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Article
Prevalence of over and under weight among school children in Mosul

Authors: Mazin M. Fawzi مازن محمود فوزي --- Zaid M. Yassen زيد مؤيد ياسين
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of over and under weight in children aged 6-14 years in Mosul city and to observe the important risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of four governmental primary schools in Mosul city with a total of 2056 child aged 6-14 years were included. Analysis of the data was done by using SPSS and excel computer systems, X2 test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The study reveals that the prevalence of under weight is 6.8%; on the other hand the prevalence of over weight and obesity were 11.3% and 9.8% respectively. Also the study shows that about three quarters of over weight and obese students spend three or more hours daily in watching television, and (44.2%) of them eat more than three meals per day.
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are prevalent problems in Mosul, it is valuable to conduct a study to evaluate the risk factors.

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى حساب معدل انتشار زيادة ونقصان الوزن عند أطفال المدارس الابتدائية في الموصل .طريقة الدراسة : دراسة مقطعية .المشاركون في الدراسة : شملت الدراسة 2056 طفل بعمر 6-14 سنة .مكان الدراسة : أربعة مدارس ابتدائية في مدينة الموصل. قياس المحصلة النهائية : تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام برنامجي SPSS و Excel للحاسبة الإلكترونية وقد تم استخدام اختباري Z وX2 في التحليل الإحصائي . النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة أن معدل انتشار نقصان الوزن عند الأطفال هو 6.8% من جهة أخرى أكدت الدراسة على أن معدل انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة عند الأطفال هو 11.3% و9.8% بالتعاقب . الاستنتاج : في ضوء النتائج المستخلصة من الدراسة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن زيادة الوزن والسمنة يشكلان مشكلة لدى الأطفال فمن المجدي إجراء دراسة أخرى لتقييم الأسباب المؤدية إلى ذلك .

Keywords

Overweight --- obesity


Article
Prevalence of obesity among adolescents at secondary schools in Kirkuk city
انتشار السمنة بين المراهقين في المدارس الثانوية في مدينة كركوك

Authors: Eqbal Ghanim Ma'ala --- Abas S. Danok
Journal: nursing national Iraqi specility المجلة العراقية الوطنية للعلوم التمريضية ISSN: 18122388 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 96-101
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objective: to identify the secondary school adolescent's obesity, and to find out the relationship between adolescents obesity characteristics and their family history. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 537 adolescents (270 boys and 267 girls) aged 12-15 years selected by means of a multistage stratified random sampling technique. Results: the prevalence of obesity among adolescents was 22.3%. (55.8%) of the obese adolescents were male, (42.5%) their age is (13) years old, and (79.2%) of them coming from middle level of socio economic status score. There are a significant relationship between obese adolescents and their family history of obesity which indicated that obese father, and obese brother /sister (0.000, 0.037, & 0.000) respectively have a highly significant relationship with adolescents' obesity.Recommendation: Intervention programs focusing on promoting changes in lifestyles, food habits and increasing physical activity need to be implemented at the earliest stage of children life.

المستخلص: الهدف: لايجاد السمنةِ لدى المراهقين في المدارس الثانوية، ولتَمييز العلاقة بين صفات المُراهقين البدناء والتأريخِ العائليِ للسمنة. المنهجية: دراسة عرضية نُفّذتْ بين 537 مُراهقِ (270 ولد و267 بنت) بعمرِ 12-15 سَنَوات إختارتْ بواسطة تقنية عينة عشوائيةِ متعددة المراحلِ. النَتائِج: نسبة إنتشار السمنةِ بين المُراهقين كَانَت 22.3 %. (55.8 %) من المُراهقين البدناء كَانوا ذكر، و(42.5 %) من المُراهقين البدناء كانوا بعُمرِ (13) سنة، و(79.2 %) من المُراهقين البدناء كَانوا من مستوى متوسّط لنتيجة الحالة الإقتصاديةِ الإجتماعيةِ. هناك علاقة هامّة بين المُراهقين البدناء والتأريخِ العائليِ مِنْ السمنةِ الذي أشارا بوجود سمنةِ في العائلة، السمنة للأبِّ، والسمنة للاخ والاخت (0.000, 0.037، و0.000) على التوالي عِنْدَها علاقة هامّة جداً مع المراهقين البدناء.التوصيات: برامج تركز على التَرويج للتغيير في أساليبِ الحياة من عادات غذاءِ ونشاطِ طبيعيِ متزايدِ مَنْ الضَّرُوري أَنْ يُطبّقا على الأقل في مراحل مبكرة من حياة الاطفال.

