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Article
Skeletal Metastasis;Distribution by Age, ,Sex,and Histological Classification(Medical city)

Author: Abdul Ridha Kh.Jabbar
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 192-195
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Skeleton is the one of the commonest sites of secondary cancer, it is seen more frequently than all primary bone tumors together. Vertebrae, pelvis and proximal parts of long bone are moreinvolved by secondary metastasis. Breast cancer is the commonest cause of primary tumorfollowed by Prostatic carcinoma. Despite the advances in diagnosis but still about 10 % ofcases remain as secondary with undetermined primary site.OBJECTIVE: To disclose the distribution of bone metastasis and their primary site among Iraqi patients. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 102 patient were enrolled in a retrospective study conducted in medical city complex inBaghdad/ Iraq from January 1990- July 2000.Patient are either known to have primary malignant tumor and discovered to have secondarymetastasis to bone as part of the routine screen or development of symptoms suggestive ofbone metastasis, the other group of patients are presented with bone metastasis. All patientsare subjected to intensive medical history and proved their secondary metastasis by excisionalbiopsy or fine needle aspiration with histopathological diagnosisRESULTS: The mean age of our patients was 41 years, with range (2-80 years), men were commonlyinvolved than women, the peak incidence of metastasis was in 1991. Vertebral bodies arecommonly involved and lungs are the most common primary siteCONCLUSION: Well differentiated columnar adenocarcinoma is the commonest histopathological type ofmalignant tumor metastases to bones, lungs are the most common primary site. Undeterminedprimary tumors are still consist a diagnostic problem in our daily practice more cooperativeteam work is needed to disclose the final diagnosis


Article
Metastatic Cervical Lymphadenopathy in Najaf City: Clinico-Pathological Analysis

Authors: Waseem A. Elkatib وسيم الكاتب --- Firas M. Hassan فراس حسن
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2017 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 46-54
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Cervical lymphadenopathy (LAP) is a common problem facing doctors. Most run a benign course. It is the job of these doctors to differentiate it from tuberculosis and metastatic lymphadenopathy. Different types of biopsies can be used to reach diagnosis including FNAC, incisional and excisional biopsies.Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the clinic-pathological patterns of metastatic cervical LAP in Al-Najaf city.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out for a period of one year from Jan 1, 2013 to Jan 1, 2014 in the general surgery and otolaryngology departments of Al-Sadar Medical City and surgical department of Kufa university-Faculty of medicine. The data was collected by using a predesigned form including information as age, gender, level of lymph node involvement, and other clinical features.Results: Among the total 60 patients included in the study, 28 patients were males and 32 were females. Their age ranging from 20 to 68 y with a mean age equals to 53.6 y. The highest age groupwas the sixth decade with 32 (53.3%) patients. A known primary site was discovered in 93.3% of the patients. The highest primary site malignancy was that of the larynx with 35.7% of total patients with known primary tumors. 38.3% of the patients had N3 stage at the time of presentation.Conclusion: Inflammatory neck disease is very common in our country, one should not forget the possibility of metastatic carcinoma in an adult presenting with a rapidly growing, hard, non-tender, lateral neck mass. Early diagnosis is paramount as any delay will eliminate the best opportunity for effective treatment with curative intent.


Article
CAF combination chemotherapy in breast cancer patients with liver metastasis

Author: Khudair J. Al Rawak* MBChB, DMRT د. خضير الرواق
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 3 Pages: 236-238
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: management modalities for liver metastasis from primary breast cancer are evolving steadily but systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment.Patients and methods: 30 patients with breast carcinoma and liver metastasis managed at (Baghdad teaching hospital) during the period from Jan. 2005 to Jan. 2007.Results: 16 patients showed response to chemotherapy. 20% complete response was found and 33% showed partial response 57% went into progressive disease. The duration of response lasted for less than six months in 4 patients and more than six months in two patients.Conclusion: chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment of liver metastasis but new modalities of treatment add much for chemotherapy if used in combination.Key words: breast cancer, liver metastasis, chemotherapy


Article
The relationship between lymph node metastasis and some clinicopathologic variables in mucinous and non mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma
العلاقة بين الانبثاث العقدة الليمفاوية وبعض المتغيرات السريرية و المرضية في سرطان القولوني المستقيمي المخاطي وغير المخاطي

