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Article
A Sandwich Porous Alumina Nanostructures Based on Anodic Alumina
التركيب النانوي لشطيرة الألومينا المسامية المبنية على أنودة الألومينا

Authors: Zeinab A. Jawad --- Ahmed A. Moosa --- Abdul Qader D. Faisal
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 11 Pages: 2091-2102
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

A sandwich porous anodic alumina membrane (PAA/Al/PAA) films was producedusing two-step anodization approach on both sides of (250) μm pure aluminum foilelectrode as an anode. A single sheet of stainless steel or graphite was used as acathode. Anodization on both sides of aluminum sheet was achieved. The anodizationprocesses and pore formation were studied and discussed in this work. The producedalumina membrane (5-30) μm thick was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The SEM image shows the PAA membranes has a well-defined nanostructure.The average pore diameter reaches (25) nm. The produced Al 2O3 membrane growingon both sides of aluminum sheet was separated into a twin nano membrane.

تم انتاج أغشية من الألومينا المسامي بطريقة الأنودة وبشكل الشطيرةباستعمال طريقة الأنودة ذات المرحلتين وعلى الجهتين لقطب من صفيحة (PAA/Al/PAA)الألمنيوم النقي بسمك 250 مايكروميتر كقطب الأنود.أُستعلمت صفيحة مفردة من الفولاذ اوالكرافايت كقطب الكاثود. تم أجراء الأنودة على الجهتين لصفيحة الألمنيوم. درس في هذا البحث(30- عمليات الأنودة وتكوين المسامات. تم تحليل أغشية الألومينا المنتجة ذات سمك حوالي ( 5(PAA) أظهرت النتائج بأن الأغشية .(SEM) مايكروميتر باستعمال المجهر الألكتروني الماسحتمتلك تركيب نانوي. ان معدل القطر المسامي يصل الى 25 نانوميتر. ان الغشاء المنتج للألومين اعلى جهتي صفيحة الألمنيوم قد تم فصله الى غشائين ذا تركيب نانوي.


Article
INDUCTION OF ABORTION IN IRAQI GOATS USING BROMOCRIPTINE
استحداث الاجهاض في الماعز العراقي باستخدام البروموكربتين

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Abstract

Twenty pregnant goats at gestation period ranged from 100 – 130 days were used in this study and divided in to four groups according to duration of gestation period. G (A) = 100 – 110 days, G (B) = 111 – 120 days, G (C) = 121 – 130 days. All of the goats were injected with a single dose of 2.5 mg / kg B.W. Bromocriptine I.M. The fourth group also 5 goats G (D) = 120 – 130 days were used as control & given 2 ml distal water I.M. Results showed that 80% of G (A) aborted after 5.12 ± 1.74 days, 60% of G (B) aborted after 4.92 ± 1.15 days and 60% of G (C) aborted after 4.97 ± 1.15 days of injection. In addition all the aborted goats showed complications represented by retention of fetal membranes and subsequent uterine infection compared to controls which showed neither abortion nor complications.

الخلاصةاستخدم في هذا البحث 20 معزة حامل وقسمت اعتمادا على طول فترة الحمل الى أربعة مجاميع متساوية، إذ كانت فترة الحمل في المجموعة (A) 100-110 يوما ً وفي المجموعة (B) 111-120 يوما ً وفي المجموعة (C) 121-130 يوما ً اعتمادا على تاريخ التسفيد. وقد حقنت جميع المعزات بجرعة واحدة من البروموكربتين 2.5 ملغم/كغم بالعضل. وقد استخدمت 5 معزات اخرى حوامل (D) 120-130 يوما ً كسيطرة بعد حقنها بــ2ملل ماء مقطر بالعضل.لقد أظهرت النتائج حدوث إجهاض في 80% من المجموعة A بعد 5.12±1.74 يوما ً من الحقن وإجهاض 60% من المجموعة B بعد 4.92±1.15 يوما ً من الحقن وإجهاض 60% من المجموعة C بعد 4.97±1.50 يوما ً من الحقن، إضافة لذلك فان جميع المعزات المجهضة قد عانت من مضاعفات تمثلت باحتباس الاغشية الجنينية ومن ثم التهابات رحمية بالمقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة التي لم يحدث فيها مضاعفات بعد الولادة الطبيعية.

