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Article
Study the Effect of Friendly Environmental Materials Addition on Viscosity Index and Pour Point of Engine Diesel Lubricating Oil

Author: Taghreed Mahdi Hameed
Journal: Al-Nahrain Journal of Science مجلة النهرين للعلوم ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461 Year: 2018 Volume: 21 Issue: 3 Pages: 105-111
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

In this work, the effect adding of some vegetable oils to mineral oil on physical properties such as viscosity and pour point of mineral lubricating oil was studied. Some vegetable oils, like corn oil and castor oil were used. Engine lubricating oil (si-cf4 diesel oil) that produced in AL-Doura refinery was selected and used in this study. Viscosity and pour point measurements were tested by viscometer and pour point tester respectively. Deferent mixtures of castor oil and corn oil were prepared with mixing ratios ranging from (0-100)% at 80°C added to the Iraqi motor lubricating oil with a percentage ratio in the range of (0-6 ) % and the best results was obtained at percentage ratio of 6% and study the viscosity index and pour point of the resulting lubricant oil. It was found that the addition of the of vegetable oil gave lubrication oil has a viscosity index ranging (106-115) and pour point ranging (-14--18)°C. It was found that the effect of addition of corn and castor oil mixture to mineral oil was varied according to the ratio of that oils.


Article
Antibacterial effect and healing potential of nutmeg oil for chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbits
تأثير مضاد للجراثيم وإمكانية الشفاء من زيت جوزة الطيب لتقرحات الفم الناجمة كيميائيا في الأرانب

Authors: Amera Kamal Kamal --- Ali Sultan Al-Refai --- Shima Ghazi Thanoon
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 393-399
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Myristica fragrans is an aromatic green tree usually growing to around 5-13 meters high, and their seeds (nutmegs) is firm broadly ovoid. The objectives of the study were to find the concentration of nutmeg oil that has maximum antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus and to evaluate the healing potential of this concentration on a chemically induced oral ulceration in the rabbit’s cheek mucosa.Methods: Different concentrations of nutmeg oil were prepared and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was determined by disk diffusion method. The chemically induced oral ulcerations in rabbit’s cheek mucosa were achieved by ethanol, and then these ulcerations were irrigated with 0.5ml (5%) of nutmeg oil twice daily. Biopsies were taken after four and eight days of the experiment, processed and stained by hematoxylin and eosin.Results: The concentration 100% of nutmeg oil and the dimethyl sulfoxide; which was used as diluents for preparing different concentrations of nutmeg oil, showed no inhibition zone for Staphylococcus aureus. The concentration (5%) showed maximum inhibitory zone (16.8mm) for the micro-organism which was parallel to the effects of amoxicillin (positive control), both with highly significant action (P<0.05). The histopathological pictures showed a delay in the healing process of oral ulcers in rabbits treated by this concentration.Conclusion: The concentration of nutmeg oil (5%) has a good antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus, but it causes a delay in the healing process of oral ulcerations.


Article
EFFECT OF COATING TABLE EGGS WITH NATURAL OILS AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ITS SHELF LIFE
تأثير تغليف بيض المائدة بالزيوت الطبيعية وظروف الخزن في صلاحيته للاستهلاك

Author: Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi شهرزاد محمد جعفر ألشديدي
Journal: The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine المجلة الطبية البيطرية العراقية ISSN: 16095693 Year: 2010 Volume: 34 Issue: 2 Pages: 131-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

their effects on shelf life properties of fresh eggs. After storage for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks at room temperature (experiment 1) and refrigerator temperature (experiment 2) . Fresh table eggs were collected from a flock of Isa brown laying hens, the eggs were distributed into four groups as follow :-1-Control group 2-Corn oil group 3-Dill oil group 4-Black seed oil group, the eggs were coated by immersioned in oil at 56.7 C for16 min (Oil thermostabilization) . The results revealed that coating table eggs with oils in general and specially medicinal oils reduced the mean decrease in egg weight , egg weight loss , PH , free fatty acids , total bacterial count and fungi count after storage for 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control . Control group eggs expired after 8 weeks of storage at room conditions according to Iraq standard specification for eggs.The significant reduction in shelf life properties of the eggs treated with natural oils started at the second week under room temperature storage, and fourth week under refrigerator temperature. Dill oil or black seed oil thermo stabilization for table eggs were better than corn oil in reduced the reduction of shelf life after storage at room or refrigerator temperatures. Conclusion, coating locally produced or imported table eggs with medicinal oils to prevention the eggs from deterioration and spoilage during storage.