Keywords

Obesity --- Adolescents


Article
Prevalence of Osteoarthritis of Weight Bearing Joints in Relation to Body Weight in Both Genders
انتشار هشاشة العظام من المفاصل الحاملة للوزن فيما يتعلق بوزن الجسم في كلا الجنسين

Author: Niaz J. AL-Barzinjy
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 1 Pages: 61-66
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objective: Obesity is an important and increasing public health problem, being a risk factor for overall mortality and major chronic disease. To determine relationship between different measures of body mass index and incidence of hip and knee osteoarthritis in male and female.Methods: Comparison of prevalence of primary osteoarthritis of knee and hip. Between age and sex matched control from out patient clinic of Erbil and Rizgary teaching hospital over period of eleven months starting on Jan 2007.this constituted one hundred and eighty five subjects of normal body `mass index. And one hundred and sixty subjects with high body mass index. Subjects fulfilling our inclusion criteria under went clinical evaluation and radiology of their knee and hip joints, we assessed by chi-squared test, differences in frequency of osteoarthritis between those with normal body mass index and those with high body mass index and between male and female.Results: Obesity was a stronger predictor of osteoarthritis of knee joint with no sex and age difference. In the prevalence of osteoarthritis of hip joint. No link between obesity and hip osteoarthritis was found in this study.

Keywords

Obesity --- Osteoarthritis


Article
A STUDY OF LEPTIN & LIPID PROFILE IN A SAMPLE OF IRAQIPATIENTS WITH KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS.

Authors: Zina H. Abdul-Qahar --- Mohammed H. Alosami --- Kismat M. Turki
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 372-376
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: New data suggests that joint damage in Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) may be
caused by systemic factors like adipose tissue products; Adipokines, which may provide a
metabolic link between obesity & KOA. Recently, one of the known adipokines named
LEPTIN has been linked to KOA because it can be detected in serum & synovial fluid of
patients with KOA.
Objective: To evaluate the contribution of Leptin & serum lipids to the pathophysiology of
Osteoarthritis in Iraqi patients with Knee OA.
Subjects& Methods: The study was carried on 90 subjects divided into four groups:
Knee Osteoarthritis cases group (n=60).
Control group (n=30).
Obese subjects group (n=60).
Non-obese subjects group (n=30).
KOA cases were diagnosed clinically whereas obesity was specified by BMI ≥25kg/m2. For
all subjects studied measurements of fasting serum leptin and lipid profile have been done.
Results: Mean serum leptin level was significantly higher in KOA cases compared to control
group (P<0.001), and higher in obese than non-obese subjects (P<0.001). Serum leptin level
also showed a strong positive correlation with BMI (r=0.501, P<0.01).
Conclusions: Leptin may play an important role in the pathogenesis of KOA. In addition
abnormal lipid profile and obesity are important risk factors for KOA.


Article
Obesity and Asthma Severity Among Adults Presenting to the Out Patient Clinic

Author: Hashim M. Al-Kadhimi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 205-210
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Recent studies have suggested a relationship between asthma and obesity. The risk for developing asthma increases with increasing obesity among individuals. Yet little is known about how obesity influences asthma.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a relation of Obesity to asthma exists among adults presenting to the out patient respiratory clinic , and the correlation between Obesity and spirometric changes in patients with asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done for one hundred patients aged 17 to 70 years patients with asthma diagnosed by clinical and pulmonary function test , in the respiratory outpatient's clinic in AL Kadhmia Teaching Hospital.Collected from May to December 2010 The following parameters were assessed:Weight, height, body mass index, gender,spirometric parameters which includes of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity(FVC),FEV1FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow50% (FEF50%)RESULTS:There were 100 asthmatic patients,32 male and 68 female. There age between 17-70 year, classified into four groups according to BMI. There was significant relation between obesity and asthma (p=0.03),this relation was statistically significant in female(p=0.003) but not in male.spirometry in male showed no statistically significant (p-value > 0.05) for FEV1, FVC FEV1FVC ratio, FEF50% in both non obese and obese, but in female statistically significant for FEV1FVC(p 0.05) ,FEF50% (p 0.036) , while no statistically significant for FEV1, FVC in both groups, for both male and female according to BMI there is statistically significant for FEF50% (p 0.015),while no statistically significant for FEV1FVC, FVC, FEV1 in both groups.CONCLUSION:There was a significant relation between asthma and obesity , in female ,but not in male. There is statistically significant difference for FEF50% ,and FEV1FVC in obese female .Also there is statistically significant difference for FEF50% in both male and female according to BMI.