Keywords

Abortion --- Goats --- Fetal membrane


Article
REDUCTION OF COD FROM SIMULATED WASTEWATER BY FABRICATED HYDROPHOBIC MEMBRANE
ازالة المتطلب الكيمياوي للاوكسجين من مياه عادمة مصنعة باستخدام غشاء مصنع نافر للماء

Author: Nidaa Adil Jasem نداء عادل جاسم
Journal: KUFA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING مجلة الكوفة الهندسية ISSN: 25230018 Year: 2017 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 119-131
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Hydrophobic membrane was fabricated using 15% of Polysulfone (PSF) as a polymer and 85% of dimethylformamide (DMF) as a solvent by phase inversion method. Distilled water was used to test water flux and membrane permeation. Scanning electron microscope was used to study the structural changes on the membrane surface. Synthetic wastewater was used to test the efficiency of the hydrophobic membrane. Membrane efficiency examined by chemical oxygen demand (COD) percentage removal. The results showed that the pure water flux dropped from 85 L/m2.hr to 75 L/m2.hr. for the first run and from 86 L/m2.hr to 82 L/m2.hr for the second and third runs. For synthetic wastewater the flux dropped from 75 to 38 L/m2.hr, 75 L/m2.hr to 52 L/m2.hr and 75 to 45 L/m2.hr for the first, second and third runs, respectively. Removal efficiency of COD was 90% after 10 days, then it dropped down to 70 %, after cleaning the membrane, the removing increased up to 90% after 8 days.

% من 85% كنسبة وزنية من البوليسلفون كمادة بوليميرية اساسية و15تم تصنيع غشاء من النوع النافر من الماء باستخدام الدايمثيلفورماميد كمادة مذيبة بطريقة المادة الغاطسة. تم استخدام الماء المقطر لفحص كمية الدفق للماء خلال الغشاء. تم استخدام المجهر الالكترونى الماسح لدراسة هيكلية الغشاء. تم تصنيع مياه عادمة ملوثة من خلط عدة مواد كيمياوية وذلك لغرض فحص كفاءة الغشاء بعد القيام بفحص نسبة المتطلب الكيمياوي للاوكسجين قبل وبعد استعمال الغشاء. اظهرت النتائج لتر/مترمربع.ساعة 86 لتر /متر مربع.ساعة. ومن 75لتر/مترمربع.ساعة الى 85 نسبة تغير الدفق للمياه خلال الغشاء من 38لتر/مترمربع.ساعة الى 75 لتر /مترمربع .ساعة لاكثر من تجربة. اما المياه العادمة فكان التغير بالدفق من 82الى لتر /متر مربع .ساعة لاكثر 45 الى 75 لتر /متر مربع.ساعة ومن 52لتر/مترمربع.ساعة الى 75لتر/مترمربع.ساعة ومن وبعد تنظيف ،% بعد عشر ايام70% الى 90 من تجربة. اما نسبة ازالة المتطلب الكيمياوي للاوكسجين فقد انخفض من % بعد ثمانية ايام. 90الغشاء نسبة الازالة ارتفع الى

Keywords

COD --- Membrane --- Hydrophobic --- wastewater


Article
Separation of Hexane-Benzene Mixtures by Emulsion Liquid Membrane.

Authors: Muhammad D. Al Zaidi --- Adil A. Al Hemiri عادل احمد عوض
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effect of operating parameters on the batch scale separation of hydrocarbon mixture (benzene and hexane) usingemulsion liquid membrane technique is reported. Sparkleen detergent was used as surfactant and heavy mineral oil assolvent to receive the permeates.From the experimental results, the parameters that influenced the permeation are, composition of feed, contact timewith solvent, ratio of volume of solvent to volume of hydrocarbon feed, ratio of volume of surfactant solution to volumeof hydrocarbon feed, surfactant concentration, mixing intensity and glycerol as polar additive in the surfactant solutionto eliminate drop breakup.The best conditions for the separation in this study were found to be: composition of feed (mole fraction ofbenzene=0.5245), contact time of 10min. , ratio of volumes of solvent to feed equal 3.5 , ratio of volumes of surfactantsolution to feed of 0.4, surfactant concentration of 1wt%, mixing intensity equal 1000rpm and 70% by weight of polaradditive. These conditions gave a separation factor of (8.0).