Authors: Tenya T. Abdulhameed --- Jawhar T. Omer
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 1840-1845
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Involvement of lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in most cancers, including colorectal cancer in which lymph node status is the strongest pathologic predictor of patient outcome. This study aimed to find any relationship between lymph node metastasis and associated clinicopathologic variables in colorectal carcinoma.Methods: In this retrospective study, 136 cases of colorectal cancer were reviewed from Rizgary Teaching Hospital and some private labs in Erbil, Kurdistan region, Iraq during the period between August 2010 and December 2015. All cases were surgically treated with total colectomy or hemi colectomy.Results: A total of 136 cases of colorectal cancer were included in this study; 53% presented with one or more lymph node metastasis, 47% were between 40 and 60 years of age and 68% were male. There was no statistically significant relationship between lymph node status and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables. Conclusion: In colorectal adenocarcinoma, there was no statistically significant correlation between lymph node involvement and any of the studied clinicopathologic variables including tumor size, anatomic location, differentiation and histologic type, depth of invasion or patient gender and age.

Keywords

Colorectal --- carcinoma --- Lymph node --- Metastasis


Article
THE ROLE OF MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE-2 AND -9 IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION IN BLADDER CANCER PROGRESSION

Authors: Alaa Gh Hussain علاء غني حسين --- Jasim M Karhoot جاسم محمد كرحوت --- Areej A Hussein اريج عطية حسين
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 3 Pages: 247-254
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

BackgroundTransitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the bladder are a major health problem and can be a leading cause of death. There are several proteolytic enzymes which are responsible for the degradation of the extra cellular components and have an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are the most important class of these enzymes.ObjectiveTo assess the In situ hybridization expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in TCC of the bladder.MethodsFifty formalin fixed, paraffin embedded of TCC of the bladder tissue blocks from Specialized Surgical Hospital in Baghdad, were included in this study. In addition ten apparently normal bladder autopsies were collected from the Forensic Medicine Institute Archives used as control group. Tissue blocks were sectioned on charged slides to be used for In situ hybridization, for the detection of MMP-2 and MMP-9.ResultsThe expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in TCC of the bladder tissues in the present study was 64 % for both and strong relationship between expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and TCC of the bladder was detected.ConclusionMMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Key wordsBladder cancer, Matrix Metalloproteinases, invasion, metastasis, carcinogenesis.


Article
An Immunohistochemical Expressions of BAD, MDM2, and P21 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Afrah A. Khalil --- Seta A. Sarkis
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 2 Pages: 34-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common malignancy characterized by poor prognosis andlow survival rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Immunohistochemical expressions of BAD, MDM2, andP21as apoptotic markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma.Materials and methods: This study was performed on forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks whichhistopathologically diagnosed as Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. All cases were collected from theHistopathological Laboratory from patients treated surgically at Maxillofacial surgery Department at RamadiTeaching Hospital, Iraq.Results: The immunohistochemical staining of BAD showed positive expression in 39 (97.5%), MDM2 showed positiveexpression in 39(97.5%) and P21showed positive expression in 34(85%) of the collective cases.Conclusion: A statistically significant correlation was found regarding MDM2 with the tumor site, P21 with tumorgrade.


Article
Biochemical Bone Markers in Prostate Cancer Patients with Advanced Bone Metastasis
الدالات الكيموحيوية للعظم لمرضى سرطان البروستات المنتشرالى العظم

Authors: Narjis Hadi Al-Saadi --- Nazar J. Metib Al-Daami --- Aziz Hussain J.
Journal: journal of kerbala university مجلة جامعة كربلاء ISSN: 18130410 Year: 2014 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 143-149
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

Prostate cancer is now recognized as one of the most important medical problems facing the male population and it is one of the most common cancer types. For this reason led us to investigate the prostate tumor markers for detection prostate cancer. In advanced stages, the prostate cancer is metastasis and arrived to the bone this led to lose of bone mineral density (BMD) and cause osteoporosis, therefor we measured urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) as a marker of collagen degradation activity, serum total-alkaline phosphatase activity, and measurement of calcium and phosphate as minerals of bone. This study included 46 patients with prostate tumor their ages ranging (50-80) year and 30 healthy subjects, matched in age with patients as control. Patients were classified according to stage of tumor. 7 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (B.P.H) , 39 patients with carcinoma, 24 patients with metastasis prostate cancer (M.P.C), and 15 patients with localized prostate cancer (L.P.C). The results showed a significant (p< 0.0001) increase in levels of PSA, DPD, T-ALP, Ca+2 and PO4-3 in prostate tumor compared with the control group. In addition the results revealed a high significant (p < 0.000) increase in the level of urine DPD , serum PSA in patients with M.P.C compared with L.P.C and B.P.H patients, also there was a high significant (p < 0.01) increase in the level of Ca+2 and PO4-3 in patients with MPC compared with L.P.C and BPC patients. The data suggest that serial monitoring of deoxypyridinoline (DPD) could be clinically useful as marker of metastatic bone tumors and for treatment monitoring.

