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Article
The Effect of Experimental Escherichia coli Infection on Some Blood Parameters and Histological Changes in Male Rats
تأثير الاصابة التجريبية بالايشريشيا القولونية في بعض المعايير الدمية والتغيرات النسيجية في ذكور الجرذان

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Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of experimental infection by Escherichia coli on some blood parameters and histopathological changes in male rats to reach this objective twenty male rats (Rattus norvigicus) were divided into two groups, housed under same conditions of water, feed, temperature, light and humidity. The first one served as control group, while the second was experimentally infected with Ecoli by administration of 2ml / rat of (1×109) colony forming unit/ml of E-coli. Five days later blood were obtained from animals by cardiac puncture to measure the total and differential white blood cells count hemoglobin concentration packed cells volume red blood cells count, and thrombocytes count. One animal from each group was killed and histopathological examination was done for intestine kidney liver and spleen to detect the effect of infection on these organs. The results revealed a significant increase in total leukocytes count (P<005) in infected group while the differential count showed a significant increase in neutrophils and significant decrease in lymphocytes (P< 0.05) in same group. There were a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration packed cell volume and non significant decrease in red blood cells count. While thrombocytes count showed a significant decrease in infected group compared with control group (P<0.05). The histopathological examination of infected male rats intestine was demonstrated mild diffuse inflammation which include increased numbers of neutrophile in tissue intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells In kidney renal tubules showed extensive epithelial swelling with decreased lumen space and generalized necrotic changes with interstitial hemorrhage in renal cortex. In liver hepatocytes were swollen with decreased sinusoidal spaces and widely distributed necrotic foci were seen. There is extensive splenic necrosis with infiltration of leukocytes from white pulp to red pulp of spleen.

أجريت هذه الدراسة لتحديد تأثير الأصابة التجريبية بالأيشيريشيا القولونية E coli في بعض المعاير الدمية والتغيرات النسيجية التي تحدثها في الجرذان ولتحقيق هذا الهدف أستخدم اثنا عشر ذكرا من الجرذان قسمت الى مجموعتين متساويتين ووفر لها نفس الظروف البيئية (الماء الغذاء الأضاء ة الحرارة والرطوبة) تركت ألأولى كمجموعة سيطرة والمجموعة الثانية أصيبت تجريبيا بألأشيريشيا القولونية عن طريق تجريعها ( 2ml ) من الجرعة المحضرة .(1×109 cfu) وبعد خمسة أيام من التجريع تم سحب الدم من القلب مباشرة من كلا المجموعتين بعد تخدير الحيوان لقياس المعاير الدمية التي شملت العد الكلي والتفريقي لخلايا الدم البيض والعد الكلي لكريات الدم الحمر تركيز الهيموغلوبين حجم كريات الدم المرصوصة وعدد الصفيحات الدموية ، وكذلك تم تشريح حيوان واحد من كل مجموعة واجراء تقطيع نسجي لكل من الأمعاءالكلية الكبد والطحال لمعرفة مدى تأثر هذه الأنسجة بالأصابة. أظهرت النتائج أرتفاع معنوي في عدد الخلايا الدم البيض في المجموعة المصابة تجريبيا بالاشيريشيا القولونية مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة في حين أظهرالعد التفريقي زيادة معنوية في نسبة خلايا العدلات وانخفاض معنوي في نسبة الخلايا اللمفية في المجموعة المصابة تحت مستوى احتمال (0.05) في حين أظهرت معاير كريات الدم الحمر أنخفاض معنوي في كل من تركيز الهيموغلوبين وحجم خلايا الدم المرصوص وأنخفاض غير معنوي في العدد الكلي لكريات الدم الحمر في حين أظهر عدد الأقراص الدموية انخفاضا معنويا في المجموعة المصابة مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة. أظهرت نتائج التقطيع النسيجي في مجموعة الأصابة ألتهاب بسيط منتشر مع زيادة قي عدد العدلات داخل نسيج الأمعاء مع وجود خلايا لمفاوية وكأسيه في الظهارة في حين أظهر التقطيع النسيجي للكلية تورم في ظهارة النبيبات الكلوية وتضيق في تجويف الانبوب مع تنخر في عموم النسيج مع نزف في الفراغ البيني لقشرة الكلية ، كما أظهر نسيج الكبد في المجموعة المصابة تورم في الخلايا الكبدية مع تضيق في جيبانيات الكبد مع بؤر تنخريه منتشرة بشكل واسع في النسيج ، ولوحظ تنخر واسع في نسيج الطحال مع ارتشاح في خلايا الدم البيضاء من اللب الأبيض الى اللب الأحمر للطحال.