Article
Microfiltration Membranes for Separating Oil / Water Emulsion

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Abstract

This research was aimed to study the efficiency of microfiltration membranes for the treatment of oily wastewater and the factors affecting the performance of the microfiltration membranes experimental work were includes operating the microfiltration process using polypropylene membrane (1 micron) and ceramic membrane (0.5 micron) constructed as candle; two methods of operation were examined: dead end and cross flow. The oil emulsion was prepared using two types of oils: vegetable oil and motor oil (classic oil 20W-50). The operating parameters studied are: feed oil concentration 50 – 800 mg/l, feed flow rate 10 – 40 l/h, and temperature 30 – 50 oC, for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. It was found that water flux decreases with increasing operating time and feed oil concentration and increases with increasing operating temperature, feed flow rate and pore size of membrane. Also, it was found that rejection percentage of oil increases with increasing flow rate and rejection percentage decreases with increasing time, feed oil concentration, feed temperature and pore size of membrane for dead end and cross flow microfiltration. In cross flow microfiltration, reject concentration (concentrate) increases with increasing flow rate, feed concentration, time and feed temperature. The dead end filter has more flux compared to cross flow filter, while, in cross flow the oil rejection percentage is best than dead end. Flux for vegetable oil is more than motor oil but rejection percentage for vegetable oil is less than that for motor oil. The highest recovery ratio was found is 44.8% for cross flow process with recirculation of concentrating stream to feed vessel. The highest rejection percentage of oil was found is 98 % and 97.8 % for cross flow and dead ends respectively.


Article
HYDROGEN PURIFICATION USING A MICROPOROUS HYDROTALCITE-SILICA COMPOSITE MEMBRANE

Authors: Ahmed Daham Wiheeb --- Abdul Mun’em A. Karim --- Taif Emad Mohammed --- Mohd Roslee Othman
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2015 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 846-854
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

A novel thin microporous composite membrane of a dual-element hydrotalcite-silica was prepared on porous alumina support by sol-gel method. Strong CO2 adsorption on hydrotalcite material inhibited the diffusion of H2 through the membrane and decreased H2 permeances significantly so that CO2 preferentially permeated. The effects of pressure difference across the membrane, operating temperature and CO2 feed concentration on the CO2 separation performance of the membrane were investigated using synthetically mixed gas. The CO2 permeance and CO2/H2 separation selectivity decreased with increasing the temperature due to the loss of the membrane ability for CO2 adsorption with temperature. Further increase of the pressure difference across the membrane decreased both CO2 permeance and CO2/H2 separation selectivity. The CO2 feed concentration with 40% showed the best performance with a CO2/H2 separation selectivity of 10.59.


Article
Produced Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration and Nanofiltration Membranes
معالجة الماء المنتج بأستخدام أغشية الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي

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Abstract

The application of ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) processes in the handling of raw produced water have been investigated in the present study. Experiments of both ultrafiltration and nanofiltration processes are performed in a laboratory unit, which is operated in a cross-flow pattern. Various types of hollow fiber membranes were utilized in this study such as poly vinyl chloride (PVC) UF membrane, two different polyether sulfone (PES) NF membranes, and poly phenyl sulfone PPSU NF membrane. It was found that the turbidity of the treated water is higher than 95 % by using UF and NF membranes. The chemical oxygen demand COD (160 mg/l) and Oil content (26.8 mg/l) were found after treatment according to the allowable limits set by means of world health organization WHO water quality standards. The final composition of SO4-2 (110 mg/l) and NO3 (48.4 mg/l) components within the produced water after treatment were agreed with the permissible limits of WHO, whereas Cl-1 (8900 mg/l) component is not in the allowable limits. Finally by the use of PVC, PES and PPSU hollow fiber membranes; this method is seen to be not sufficient to remove the salinity of the produced water.

في هذا العمل تم دراسة تطبيق عمليات الترشيح الفائق(UF) والترشيح النانوي (NF) في معالجة الماء المصاحب للنفط. تم اجراء تجارب مختبرية لكلتا عمليات الترشيح الفائق والترشيح النانوي بطريقة الجريان المتقاطع. تم أستخدام عدة انواع من أغشية الألياف المجوفة في هذه الدراسة مثل أغشية بولي فاينيل كلورايد PVC UF وغشائين مختلفين من بولي ايثر سلفون PES NF وغشاء بولي فينيل سلفون .PPSU NF وجد ان عكورة الماء المعالج هي اكثر من 95 % بأستخدام أغشية UF و NF. الاوكسجين الكيمياوي المطلوبCOD (160 ملغم/لتر) ومحتوى الزيوت (26.8 ملغم/لتر) وجدو بعد المعالجة وفقا الى الحدود المسموح بها حسب مواصفات الماء القياسية لمنظمة الصحة العالمية WHO . ان التركيز النهائي لمركبات SO4-2 (110 ملغم/لتر) و NO3(48.4 ملغم/لتر) خلال الماء المصاحب للنفط بعد المعالجة قد توافقت مع الحدود المسموح بها من قبل منظمة الصحة العالمية WHO, في حين مركب Cl-1 ( 8900 ملغم/لتر) ليس من ضمن الحدود السموح بها. اخيرا بأستخدام اغشية الالياف المجوفة من نوع PVC, PES و PPSUفان هذه الطريقة غير كافية لازالة ملوحة المياه المنتجة.