Keywords

asthma --- obesity --- BMI


Article
The Effect of Obesity on Serum Leptin and Lipid Profile

Author: Kismat Mohammad Turki
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 27-32
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Obesity has become a leading health concern; this condition is a chronic, complex, multifactorial disease in which a person's weight is ≥ 20% of the ideal weight for a given height.OBJECTIVE:To measure serum leptin level and lipid profiles levels in Iraqi obese individuals comparing the results with matching non obese subjects.METHODS:The study was carried on 30 individuals divided into two groups:1. Obese subjects group (n=20).2. Non-obese subjects group (n=10).For all subjects studied measurements of fasting serum leptin and lipid profile have been done.RESULT:Our study showed that mean serum leptin level was significantly higher in obese than non-obese individuals (P<0.001). In addition serum leptin correlates positively and strongly with body mass index (BMI) ( r=0.765,P<0.01). Serum leptin also correlates positively with both triglyceride (TC)(r =0.394, P<0.05) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (r=0.366,P<0.05) but correlates negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)(r=-0.408,P<0.05).CONCLUSION:circulating leptin levels appear to be one of the best biological markers of obesity and hyperleptinemia is closely associated with several risk factors related to obesity syndrome.

Keywords

obesity --- leptin --- lipid profile.


Article
Obesity and Overweight among Medical Teachers in College of Medicine in university of Kufa

Author: *Salam Jasim Mohammed, FIBMS. *Huda Ghazi Hamid, FIBMS.
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 279-285
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Objective: this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight and some associated factors among teachers in medical college in Kufa university.Design and methods: A cross sectional study on obesity and overweight covering 96 medical teachers in medical college in Kufa university was carried out during the period 1st of April to 1st of august 2011, data collection done by using questionnaire and measurement of weight and height by using weight display instrument which is present in community medicine departmentResults : results of this study shows that there is 36.5% of participants suffering from overweight and 18.8% suffering from obesity.In the current study no significant association between sex and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.417) and also no significant association between BMI and obesity in first degree relatives (P=0.944).This study shows no significant association between BMI and having chronic disease (P=0.856).This study shows significant association between BMI and number of meals taken between the main meals (P=0.024) also significant association between BMI and exercise (P=0.023)Conclusion: the results show that the problem is big among this group of community and the need to change their lifestyle from sedentary lifestyle to more active one and change dietary habits and establish a center for exercise inside the university and encourage all medical teachers to participate in it.

أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة مدى انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة لمجموعة من اساتذة كلية الطب في جامعة الكوفة وبعض العوامل المساعدة على ذلك. ولهذا الغرض تم اجراء دراسة مسحية مقطعية شملت 96 استاذ في كلية الطب للفترة من الاول اربيل الى الاول من آب 2011. تم جمع المعلومات من الاساتذة من خلال استمارة تحتوي على مجموعة من الاسئلة متعلقة بالموضوع قيد البحث كذلك تمت عملية قياس الطول والوزن من خلال جهاز متخصص موجود في قسم طب المجتمع. نتائج هذه الدراسة اظهرت ان 36.5% من المشاركين يعانون من زيادة الوزن بينما 18.8% يعانون من السمنة .هذه الدراسة اظهرت انه لا توجد علاقة بين الجنس و مؤشر كتلة الجسم ( P=0.417) كذلك لا توجد علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم والسمنة لدى الاقارب من الدرجة الاولى (P=0.944) .كذلك لا توجد علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم ووجود مرض مزمن لدى الاستاذ.اظهرت هذه الدراسة انه هنالك علاقة بين الوجبات التي يتم تناولها بين الوجبات الرئيسية ومؤشر كتلة الجسم(P=0.024) كذلك هنالك علاقة بين مؤشر كتلة الجسم و التمارين الرياضية التي يمارسها الاستاذ.هذه الدراسة بينت ان حجم المشكلة كبير لدى هذه الشريحة من المجتمع والحاجة لتغيير نمط حياتهم من حياة الخمول الى حياة ذات حركة اكثر وكذلك تغيير طبيعة الغذاء .كذلك الدعوة الى بناء مركز رياضي داخل الجامعة وتشجيع الاساتذة على ممارسة الرياضة في اوقات الفراغ.