Article
Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy for Bilateral Varicoceles in Infertile Males

Authors: Saad D. Farhan --- Muayed Abass Fadhel**
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 317-322
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Varicoceles, present in 15% to 20% of men, are the most common abnormal finding among men presenting with infertility.Despite the very long history of the disease and many records on different surgical and radiological solutions, the ideal method of spermatic vein ligation for varicocele is still a matter of controversy. The perfect technique would be one that preserves testicular function and eliminates the varicocele with a low rate of recurrence, hydrocele formation and any other complications.OBJECTIVE:To assess the efficacy of laparoscopic Varicocelectomy for management of bilateral palpable varicoceles in infertile males.METHODS:We analysed the result of 25 patients presented with history of infertility and diagnosed to have bilateral palpable varicoceles treated in our department with Bilateral laparoscopic ligation of the spermatic vessels between January 2009 and November 2010.RESULTS:The average operative (Bilateral Laparoscopic Varicocelectomy) time was 34 minutes. There were no intra operative complications in the study group. Hydrocele formation was seen in 3 (6%) patients recurrence was seen in one (2%) patient .The average hospital stay was 18 hours. postoperative analgesics (1-2) doses , daily activities initiation usually started after 48 hrs and physical exercise 72 hrs . non of the patient has developed an atrophic testis as a result of the laparoscopic procedure. eighteen patients (72% )of the patients had improvement of the seminal fluid parameters During follow up period (6 months),with seminal fluid analysis, clinical and ultrasonic examination.CONCLUSION:Laparoscopic varicocele ligation is a simple and safe technique, causing minimal morbidity and enabling rapid return to normal activity


Article
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility

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Abstract Male infertility may occur due to different causes, therefore , different therapeutic approaches have been applied in order to improve the ability of men to get children . Semen analysis is used to determine the fertility potential in males, but the occurrence of pregnancy is the evidence of sperm ability for fertilization. Although male fertility is affected by food and nutrients, but little attention is paid for the use of Royal Jelly and no previous studies on the use of Royal Jelly in the treatment of male infertility. Eighty – three infertile men were treated with Royal Jelly, twenty – two with 100mg Royal Jelly, twenty –one with 50mg Royal Jelly, twenty with 25mg Royal Jelly and twenty with pure honey. Our study showed that, the treatments were safe and there were no side effects. After three months of treatment , the sperm active motility , testosterone level , Lutelizing hormones level , sluggishly motile sperm and intercourse / week increased significantly in infertile men treated with Royal Jelly , while sperm count and FSH level increased not significantly . On the basis of results, Royal Jelly is safe and effective in the treatment of male infertility.

