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Article
Abundance, occurrence, seasonal changes and species composition of Macroinvertebrates in the restored Iraqi southern marshes

Author: A.H. Ali; N.M. Aziz and H.A. Hamza
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2007 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-95
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

78 species of macroinvertebrate were recorded in all monitored marshes comprised 17 snails, 40 insects, 4 of each shrimp and Annelid, 3 of each mussel, spider and crab, 2 Isopods, and 1 of amphipod and 1 Cirriped. Density of macroinvertebrates was higher on aquatic plants in all groups except stations Saddah, Burkah (both in East Hammar). the bottom substratum organisms were higher. Maximum species were recorded in Suq Shuyukh52 species while minimum values were recorded in East Hammar 39 species.Maximum density was recorded in East Hammar for snail 11.32-15.6 ind. /m2 on plant and 29.3-27ind/m2 on bottom substrate, while minimum density recorded in Um Alnaaj (Huwayzah) 2.2 ind. /m2. Maximum value for insect in Burkah bottom 6.3ind/m2 and minimum value in Suq Shuyukh bottom 0.33 ind. /m2. Maximum value for shrimp was recorded on plant of Um Alnaaj 15.17 ind. /m2 and minimum value on plant in Amia 6.9 ind. /m2. Seasonal changes in macroinvertebrates numbers were recognized ,that maximum numbers were recorded for all groups in spring, while minimum values were recorded in summer.Snail had higher values of diversity in all marshes; moreover East Hammar was higher than that in other marshes in biological indices. Evenness was found to be 0.71 for shrimp in Huwayzah in comparison to Suq Shuyukh 0.45 and East Hammar 0.13. Higher diversity of shrimp in Suq Shuyukh 0.73, while insect had a comparable in seasonal values and low in all ecological indices between Huwayzah and Suq Shuyukh.


Article
Seasonal Patterns of Ecological Indices For Keystone Animals Groups In Three Types of Iraqi Marshes During 2005 -2007

Authors: Najah A. Hussain --- Atheer, H. Ali --- H. A. Hamzah --- Laith F. Lazem
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 7-17
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Seasonal ecological indices were calculated for three keystone biological groups (macroinvertebrates, fishes and aquatic birds) during the period 2005-2007 in three types of restored southern Iraqi marshes freshwater non-tidal (Huwaiza), oligosaline non-tidal (West Hammar) and mesosaline tidal (East Hammar). It seem that each marsh have its own timing for increase or decrease of diversity, richness and evenness. In general high modes for ecological indices appeared in summer and spring for macroinvertebrates and fishes lower ones in autumn and winter respectively, aquatic birds have high score in winter–spring period and low one in summer. Differences did existed in styles and timing of highest and lowest values in three types of marshes due to different prevailing ecological situation. Summer was the time for higher score for ecological indices for macroinvertebrates and fishes, winter recorded the lowest values. Aquatic birds have different mode. Non-tidal freshwater marsh was similar to non-tidal oligosaline marsh especially in timing of high mode of ecological indices. Tidal mesosaline marsh partly similar to non-tidal oligosaline and wildly different to that non-tidal freshwater marsh. The ecological indices of aquatic birds improved gradually to reach integrated status. The improvement of hydrological situation of the restored marshes led to improve of ecological indices especially those of aquatic birds.


Article
A Study of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community in the Lower Part of Greater Zab River Near Guwer Subdistrict
دراسة مجتمع اللافقريات القاعية في الجزء السفلي لنهر الزاب الأعلى قرب منطقة الكوير

Author: Yahya A. Shekha يحيى احمد شيخة
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2011 Volume: 22 Issue: 1E Pages: 33-45
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

In this study, the analysis of 48 qualitative macroinvertebrate samples were taken from four sites in the lower reach of Greater Zab river near Guwer subdistrict- Erbil from May 2008- April 2009. Sixteen taxa belong to Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, in addition to one taxa belong to class Arachnides were identified. Site 1 is characterized by more identified taxa (12 taxa) than the other sites. Most abundant taxa were Tanypus spp. during studied period which followed by Hydrachna spp., with highest F index percentage reached to 75% and 58.3% respectively. According to Sorenson index, sites 2 and 3 were the most similar sites with values reached to 75%.