Keywords

obesity --- overweight --- BMI


Article
Leptin Effect in the Development of Obesity –Related Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women

Author: Waleed Kh. Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 155-157
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Obesity in humans causes hypertension, myocardial hypertrophy and coronary atherosclerosis, and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that is thought to be related to sympathetic overactivity. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts in the hypothalamus to regulate appetite, energy expenditure and sympathetic nervous system outflow. One of the major mechanisms leading to the development of obesity-induced hypertension appears to be leptin-mediated sympatho-activation.OBJECTIVE:This study is done to evaluate the contribution of leptin in the development of obesity related hypertension in post menopausal women.SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A total number of 64 subjects (post menopausal women) included in the study were divided into obese hypertensive group (n= 38 )and non obese non hypertensive group (n=26) , age(57+4.5year) and (56+2.7year) respectively(mean+SD).Obese hypertensive group defined as (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 and blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg with or without history of taking anti hypertensive medications)and Non-obese non hypertensive group defined as (BMI < 30 kg/m2- blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg).In the present study leptin had been measured.RESULTS:Leptin level is higher in obese hypertensive group than in non obese non hypertensive group and it was 29.2+4 and 15.2+2.1(mean+SD) respectively and this difference is statistically significant with p value < 0.001.CONCLUSION :leptin may play a role in the development of obesity- related hypertension and may be an independent predictor of hypertension

Keywords

leptin --- obesity --- hypertension


Article
Anti Obesity and Lipid - Lowering Effect of Lactobacillus Spp. as Probiotic on the Obese Rat
تاثير المعزز الحياتىLactobacillus spp. كمضاد للسمنة وخافض للدهون لدى الجرذان السمينة

Authors: Fakhri S. AL-Ajeeli فخرى سليمان العجيلى --- May T.Flayyih مى طالب فليح --- Lujain A. Alkhazrajy لجين انور الخزرجى
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2013 Volume: 54 Issue: 3 Pages: 526-530
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casi and Lactobacillus rhomunas on the body weight and lipid metabolism on obese rats were evaluated. In the body weight, the results showed significant deference between rat groups, the group that consumed 3 probiotic strains showed reduction in the body weight with ratio 16.63% while the group consumed 2 probiotic strains showed decreasing with ratio 17.62% compared with control group which increased in the body weight.In the effeci of probiotics on lipid metabolisim the results showed significant deference between rat groups, the group that consumed 3 probiotic strains showed decreasing in the cholesterol with ratio 50.7%, triglyceride with ratio 48.8 %, LDL with ratio 51% and elevated of HDL level with ratio 45%, while the group consumed the 2 probiotic strains showed decreasing in the cholesterol with ratio 48.3%, triglyceride with ratio 43.3 %, LDL with ratio 27.4% and elevated HDL level with ratio 26%. The study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic and anti obesity effects in rats. These strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time

درس تاثير اربع انواع من بكتريا اللاكتوباسلس وهى: Lactobacillus acidophilus,Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casi and Lactobacillus rhomunas وتم تقيم تاثيرها على وزن الجسم وايض الدهون لدى الجرذان.اظهرت النتائج ان التاثير على وزن الجسم فروقات معنوية بين المجاميع حيث اظهر ت المجموعة التى استهلكت معززات حيوية ذات 3 انواع من البكتريا نقصان فى معدل الوزن بمقدار 16.63% بينما اظهرت المجموعة الثانية التى استهلكت معززات حيوية مع نوعين من البكتريا نقصان فى الوزن بمعدل 17.62% مقارنة مع مجموعة السيطرة التى اظهرت زيادة فى الوزن. وعند دراسة تاثير المعززات الحيوية على الدهون اظهرت الدراسة فروقات معنوية واضحة بين المجاميع اظهرت المجموعة التى استهلكت المعزز الحيوى ذى الثلاثة انواع نقصان فى معدل الكولسترول بمقدار 50.7% وفى الدهون الثلاثية بقدار 48.8% وفى الدهون الضارة بقدار51% واظهرت زيادة فى الدهون النافعة بمقدار 45% واظهرت المجموعة الثانية نقصان الكولسترول بمقدار 48.3% وفى الدهون الثلاثية 43.3% وفى الدهون الضارة 27.4% وزيادة فى نسبة الدهون النانفعة بنسبة 26%. استنتجت الدراسة ان المكملات الغذائية الحاوية على بكتريا الحليب تلعب دورا فى السيطرة على ارتفاع الدهون والسمنة فى الجرذان. هذة الدراسة تبين مدى الدور الذى تلعبة البكتريا المعوية فى موازنة عمليات الايض فى الجسم.