يعد سرطان البروستات من احد المشاكل الطبية المهمة التي تواجه الرجال وهو اكثر انواع السرطان انتشارا. وهذا قادنا الى التحري عن علامات دالة لتشخيص سرطان البروستات. ينتشر سرطان البروستات في مراحله المتقدمة ويصل الى العظم ويؤدي الى فقدان وفرة المعادن في العظم مسببا هشاشة العظام , لذا تم قياس مادة الديوكسي بايريدونيلين في الادراركعلامة لهدم فعالية الكولاجين, وفعالية انزيم الفوسفاتيز القاعدي وايضا تم قياس الكالسيوم والفو سفات كمعادن موجودة في العظم. تضمنت هذة الدراسة 46 مريضا مصابا بورم البروستات , تراوحت اعمارهم من (50-80 ) سنة و 30 شخصا من الاصحاء تتطابق اعمارهم مع مجموعة المرضى كمجموعة سيطرة. قسموا المرضى وفقا الى درجة الورم. 7 مرضى كان لديهم ورم بروستات حميد, 39 مريضا كانو مصابين بسرطان البروستات,24 منهم كانوا بمرحلة سرطان البروستات المنتشر و 15 مريضا مصاب بسرطان البروستات الغير منتشر. اظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية (p< 0.0001) في مستوى ) (PSA, DPD, T-ALP, Ca+2 and PO4-3 عند مرضى ورم البروستات مقارنة بمجموعة الاصحاء. بالاضافة الى ذلك اظهرت النتائج زيادة معنوية عالية (P<0.000) في تركيز DPD و PSA في مرضى سرطان البروستات المنتشر مقارنة بمجموعة السرطان الغير منشر ومجموعة الورم الحميد, كذلك كان هناك زيادة معنوية عالية (p<0.01) في مستوى كل من Ca+2 و PO4-3 في مرضى سرطان البروستات المنتشرمقارنة مع سرطان البروستات الغير منتشرومجموعة الورم الحميد.


Article
The Value of Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Differentiating Atypical Vertebral Haemangiomas from Metastatic Lesions

Author: Mohammed Abd Kadhim*, Thaair A. Kameel Alkhuzaie**, Kirmanj Ismaiel Baker
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 272-278
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Atypical vertebral hemangioma and metastatic spinal lesions share many MRI signal intensity andappearance in common ,thats why differentiation between them is crucial. For two decades,diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been applied to the evaluation of intracranial diseases, butDWI technical advancement make it possible to apply for assessment of extra cranial sites,including vertebral column.OBJECTIVE:The goal of our study is to assess the value of diffusion weighted MRI imaging in differentiatingvertebral atypical hemangiomas from metastatic lesions.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective cross-sectional study was employed at AL-Imammain AL-Khadymain Medical cityin Baghdad health directorate, (43)patients with total (65) vertebral lesions grouped into threegroups Group(A) 10 patients (23.2%)with total (15) lesions of vertebral typical hemangiomas,Group(B) 13 patients (30.3%) with total ( 13) lesions of vertebral atypical hemangiomas andGroup (C) 20 patients(46.5%) with total ( 37) lesions of spinal vertebral metastases .MRI was done for all patients (including T1, T2, T1 fat suppression with IV contrastadministration (when needed) and DWI). Complementary non contrast CT was also done.RESULTS:Total study sample were (43) patients with total (65) lesions, with (29/43) females and (14/43)males with male to female ratio of (1:2), their age range from (28-75 years) and their mean agewas (54.2+ 10.1 years). Atypical hemangioma and malignant lesions were generally low signal inT1 and high or intermediate signal in T2 WI. Restricted diffusion and low ADC values were seenin atypical hemangioma compared with metastasis with mean ADC value were (1.426+0.231.6x10-3mm2/s and 0.6182+ 0.137x10-3mm2/s respectively).Complementary CT confirmed the lytic or sclerotic nature of malignant lesions while inhaemangiomas, it showed their characteristic striated (polka dot) appearance.CONCLUSION:Diffusion weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a valuable tool in differentiation of atypicalhemangioma and metastasis of spine with high sensitivity and specificity with the aid of ADCvalues calculated from the maps obtained by DWI.KEYWORDS: diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, atypical haemangiomas,metastasis.