يحدث العقم لدى الذكور لأسباب عديدة ولذلك فأن مناهج علاجية عديدة تستخدم لتحسين قدرة الرجال على إنجاب الأطفال , إن تحليل المني يجري لتحديد القدرة على الإخصاب في الذكور ولكن حصول الحمل هو الدليل على قدرة الحيامن على الإخصاب ، وبالرغم من ان خصوبة الذكور تتأثر بالغذاء ولكن هناك اهتمام قليل بدراسة تأثير الغذاء الملكي ولا توجد دراسات سابقة على استخدام الغذاء الملكي في علاج العقم عند الرجال لهذا فأن الدراسة الحالية تضمنت علاج الذكور المصابين بالعقم الذين يراجعون عيادة العقم في تكريت 83 ذكر عقيم عولجوا بالغذاء الملكي منهم 22 ذكر عقيم عولج بجرعة 100 ملغم غذاء ملكي ، 21 ذكر عقيم عولج بجرعة 50 ملغم غذاء ملكي ، 20 ذكر عقيم بجرعة 25 ملغم غذاء ملكي و 20 ذكر عقيم عولج بجرعة 10 غم عسل نقي لقد أظهرت دراستنا ان العلاجات كانت أمينة ولم تسجل أي أعراض جانبية مهمة بعد ثلاثة أشهر ، كانت نسبة النطف ذات الحركة الفعالة ومستوى هرمون التستوستيرون الخصوي ومستوى هرمون LH والنطف ذات الحركة البطيئة وعدد مرات الجماع الأسبوعية زادت بشكل ملحوظ إحصائيا في المرضى المعالجين بالغذاء الملكي بينما عدد النطف ومستوى هرمونFSH لم تزيد بشكل ملحوظ إحصائيا وبناءاً على النتائج فأن الغذاء الملكي أمين وفعال في علاج العقم لدى الرجال


Article
6-OVERDOSEOF TUSSIRUM INDUCED HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE LIVER AND KIDNEY IN MALE DOMASTIC RABBITS

Authors: Zenab M. Abd Al Rahmman --- Yasmeen J. Mohammed --- Abdal J. Rasmy --- Majdy F. Majeed
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: 18138497 Year: 2018 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-73
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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In this study, the histopathological changes due to overdose usage of Tussirumdrug(0.75 and 3 ml/Kg)in liver and kidney were assessed in rabbite with lightmicroscopes. Six male rabbites(1 ± 0.5 Kg ) were included and divided into threegroups.Normal saline (3ml/Kg) wasgiven orally as placebo in the control groupI (N= 2).Group II and III(N= 4 for each) was received Tussirum orallyat a single dose of (0.75 and3ml/kg/day) for 30 days respectively. the results were recorded that both doses ofTossirum were induced that blood vessel congestion, aggregation of Kuppfercells,inflamintion infiltrations and Sinusoidal dilatation in the liver parenchyma inaddition to the cytoplasmic vacuolation, degeneration, pyknotic nuclei in the hepatocytesand. On the other hand, renal damage was observed in the kidneys of treated rabbits,necrosis of glomular, degeneration of nucli and degeneration in the lining epithelial cellsof renal, also noted that glomular shrinkage, dilated of reanal tubules and hyperplasia oftubles walls,as well as to necrosis of renal tubules endothelium, closing of renal tubuleslumen, isulation of renal tubules endothelium and density in some nucli chromaticFinally, the investigators concluded that Tossirum toxicity induced hepatocellular andrenal damage

Keywords

Tossirum --- Liver --- Male Rabbit


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FRUCTOSE, ZINC AND COPPER LEVELS IN SEMINAL PLASMA IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE MEN

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Background: Human semen contains high concentrations of fructose, zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in bound and ionic forms for Zn and Cu. The presence of abnormal levels of fructose and those trace elements may affect spermatogenesis with regard to production, maturation, motility and fertilizing capacity of the spermatozoa.Objective: To evaluate the levels of fructose, Zn and Cu in seminal plasma in different groups of male infertility and to correlate their concentrations with various sperm parameters.Methods: The concentrations of fructose, Zn and Cu were measured in 114 semen samples from normozoospermic, oligozoospermic, astheno-zoospermic, and azoospermic men using the electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry for Zn and Cu determination. The concentration of fructose in seminal plasma was determined with a spectrophotometric method, using the resorcinol method.Results: Results of the present study showed that there was an inverse relationship between fructose levels and sperm count. The mean value of seminal plasma fructose concentrations was significantly increased (p ≤ 0.001) in the three groups of infertile male subjects (azoospermia, asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia) than in fertile males. The mean value of seminal plasma Zn concentrations was significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.001) in the three groups of infertile male subjects (azoospermia, asthenozoospermia and oligozoospermia) than in fertile males. A good correlation in a positive direction was noted between the sperm count and seminal plasma Zn concentration. There was significant decrease in seminal plasma Cu concentration between asthenozoospermia and control groups (p ≤ 0.05) and insignificant increase in oligozoospermic patients.Conclusions: On the basis of the observations of the present study, seminal fructose, zinc and copper may contribute to fertility through their effects on various semen parameters.Key words:Male infertility, fructose, zinc, copper.