Keywords

lipid --- anti obesity --- probiotic


Article
Prevention Of The Obesity Among Primary School Children In Baghdad City
الوقایة من السمنة بین اطفال المدارس الابتدائیة في مدینة بغداد

Authors: Mahdi AbedAL-Musawi --- Kahtan Hadi Hussein
Journal: kufa Journal for Nursing sciences مجلة الكوفة لعلوم التمريض ISSN: 22234055 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 207-213
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Objective: The aim of study was to assess the obesity in primary school age children in Baghdad City, andfind out the relationship between the variables like (age, gender, and economic status, level of education ofparent) with obesityMethodology: A descriptive study conducted in Baghdad City among primary school students of both sexes,in the period from 2nd October 2011 to 26th February 2012. Selected sample of 520 students from 12 schoolsin Baghdad. Sample data collected through the use of questionnaire especially designed for that purpose, andheight and weight measurements, which consists of two parts, the partI includes demographic characteristicsof the child and the parents part II includes dietary habits to questionnaire reliability was identified through apilot study and competence. Data analyzed through the use of descriptive statistics (Frequency andpercentage).Results: The results of the study indicated that (31.5%) of children with obesity and the results of the studyshowed that there is a significant relationship between obesity and child demographic characteristics (age,sex, class, arranged for the child in the family, and children living with one or both, parent function, themonthly income of the household and residence) dietary habits and physical activities. Furthermore, noassociation aged between childhood obesity and (the number of children in the family and the level ofeducation of parents).Conclusion: This study reported high prevalence of obesity among school age students in Baghdad city.Recommendations: application of assessment of children obesity and the preventions particularly at the ageof children and to increase community awareness about the risks of epidemic of obesity among primaryschool children by conducting seminars and educational programmers.

الھدف : تھدف ھذه الدراسةالى التعرف على ظاھرة السمنة بین أطفال المدارس الابتدائیة في مدینة بغداد ومعرفة العلاقة بین بعض المتغیراتمع السمنةالمنھجیة: أجریت دراسة وصفیة في بعض المناطق من مدینة بغداد بین طلاب المدارس الابتدائیة لكلا الجنسین الفترة في 2 تشرینالاول/ 2011 الى 26 /شباط/ 2012 . اختیرت عینھ من 520 طالب وطالبھ من 12 مدرسة في مدینة بغداد وجمعت بیانات العینھ من خلالاستعمال استبانھ مصممة خصیصا لھذا الغرض والتي تتألف من جزأین، الجزء الأول یشمل الخصائص الدیموغرافیة للطفل والابوین ویشملالجزء الثاني العادات الغذائیھ والنشاطات الجسمیة ومستوى السمنة بین أطفال المدارس الابتدائیة.وملئت فقرات الاستبانھ بطریقة المقابلةواجراء قیاس الوزن والطول حدد ثبات الاستبانة من خلال الدراسة الاستطلاعیة وتحدید مصداقیتھا من خلال الخبراء وتم تحلیل البیانات منخلال تطبیق التحلیل إلاحصاء الوصفي (التكرارات والنسبة المئویة)النتائج : وأشارت نتائج الدراسة إلى أن ( 31.5 %) من الأطفال مصابین بالسمنة واظھرت نتائج الدراسة أن ھناك علاقة كبیرة بین السمنةوالصفات الدیموغرافیة للطفل (عمر الطفل، جنس الطفل، الصف، ترتیبھ في الأسرة، وعیش الطفل مع العائلھ ووظیفة أولیاء الأمورالاقتصادیة والاجتماعیة، الدخل الشھري للأسرة والإقامة) والعادات الغذائیة والنشاط البدني.وعلاوة على ذلك، لا یوجد أي اقتران كبیربین بدانةالأطفال وعدد الأطفال في الأسرة، ومستوى تعلیم الوالدین.الاستنتاج استنتجت الدراسة وجود انتشار عالي للسمنة بین أطفال المدارس الابتدائیةالتوصیات: تطبیق تقییم السمنة لدى الأطفال و الوقایة منھا خاصة في سن الأطفال وزیادة وعي المجتمع حول مخاطر السمنة بین أطفالالمدارس الابتدائیة.عن طریق إجراء الندوات والبرامج التثقیفیة.

Keywords

Obesity --- Prevention --- Children.

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