Article
Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Used vegetable Oil
انتاج وقود الديزل الحيوي من الزيوت النباتية المستعملة

Authors: Tariq M. Naife --- Haider Abdul Kareem Al Jendeel --- Hussain K. Hussain
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 5 Pages: 1371-1377
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Used vegetable oil was introduced to transesterfication reaction to produce Biodiesel fuel suitable for diesel engines. Method of production was consisted of filtration, transesterfication, separation and washing. Transesterfication was studied extensively with different operating conditions, temperature range (35-80oC), catalyst concentration (0.5-2 wt. % based on oil), mixing time (30-120 min.) with constant oil/methanol weight ratio 5:1 and mixing speed 1300 rpm. The concentration of Fatty acid methyl esters (Biodiesel) was determined for the transesterficated oil samples, besides of some important physical properties such as specific gravity, viscosity, pour point and flash point. The behavior of methyl esters production and the physical properties of Biodiesel were studied with the different operating conditions. The results show that increasing methyl esters concentration with increasing temperature and catalyst concentration and the transesterfication is a second order reaction The research aiming to recycle spent cooking oils to prevent pollution of soil and water, and converting them to Biodiesel fuel with low emissions

تم ادخال الزيت النباتي المستعمل لتفاعل الاسترة التبادلية لانتاج وقود حيوي مناسب لمكائن الديزل. ان طريقة الانتاج تضمنت الترشيح, الاسترة التبادلية, الفصل والغسل. درست الاسترة التبادلية على نطاق واسع بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية, مدى درجة حرارة (35-80م) , تركيز العامل المساعد (0.5-2 % نسبة وزنية) , زمن خلط (30-120 دقيقة) بنسبة وزنية ثابتة زيت الى الميثانول 5:1 وسرعة خلط 1300 دورة بالدقيقة. حدد تركيز الديزل الحيوي لنماذج زيت الاسترة التبادلية , اضافة الى بعض اهم الخواص الفيزياوية مثل الكثافة النوعية, اللزوجة, نقطة الانسكاب و نقطة الوميض. لقد تم دراسة سلوك انتاج الاسترات المثيلية والخواص الفيزياوية لوقود اليزل الحيوي بمختلف الظروف التشغيلية. اظهرت النتائج زيادة تركيز الاسترات المثيلية بزيادة درجة الحرارة وتركيز العامل المساعد وان حركية التفاعل الاستري من الرتبة الثانية. البحث يهدف الى تدوير زيوت الطبخ المستهلكة لمنع تلوث التربة والماء, وتحويلها الى وقود الديزل الحيوي ذو الانبعاثات المنخفضة


Article
The Effect Some Aromatic Oils on Characteristic of Breads and Its Properties
تأثير بعض الزيوت العطرية في نوعية الخبز وصفات حفظه

Author: S. H. Al – Jdory صبيحة حسين الجبوري
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة تكريت للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 18131646 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 12-18
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Abstract The aromatic oils of anise, nigella and carnation were used to find their effects on the rheological properties of dough and the percent of loaf crumbling. Three percent of 2,4 and 6% of these oils and three periods of storage were used. The appearance and internal properties of the loaf were also studied. The results of farinograph show that with increasing the percent of the oils decreased the water absorption, reaching time and ripening times and increased stability. Using 4 and 6% of nigella oil increased the critical kneading coefficient, whereas the results of extenssograph showed a significant (p˂0.05) differences between using aromatic oils and control sample. Increasing the percent of added oils resulted in increasing elasticity and elasticity resistance. The results also show significant decreased area with increasing the percent of the oils. The 4% of anise at 90 minutes of resting period gave highest area. Results of amylograph also show that the gelatinization temperature and maximum viscosity were increased. Further, there was a significant(p˂0.05) differences in between using aromatic oils and control samples. The percent of loaf crumbling between using aromatic oils and control samples. The percent of loaf crumbling was increased with increasing the storage period. Results also show that using the oils improved most of the appearance and internal properties of the loaves and the anise oils show the acceptable properties