Keywords

Male infertility --- fructose --- zinc --- copper


Article
ROLE OF ALCOHOLIC TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) EXTRACT IN OUTCOME OF IN VITRO SPERM ACTIVATION FOR INFERTILE PATIENTS

Author: Muhammad-Baqir MR Fakhrildin محمد باقر محمد رشاد فخر الدين
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 301-307
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundSemen samples are prepared for assisted reproduction by selecting a population of highly motile, morphologically normal sperm and removing the seminal plasma, leukocytes and bacteria. Culture media provide the spermatozoa with needs that maintain optimal function of spermatozoa to give rise excellent results during semen preparation.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extraction of turmeric (AET) on sperm parameters during in vitro sperm activation (ISA) for asthenozoospermic (AZ) and oligoasthenozoospermic (OAZ) patients.MethodsSeventy four infertile patients were included, and classified into two groups according to their sperm parameters. Semen sample was divided into 3 aliquots. One mL of Earl's medium either alone (control group) or supplied with one concentration of AET (5 µg/mL or 10 µg/mL) was over layered the pellet, and the three tubes were incubated at 37 oC for 30 min in air incubator. Sperm concentration, motility, grades activity, progressive motility, normal morphology and agglutination were assessed pre- and post-activation in vitro.ResultsResults revealed an enhancement of most sperm parameters for control and both treated groups post-activation as compared to pre-activation. Post-ISA, sperm parameters for both treated groups were better than the control group. However, best results for improvement of sperm parameters were assessed within treated group (5 µg/mL of AET).ConclusionsThe lower concentration of alcoholic turmeric extraction enhanced human sperm parameters during ISA without any harmful effects on sperm physiology. The results are also useful as a guide for further standardization of turmeric extracts used for pharmaceutical purposes in the techniques of assisted reproduction.Key words Male infertility, Sperm activation, Turmeric.


Article
Clomiphene citrate in the management of oligoasthenospermia

Author: Ameer Kadhum Daher امير كاظم دهر
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Medical Journal مجلة القادسية الطبية ISSN: 18170153 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 7 Pages: 71-78
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Background: Although clomiphene citrate (clomid) is, anti-estrogen, typically used for women with fertility problems, there have been a variety studies as to the use of clomiphene citrate in treating male subfertility.Objective: To evaluate the role of clomid in treating male with oligoasthenospermia.Methods: A prospective clinical study of 40 men with preliminary diagnosis of oligoasthenospermia according to WHO protocols in Wassit Government Iraq from July 2007 through July 2008.Clomid 50 mg oral daily dose was given for 4 months. The changes in sperm counts, the percentage of active sperms, pregnancy rate and side effects were recorded and analyzed.Results: The mean sperm count before treatment was 11millions per ml, while the mean percentages of sperm motility were 15%. After treatment the mean sperm count increased to 35 millions per ml (3 times) and the mean percentage of motile sperm to 30 % (2 times).8 patients (20%) reported their wives became pregnant.4 patients (10%) failed to respond.Conclusions and recommendations:In patients with normogonadotrophic oligoasthenospermia, clomiphene citrate improves sperm counts and motility and probably increase pregnancy rate.This can possibly convert the choice of treatment from IVF/ICSI to less costly IUI.Also it may save some women from being treated for a problem of male infertility.However, controlled trails with larger number of patients are needed to confirm the findings of this study.