Article
An Assessment of the Efficacy of Sinus Balloon Technique on Transcrestal Maxillary Sinus Floor Elevation Surgery

Authors: Huda Moutaz Asmael هدى معتز اسماعيل --- Thair Abdul Lateef ثائر عبد اللطيف
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 109-113
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

the invasiveness of modified Caldwell-Luc (lateral approach) and the drawbacks of the osteotome (summers'technique) in maxillary sinus floor elevation surgery.Materials and methods: A total of 13 adult Iraqi patients aged 28-55 years, 4 males and 9 females underwent sinusfloor elevation surgery via crestal approach by using sinus balloon technique. A panoramic radiograph and (Conebeam computed tomography (CBCT)/or medical CT scan) were obtained before and after surgery. Postoperativegained bone was assessed and the patient reactions including pain, nasal bleeding, and ecchymosis wererecorded. The whole follow up period was 1year following the sinus lift surgery.Results:The total performed sinus floor elevation cases were 17 with a total of 27 sinus floor elevation sites. Themaximum gained bone with sinus balloon technique was 10.6 mm. Twenty three dental implants placed inaugmented maxillary sinuses, two implants early failed 8.70 % and the survival rate of the dental implants was (91.30%). Schneider's membrane perforation didn’t occur in any case of this study 0%.Conclusion: Sinus floor elevation via crestal approach using the balloon technique solve the limitations for originalosteotome technique (summers' technique) for cases even when the subantral bone height is less than 3 mm. Theutilization of hydraulic pressure in combination with balloon technique also shows a great role in both sinusmembrane elevation and as a diagnostic aid of Schneider's membrane perforation


Article
Upgrading of Al-Rustamiyah Sewage Treatment Plant Through Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Membrane Fouling

Author: Raheek I. Ibrahim
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2017 Volume: 18 Issue: 2 Pages: 95-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Al-Rustamiyah plant is the oldest and biggest sewage treatment plant in Iraq; it locates in the south of Baghdad city. The plant suffers from serious problems associated with overflow and low capacity. The present work aims to upgrade the heart of biological treatment process through suggesting the use of membrane bioreactor; (MBR). In this work, fouling of membrane during sewage treatment has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically by fouling mechanisms. Aeration has been applied in order to control fouling through producing effective diameters of air bubbles close to the membrane walls. Effect of air flow rate on flux decline was investigated. Hermia's models were used to investigate the fouling mechanisms. The results showed that cake formation is the best fitted model (R2≥0.98) followed by intermediate blocking occurred with 9 L/min aeration rate. Cake layer formation is the best fit mechanism in all aeration rates (1-9 L/min) in presence of microalgae. SEM images of the membrane surface before and after filtration showed high density pores membrane surface proved a cake fouling occurring. It was found that aeration represents the most effective technique for fouling domination in addition to its important economic aspects for algae growth and propagation. An enhancement of 70.8% in flux at 9 L/min air flow has been revealed. MBR proved to be more efficient and more convenient than activated sludge since it eliminates the needing of sedimentation tanks and upgrading Al-Rustamiyah plant that has low available space for expansion.


Article
Recovery of Cu (II) from Model Water using Emulsion Liquid Membrane (ELM) Technique

Authors: Dr. Mohammed D. Salman محمد دخيل سلمان --- Adnan Abdul Hussain
Journal: Thi-Qar University Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 20759746 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 16-24
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The proper condition of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique for the recovery and concentration of copper (II) from model water is investigated. The ELM is a solution of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid in kerosene and sorbitan monooleate Span 80 as surfactant. The extraction efficiency of the metallic ion in the ELM in batch tests is determined. The results show good extraction percentage in relatively period of time (15 minutes) under the following conditions: pH of the feed is 8; feed concentration of 500 ppm, carrier concentration of di (2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) 4% and treatment ratio (volume of external phase to volume of emulsion phase) of 2.

الظروف المثلى لتقنية الغشاء النفاذي السائل لازالة وتركيز النحاس الثنائي التكافؤ قد اختبرت في هذه الدراسة. يتكون الغشاء النفاذي السائل من محلول داي(2- ايثايل هكسايل) حامض الفوسفوريك في النفط الابيض والمادة السطحية سوربيتون مونولييت (سبان 80). كفاءة الاستخلاص للمعدن النحاس الثنائي التكافؤ في تقنية الغشاء النفاذي السائل باستخدام نظام دفعي قد استخدمت. اوضحت النتائج نسبة استخلاص جيدة في وقت قصير يقدر بـ( 15) دقيقة بالظروف التالية: الدالة الحامضية (8) ، تركيز الداخل (500 ملغم /لتر)، تركيز الحامل (4%) ونسبة المعاملة (2).

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