في الدراسة الحالية , تم تحليل 48 أنموذجاً من اللافقريات العيانية الماخوذة من الجزء السفلي لنهر الزاب الاعلى قرب ناحية الكوير – اربيل, وذلك من خلال اختيار اربع محطات ابتداءً من ايار- 2008 الى نيسان -2009 . تم تشخيص سبعة عشر وحدة تصنيفية عائدة الى الرتب التالية : ذبابة مايو, ثنائية الأجنحة, ذبابة الصخور, نصفية الأجنحة إضافة إلى وحدة تصنيفية عائدة الى صنف العنكبوتيات. تميز الموقع الاول بتواجد وحدات تصنيفية اكثر ( 12 وحدة تصنيفية ) مقارنة مع بقية المواقع. وأكثر الأنواع وفرة خلال فترة الدراسة كانت Tanypus spp. ثم، Hydrachna spp. مع نسبة وفرة عالية وصلت الى 75 % و 58.3 %، على التوالي. اعتمادا على دليل سورنس تبين بان موقع 2 و 3 من اكثر المواقع تشابها مع نسب وصلت الى 75% .


Article
Survey of some Macroinvertebrates and Physico-Chemical properties in Tanat River, Wales – UK.

Author: Bassam M. Al-Yaseen
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2014 Volume: 22 Issue: 5 Pages: 1559-1572
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

In October of 2006, chemical and physical data was collected at eight sites along the, near the town of Llangynog in Wales to observe how the chemical and physical properties of the Tanat River evolve and migrate as it flows downstream. In addition to physical and chemical data, macroinvertebrates were collected at each site in order to determine if the “river continuum concept”, a concept which suggests that biotic communities are “predictably positioned” in a river system in direct response to certain factors including physical gradient, geomorphic features, light input, and particulate matter, was applicable along the Tanat River. Analysis of the data revealed that physical and chemical properties of the Tanat River followed a predictable pattern with slope and velocity decreasing over the stream gradient, and temperature, conductivity, discharge, and hardness all increasing as the stream migrated. Data from macroinvertebrate sampling revealed the abundance of collector/scraper species increased as the stream moved downstream; however, the data did not reveal a true pattern of community placement for all macroinvertebrate feeding groups. Overall, the “river continuum concept” appears to be applicable to the Tanat River when considering physical and chemical properties of the river as it moves downstream; however, macroinvertebrate communities along the Tanat River do not appear to exhibit a predictable pattern.

تم جمع العينات في تشرين الاول من عام 2006 وذلك لغرض اجراء التحاليل الكيميائية والفيزيائية في ثمانية مواقع على طول نهر الـTanat، بالقرب من بلدة Llangynog في مقاطعة ويلز البريطانية لمراقبة التطور والتغيير في الخواص الكيميائية والفيزيائية لنهر الـTanat بتدفق مجرى النهر من الاعلى الى الاسفل. بالاضافة الى البيانات الفيزيائية والكيميائية، تم جمع اللافقريات الكبيرة الحجم Macroinvertebrates في كل موقع من أجل تحديد ما اذا كان "River Continum Concept"، وهو مفهوم يشير الى ان المجتمعات الاحيائية تتواجد في مواقع متنوعة ويمكن التنبؤ بها كإستجابة مباشرة لبعض العوامل بما في ذلك الانحدارات والملامح الجيومورفولوجية وجسيمات مادية معينة، والتي طُبقت على طول نهر الـTanat. بينت تحليل البيانات ان الخواص الفيزيائية والكيميائية لنهر الـTanat تتبع نمطاً يمكن التنبؤ به مع الانحدار والسرعة والتي تتناقص على طول ميل المجرى نحو المصب، ودرجة الحرارة، والتفريغ، والعسرة وجميعها تزداد بزيادة تدفق التيار وبعدها عن المصدر. بينت النتائج المستحصل عليها من عينات الـMacroinvertebrates وفرة الانواع الجامعة/ الكاشطة مع زيادة مجرى النهر نحو المصب، الا ان البيانات لم تكشف عن النمط الحقيقي للوضع المجتمعي لمجاميع التغذية للـMacroinvertebrates. وعموماً فإن مفهوم الـ"River Continum Concept" ينطبق على نهر الـTanat عند النظر في الخصائص الفيزيائية والكيميائية للنهر وهي تتحرك نحو المصب، ولكن المجتمعات المحلية للـMacroinvertebrates على طول نهر الـTanat لا يبدو انها تظهر نمطاً يمكن التنبؤ به.

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