بالرغم من كون الكلومفين سترايت(كلوميد) يستخدم لعلاج العقم عند النساء,لكن هناك العديد من الدراسات المتنوعه لاستخدامه في علاج عقم الرجال.الهدف من هذه الدراسه هو معرفة دور الكلوميد في علاج حالات قلة عدد و سرعة حركة الحيوانات المنويه المسببه لعقم الرجال.طريقة البحث دراسه مستقبليه اكلينيكيه تضمنت اربعون رجل مشخصين حسب طريقة منظمة الصحه العالميه كحالات قلة عددوحركة الحيوانات المنويه في محافظة واسط العراق وذلك للفتره من تموز 2007و لغاية تموز 2008. حيث ان الكلوميد اعطي للمرضى بمعدل حبه واحده (50) ملغم يوميا ولمدة اربعة اشهر.تم خلالها ملاحظةوتسجيل التغيرات التي حصلت في عدد ونسبة نشاط حركة الحيوانات المنويه ونسبة الحمل التي حدثت خلال فتر ة الدراسه.كانت نتائج الدراسة ان هناك زياده في معدل العدد من 11 مليون لكل واحد مل الى 35 مليون لكل مل (ثلاثة مرات) وزيادة نسبة نشاط الحيامن من 15% الى 30% (مرتين) كما تم تسجيل ثمانية حالات حمل.الكلوميد من الممكن ان يزيد عدد و نشاط الحيوانت المنوية عند الرجال والتالي فأنه من الممكن ان يزيد نسبة الحمل اويسهم في تغيير طريقة العلاج من الاخصاب الخارجي واطفال الانابيب الى الاخصاب الداخلي الاقل كلفه كما انه يقلل من الافراط في علاج الاناث.


Article
Correlation of serum and seminal plasma human growth hormone concentration with semen parameters of normozoospermic and infertile men
علاقة تركيز هرمون النمو البشري في المصل والبلازما المنوية مع معايير المني للرجال سوي النطف والمصابين بالعقم

Author: محمد باقر محمد رشاد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2011 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 18-24
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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BackgroundBackground: Human growth hormone (HGH) is undisputedly a potent hormone with a wide variety of biological effects. The anabolic actions of human growth hormone have made it attractive as a potential agent forcatabdicproblems in a wide range of clinical conditions,QbjectiveI n the present study, we investigated the possible relationship between levels of H G H in serum (S. HGH) and seminal plasma (Sp. HGH) and semen parameters in normozoospermic (NZS) men and infertile patients.materials and methods:In total, 66 infertile patients with azoospermia (AZS; no. 52), asthenozoospermia [AsZS; no, 6) and oligoasthenoteratozoosperrriia (OATZS; no. 8), and normozoospermicmen (NZS; no. 12)were included in this study.. From each subject semen and blood samples were taken to assess seminal plasma and sperm para meters and levels of S. HG H and Sp. HG H; respectively.resultsThe highest 5. HGH was evaluated in AZS patients when compared to NZS and other infertile groups. Significant elevation {P<0.05) in the level of S. HGH was assessed for AZS patents as compared to NZS men. in contrast the level of Sp. HGH in NZS men was significantly elevated (P<0 Q5)when compared to AZS patients only. Positive and significant correlations were noticed between levels of Sp. HGH and semen liquefaction time in NZS, AZS and OATZS groups, in NZS men, positive and significant correlation were observed between Sp. HGH and semen volume and negative and significant correlations were detected between Sp. HGH and percentages of sperm motility, progressive motility, immobility and agglutination.conclusionOur study represents the first study in Iraq showing that the level of HGH in serum and seminal plasma affect male fertility and sperm parameters in normozoaspermic males and infertile patients. Further biochemical and molecular studies are recommended to investigate the mode of action of HGH and its receptors in relation to fertility.