الخلاصة : استخدمت الزيوت العطرية اليانسون وحبة البركة والقرنفل بنسبة 2و4و6%، ودرس تأثيرها في الصفات الريولوجية للعجين ونوعية وصفات حفظ اللوف والنسبة المئوية للتفتت لمدة خزن 24و48و72 ساعة، كما درست الصفات الخارجية والداخلية للوف الناتج وحللت النتائج إحصائيا . أظهرت نتائج الفارينوكراف إن زيادة نسبة الإضافة للزيوت العطرية قلل نسبة امتصاص الماء ووقت الوصول ووقت النضج وزيادة الاستقرارية وكانت أعلى قيمة لمعامل العجن الحرج لزيت حبة البركة بنسبة 4و6%، بينما أظهرت نتائج الاكستنوكراف هنالك فروق معنوية (عند مستوى 0,05) بين الزيوت العطرية والتجربة الضابطة وإن زيادة الإضافة للزيوت العطرية أدت إلى زيادة المطاطية ومقاومة المطاطية، كذلك بينت نتائج هذا الاختيار هنالك انخفاض معنوي في قيمة المساحة بزيادة نسبة الإضافة للزيوت العطرية، وأعطى زيت اليانسون بسبة 4% وعند فترة راحة (90 دقيقة) أعلى قيمة مساحة . أوضحت النتائج زيادة درجة حرارة التهلم وأقصى لزوجة المقاسة بجهاز الاميلوكراف . كما تبين أن هنالك فروق معنوية (عند مستوى 0,05) بين العينة الضابطة والزيوت العطرية بالنسبة للتفتت وقد ازدادت نسبة التفتت بزيادة الخزن . أدت إضافة الزيوت العطرية إلى تحسين معظم الصفات الداخلية والخارجية للوف . وكان زيت اليانسون هو الزيت المتميز من بينهم إذ كان الأكثر قبولاً حسياً .


Article
Antifungal Action of Some Natural Oils on Acrylic Resin Denture Base Materials

Author: Rana R AL- Sumaidae
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 2 Issue: 20 Pages: 295-300
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The study aims to evaluate the antifungal action of some natural oils (sun flower oil, sesame oil, nigella sativa, flax oil and ginger oil) in relation to nystatin suspension on acrylic resin denture base materials. Materials and method: The total number of specimens were seventy, they were (10×10×2mm). Half of the specimens were prepared from heat cured acrylic resin and the other half prepared from cold cured acrylic resin denture base materials, for each group they were immersed for 8hr in these oils after they had been infected with Candida albicans and incubated for 48hr. This study compared antifungal efficiency of sun flower oil, sesame oil, nigella sativa, flax oil and ginger oil. The statistical tests used were one way analysis of variance test, Dunnett t-test. Results: There were signifi-cant differences between all tested oils and distilled water in relation to antifungal action at (P=0.05). Conclusions: All the tested natural oils were effective antifungal agent.


Article
Production, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of a Bioemulsifier Produced by Acinetobacter baumanii AC5 Utilizing Edible Oils