Article
Outcomes of Gamma Knife Surgery in the Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Brain Tumors

Author: Abdulameer Jasim Al-Khafaji*, Hayder Ali Al-Saadi**
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2019 Volume: 18 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:Cerebral metastases are by far the most common intracranial tumors in adults. gamma kniferadiosurgery has arguably been the most important advancement in the management of metastaticbrain tumors since the 1980s.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of gamma knife radiosurgery as a treatment of metastatic braintumors.METHODS:This is a prospective study (the first trial in Iraq) of 27 patients (42 tumors) of brain metastasisbetween March 2016 and October 2017. Imaging follow up done in 6 months and 12 months,clinical follow up done in 3 weeks and 3 months.RESULTS:In the first six months 81.0% of the MBTs were regressed or remain stable in size. After 3months post GKS, 81.5% patients showed neurological improvement. 82.4% of the patients<65years old survive for 12 months and 85% of patients with KPS>70 survive for 12 months.CONCLUSION:The routine blood investigations, the gender and the location were of no significance on patients’general outcome or the tumor/edema response to gamma knife. Presence of extracranialmetastasis, single or multiple MBTs found to have important effect on patients’ survival.


Article
Expression of matrix metalloproteinase -2 in Breast cancer
التعبير عن matrix metalloproteinase -2 في سرطان الثدي

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Abstract

Formalin-fixed , paraffin embedded blocks tissue for thirty one breast cancer patients were obtained from the archive of the Pathology laboratory of Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital from January 2011 to July 2012 . In addition Formalin-fixed , paraffin embedded blocks tissue for ten fibroadenoma of breast were collected and used as control group . These blocks were subjected to cut as serial thin sections of (4μm) thickness and were sticked on positive charge slides to be used for in situ hybridization for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase -2 in breast cancer (MMP-2) . Overexpression of MMP-2 was detected in 90.3% (28 out of 31) of breast cancer samples (> 50% of the cells appearing as positive) . The remaining 3 samples (9.7%) showed a weak- moderately expression (< 50% of the cells appearing as positive) . The statistical analysis demonstrated a highly significant differences in MMP-2 expression among patients with breast cancer when compared with fibroadenoma of breast patients (control group) . In conclusion MMP-2 plays an important role in pathpgensis of breast cancer and supports the evidence of its role in evolution , progression and cell survival of breast cancer .

تم الحصول على واحد وثلاثون خزعة سرطان ثدي مثبتة بالفورمالين ومطمورة بالبرافين من ارشيف مختبر الامراض في مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي للفترة من كانون الثاني 2011 الى تموز 2012 . فضلا عن عشرة عينات مثبتة بالفورمالين ومطمورة بالبرافين من ورم الثدي الحميد fibroadenoma تم الحصول عليها واستخدامها كمجموعة سيطرة . حضرت مقاطع نسيجية بسمك 4μm على شرائح زجاجية موجبة الشحنة لتستخدم في التهجين الموضعي للتحري عن matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) في سرطان الثدي . اظهرت النتائج زيادة في التعبير عن MMP-2 في 90,3 ( 28 من 31 ) من عينات سرطان الثدي (> 50% من الخلايا كانت موجبة ) . العينات الثلاثة الباقية ( 9,7%) اظهرت تعبيرا ضعيف- متوسط (< 50% من الخلايا كانت موجبة ) . التحليل الاحصائي اظهر فرق معنوي عالي في التعبير عن MMP-2 لدى مرضى سرطان الثدي مقارنة مع المرضى بالاورام الحميدة ( مجموعة السيطرة ) . استنتج ان MMP-2 يلعب دورا مهما في امراضية سرطان الثدي ويدعم دليلا على دوره في تطور , تقدم وبقاء خلايا سرطان الثدي .

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