Demonstrated that ; the total mean for plaque(1.18) ,gingival (0.97) and calculus(0.19) scores were increased with increasing age with significant differences fore plaque (P-value =0.017) and calculus(P-value =0.00) score but with no significant difference for gingival score(P-value =0.31) . Males reported higher means than females for plaque and gingival score while male reported equal means with female for calculus with no significant differences. (P-value =0.41), (P-value =0.16), (P-value =0.82) respectively. The highest mean of plaque (1.68), gingival (1.43) and calculus (0.31) scores were seen related to non brushing group with significant differences between all groups.(P-value =0.00)The highest mean of plaque (1.45), gingival, (1.19) and calculus (0.23) scores, were seen related to illiterate level of education with significant differences between all groups.(P-value =0.00)Conclusion: Females reported less mean plaque score and more healthy gingiva than males. Gingival, plaque and calculus scores were increasing with age. Most of the of them needs increasing their level of education and oral health education.


Article
The Factors Contributing to the Juvenile Delinquent Youth in Kerbala Province. A Prevalence Study

Author: Amer Alhaidary^*
Journal: Karbala Jorunal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2017 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 3818-3826
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: juvenile delinquency is problem that affect the youth in many societies and can lead to many complication in regard the legal system, increase the crime and affect the moral and ethical issues of each society so it was better to understand the factors that contributing to the development of this condition.Aim of the study: to explore the family, school and economic factors of juvenile crime. It has been conducted in police offices throughout the governorate of Karbala. Subject and Methods: Interview schedule has been used as a tool of data collection. A sample of 172juveniles was interviewed 93.6% male; most of the delinquents were in the age group of 9-19 years. Results and Discussion: This study found that majority of the respondents were dropped out of school and engaged with juvenile employment, which in turn increases the rate of juvenile crimes. The dynamic and function of the family was found to be a determining factor for delinquency, only 56.97% lived with both of parent were 19.18% of the delinquent youth lived away from their families, 43.02% suffered from family neglecting, most of them belonged to low income profile, and keeping watching violent movie or electronic games.Conclusions: from this study it was concluded that the character of delinquent case are those who are spend most of their time outside their home, they have low level of education, coming from poor parenteral education, they live in overcrowded area or coming from other governorate, they prefer to watch violent movie and violent games, they are cared by only one parent or by relatives,, with big family size, they have been curled or neglected by their care giver and finally have low financial state.


Article
أثر سياسة التنمية الريفية على التعليم في المناطق الريفية (حالة الجزائر)

Author: الدكتور هاشمي الطيب
Journal: AL-Mostansiriyah journal for arab and international studies مجلة مركز المستنصرية للدراسات العربية والدولية ISSN: 2070898X Year: 2014 Issue: 48 Pages: 237-264
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This paper describes the extent of the disparity in the level of education between rural and urban areas in developing countries in general, and Algeria in particular, as a result of the bias of this government for urban development at the expense of rural development. Also, the study revealed that the illiteracy rate is high in rural areas, due to the lack of educational services and do not benefit most inhabitants of rural development programs, and, as a result, it is highly recommended to provide these services and made it easy to access to the rural population, through an open area for them to participate in rural development programs, insisting on the necessity to activate the role of rural women.

يوضح هذا البحث مدى حجم التفاوت في مستوى التعليم بين المناطق الريفية والحضرية في الدول النامية عامة، والجزائر خاصة، نتيجة لانحياز هذه الحكومات للتنمية الحضرية على حساب التنمية الريفية، وكشفت نتائج الدراسة أن معدلات الأمية مرتفعة في المناطق الريفية، بسبب نقص الخدمات التعليمية وعدم استفادة معظم سكانها من برامج التنمية الريفية، وأوصت الدراسة بضرورة توفير هذه الخدمات وتقريبها للسكان الريف، مع فتح المجال للمشاركة لهم في برامج التنمية الريفية، وضرورة تفعيل دور المرأة الريفية.

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