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Article
Compliance of Hypertensive Patients to Medication in AL-Imam AL-Hussein medical City- Kerbala- 2018

Authors: Zahraa Ismael Abdul Majeed Alnasrawi --- Shahrazad S. Al Jobori --- Hassan Ali A. Nassrallah
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 4048-4058
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: High blood pressure (BP) is estimated to cause 7.5 million deaths worldwide, around 12.8% of the whole deaths . It is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and its complications, heart failure, renal insufficiency, stroke and blindness in diabetic patients.Aim: This study is designed to determine the compliance of hypertensive patients attending the consultation clinics of internal medicine in Al-Imam Al-Hussein medical city with treatment regimen and the causes of noncompliance.Method: A descriptive cross- sectional study conducted in the outpatient clinics of Al- Imam Al-Hussein medical city in Kerbala during the period from March till June 2018.Total study sample was 335 hypertensive patients ,their ages over 25 years were selected by convenience sampling procedure according to the inclusion criteria . They were interviewed and assessed using special questionnaire format based on sociodemographic data, Morisky 8- item medication adherence scale (MMAS-8) ,and measuring of blood pressure.Results: the mean age of the patients was 58.69 ± 11.87 years. Good compliance with treatment was present in only 28.36% of the sample, 25.67% with partial compliance and 45.97% had poor compliance. Good control of blood pressure was present only in 23.3% of the patients .The absence of symptoms was the first isolated cause of non-compliance to medication 21.9%, followed by forgetfulness 18.8%, the cost of medication 16.3%, then negligence and carelessness of patients 9.4%, while 23.1% of the patients had more than one specific reason to their poor compliance.Conclusions: the study revealed a low rate of medication compliance and low level of blood pressure control with strong association between them. Compliance increased with age, male gender, higher level of education and income, longer duration of the disease, presence of complications, using healthy diet and having positive believe about hypertension treatment and its consequences.


Article
Noncompliance With Antihypertensive Drugs Among Patients with Essential Hypertension in Sulaimani City

Authors: Omed H.K Hawrami --- Manar Hisham Abdulla
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 140-147
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a common chronic disease in Iraq, noncompliance with medications is one of the most important reasons for uncontrolled hypertension.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to detect the percentage and the causes of noncompliance with antihypertensive drugs among the study sample.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from August 1st 2012 to February 28th 2013, at four primary health care centers in Sulaimani city, 309 patients were included in the study. Non compliance was tested by using self reported Morisky- Green adherence scale.RESULTS: 54.7% of the patients were non compliant with the antihypertensive drugs, ( 55%males and 45% females), Statistically significant factors were: young age( 62.5%), female gender (63.3%), low educational level (80.5%), being unemployed (71.7%), duration of hypertension > 10 years( 65.2%), and when the source of medication was from health care centers (75.6%).CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of the patients were non compliant with their anti-hypertensive drugs, the main causes of non compliance were patient, physician, and drugs related, respectively.


Article
رقابة المطابقة وأثرها على التنمية المستدامة في النشاط الزراعي بحث تطبيقي في مديرية زراعة المثنى

Author: وعد هادي عبد
Journal: Muthanna Journal of Administrative and Economic Sciences مجلة المثنى للعلوم الادارية والاقتصادية ISSN: 14192226 53862572 Year: 2018 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 273-295
Publisher: Al-Muthanna University جامعة المثنى

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Abstract

The research aims to shed light on the most important agreements, laws, regulations, and instructions related to agricultural activity and sustainable development, and the application of the compliance audit independently and effectively in one of the agricultural institutions ( the cultivation of Muthanna Directorate) for the purpose of contributing to the achievement of sustainable development and that of the most important conclusions of conformity agricultural activity control includes connectivity between the audit tests, conventions and laws and regulations in accordance with the dimensions of development (economic, social, environmental and institutional) and it recommended research need to activate the role of the compliance audit on agricultural activity through the preparation of an independent report compliance audit on agricultural activity includes the diagnosis of non-compliance and its impact on the principles and goals of sustainable development.

يهدف البحث الى تسليط الضوء على اهم الاتفاقيات والقوانين والانظمة والتعليمات المتعلقة بالنشاط الزراعي والتنمية المستدامة ، وتطبيق رقابة المطابقة بشكل مستقل وفعال في احدى المؤسسات الزراعية("مديرية زراعة المثنى) لغرض المساهمة في تحقيق التنمية المستدامة وان من اهم الاستنتاجات رقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي يتضمن الربط بين اختبارات التدقيق والاتفاقيات والقوانين والتعليمات وفق ابعاد التنمية (الاقتصادي ،الاجتماعي ،البيئي والمؤسسي) وأوصى البحث بضرورة تفعيل دور رقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي من خلال أعداد تقرير مستقل لرقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي يتضمن تشخيص حالات عدم الالتزام واثرها على مبادئ واهداف التنمية المستدامة

Keywords

The research aims to shed light on the most important agreements --- laws --- regulations --- and instructions related to agricultural activity and sustainable development --- and the application of the compliance audit independently and effectively in one of the agricultural institutions --- the cultivation of Muthanna Directorate for the purpose of contributing to the achievement of sustainable development and that of the most important conclusions of conformity agricultural activity control includes connectivity between the audit tests --- conventions and laws and regulations in accordance with the dimensions of development --- economic --- social --- environmental and institutional and it recommended research need to activate the role of the compliance audit on agricultural activity through the preparation of an independent report compliance audit on agricultural activity includes the diagnosis of non-compliance and its impact on the principles and goals of sustainable development. --- يهدف البحث الى تسليط الضوء على اهم الاتفاقيات والقوانين والانظمة والتعليمات المتعلقة بالنشاط الزراعي والتنمية المستدامة ، وتطبيق رقابة المطابقة بشكل مستقل وفعال في احدى المؤسسات الزراعية"مديرية زراعة المثنى --- لغرض المساهمة في تحقيق التنمية المستدامة وان من اهم الاستنتاجات رقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي يتضمن الربط بين اختبارات التدقيق والاتفاقيات والقوانين والتعليمات وفق ابعاد التنمية الاقتصادي ،الاجتماعي ،البيئي والمؤسسي --- وأوصى البحث بضرورة تفعيل دور رقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي من خلال أعداد تقرير مستقل لرقابة المطابقة على النشاط الزراعي يتضمن تشخيص حالات عدم الالتزام واثرها على مبادئ واهداف التنمية المستدامة

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