Article
Serum Zinc and Copper Changes in Male Infertility
التغيرات في مستوى الخارصين والزنك في الدم للرجال العقيمين

Author: Hadeel A. Ibrahim
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 116-122
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Objective: The aim of this study to detect the correlation between trace elements such as zinc, copper and spermatogenesis, sperm viability and motility. Methodology: Serum and semen samples were collected from one hundred twenty patients with age ranged (20-50 years) attending the high institute for Embryo Research and Infertility Treatment/ Baghdad University, in addition to thirty fertile males their age comparable to that of patients. The period of this study was from June 2004 until the end of October 2004.Results: The result of routine seminal fluid analysis of all infertile males was divided according to WHO, (1999) limit into four groups: Asthenospermia(A), Asthenoteratospermia(AT), Oligoasthenoteratospermia OAT and Azoospermia(Azoo), each group includes thirty patient. Results showed highly significant decrease in serum zinc concentration in different infertile groups compared to control group, and a slight increase in serum copper concentration in different infertile group. With advancing age, all the infertile groups, as well as the control group, had a slight decrease in serum concentration of zinc, and a slight increase in serum copper concentration.Recommendations: Further studies are needed to evaluate the levels of different biochemical parameters in seminal plasma of different infertile groups.

المستخلص:الهـدف: تهدف الدراسة الحالية الى التعرف على العلاقة بين العناصرالنادرة مثل الزنك والخارصين وعملية نشوء النطف وحيويتها وحركتها.المنهجيّة: تم جمع نماذج مصل الدم والسائل المنوي من (120) مريضاً يعانون العقم وبأعمار تراوحت ما بين عشرين وخمسين سنة، من الذين كانوا يراجعون معهد أبحاث الأجنة وعلاج العقم / جامعة بغداد، بالإضافة إلى (30) رجلاً خصيباً استخدموا كمجموعة مقارنة , للفترة مابين شهر حزيران إلى نهاية شهر تشرين الأول من عام 2004. النتائـج: صنفت نتائج السائل المنوي للذكور العقيمين اعتماداً على الحد القياسي لمنظمة الصحة العالمية (WHO) لعام 1999، إلى اربعة مجاميع : المجموعة المصابة بوهن النطفية(A) والمجموعة المصابة بوهن و تشوه النطفية (AT) ، مجموعة قلة مع وهن وتشوه النطفية (OAT) ، ومجموعة اللانطفية (Azoo).وكانت كل مجموعة مكونة من (30) مريضاً . استخدمت عينات مصل الدم لقياس تركيز كلاً من الخارصين ، النحاس ، أظهرت الدراسة أن هناك نقص عالي المعنوية في تركيز الخارصين في مصل الدم لمختلف مجاميع مرضى العقم مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة. وقد ظهرت زيادة طفيفة في تركيز النحاس في مختلف مجاميع العقم مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة . مع تقدم العمر أظهرت جميع مجاميع العقم بالإضافة إلى مجموعة السيطرة، وجود انخفاض طفيف في تركيز الخارصين تقابلها زيادة طفيفة في تركيز كل من النحاس.التوصيات: توصي الدراسة بضرورة اعداد دراسة اخرى يتم من خلالها قياس مستوى العناصر النادرة مثل الزنك والخارصين بين مصل الدم والسائل المنوي للرجال العقيمين.


Article
The neurobehavioral and withdrawal effects of diazepam in adult male rats

Authors: Mohammed Jawad kadhim --- Falah Muosa Kadhim AL-Rekabi --- Duriad Abdulhadi Abass
Journal: Kufa Journal For Veterinary Medical Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الطبية البيطرية ISSN: 20779798 Year: 2014 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 306-318
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

The study conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects and dependence in adult male rats which showed significant decrease (p<0.05) in exploration, vestibular system (increasing time of rotating on negative geotaxis apparatus), decrease cognition, short term memory, locomotors activity (decrease time of rotating on Rota rod apparatus), where these results was confirmed by histopathological changes of brain which represent by congestion, perivascular edema, focal gliosis and mononuclear cells infiltrations in groups treated with diazepam. The results of withdrawal study after one week of stop dosing of diazepam treatment showed signs of addiction represented by hyperactivity, restlessness, diarrhea and goose flesh in dose dependent manner.

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