Author: Nadhem H. Hyder
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2015 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 55-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Biosurfactant or Bioemulsifier amphiphilic compounds are; produced by microorganisms as primary or secondary metabolites. The unique properties of biosurfactants mean that they have the potential to supplement, or even replace, chemical surfactants used in food, in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries; and in the environment. In the present study ten Acinetobacter sp. isolated from different sources were tested for their capability to produce bioemulsifiers in mineral salt medium with addition of 1% (v/v) edible oil as the sole source of carbon. Out of the ten Acinetobacter isolates tested, five showed lipase activity and produced bioemulsifiers exhibiting an emulsification index (EI24%) of 40 – 78%. The results revealed that the isolate Acinetobacter baumanii AC5, a gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and a diplococcoid rod bacterium was the best bioemulsifier producer. Optimization studies indicated that bioemulsifier production was associated with bacterial growth, and that the presence of inducer edible oils in the medium also enhanced bioemulsifier production. On the other hand, bioemulsifier production decreased when hydrocarbon (gasoline and diesel oil) were used. Crude bioemulsifier was recovered from the culture supernatant by a solvent system of chloroform: methanol (2:1 v/v), with the extraction producing 5.05 g/l of crude bioemulsifier. Partial purification and chemical analysis of the bioemulsifier revealed that it is a lipoglycan in nature with lipid content of 63%, carbohydrate 35% and a minor fraction of protein 2%. The crude bioemulsifier; showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activity against tested pathogenic microorganisms.


Article
The Changes of Some Commercial Oils and Fats during Frying of Falafel

Authors: Ali A. Sahi --- Munir A. Jasim --- Hani S. Sdfanna
Journal: Kufa Journal for Agricultural Sciences مجلة الكوفة للعلوم الزراعية ISSN: 20727798 23128186 Year: 2015 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 162-177
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Due to the misuse of fats and oils during deep fat frying for preparing many types of foodlike (Falafel) and its effect on the health and economic aspects and to optimize the use offats and oils . This work includes the chemical and physical changes of local common oil(Al – Bint) and imported oil and fat (CEZER, Two Golden Spoons) before and duringdeep frying operating at 5±180°C, it also includes sensory evaluation of Falafel duringfrying operation. The results of this research were summarized as follows:-1- Significant decrease of Iodine Number for the three fats with increasing frying times.The decrease was from (138.8, 137.9, 54.5) before process of frying to (131.5, 133.9,49.2) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint, CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fatrespectively. Consequently the decrease of Iodine Number were (4.3, 4.0, and 5.3) for thethree fats respectively.2- Significant decrease of Smoke Point for the three fats with increasing number offrying times. The decrease of Smoke Point was from (213°C, 200°C, 214°C) beforefrying process to (205°C, 190°C, 206°C) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oil and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the resistance todecrease of Smoke Point of Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZERoil.3- Significant increase in Refractive Index at (40°C) with increasing number of fryingtimes for the three fats. The increase was from (1.4473, 1.4474, and 1.4470) beforefrying process to (1.4710, 1.4740, and 1.4640) after the fourth frying time for Al – Bint,CEZER oils and Two Golden Spoons fat respectively. Consequently the stability foroxidation for Two Golden Spoons fat more than Al – Bint oil then CEZER oil.1- Sensory evaluation of Falafel during deep frying for several times appeared that theappearance, texture, color, flavor and overall acceptance were acceptable. Falafel fried inAl – Bint oil was the best, then that with CEZER oil and then with Two Golden Spoonsfat. Also there were no significant effect of number of frying times on texture, flavor,color and overall acceptance of Falafel.


Article
Treatment of Reused Oil by Thermal Conversion Process
معالجة زيوت التزييت المستعمله باستخدام عمليات تحويليه حراريه

Authors: Saleem Mohammed Obeyed سليم محمد عبودي --- Israa Shaker Ali اسراء شاكر علي --- Ali Ehsan علي احسان
Journal: AL-NAHRAIN JOURNAL FOR ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة النهرين للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 25219154 / eISSN 25219162 Year: 2017 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 167-175
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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This work deals with treatment ofused lubricant oils whichare accumulate from automotive engine, bythermal conversion process. The used lubricant oil for two samples is fractionated by the atmospheric distillation device into fractions, (waste oil liquids and residue). Which are carried out at atmospheric pressure and temperature up to 350 ºC.The conversion which was obtained from these fractions was (92 and95) % respectively for these two samples.The fractionated waste oil liquids products fromatmospheric distillationdeviceare fractionated alsoto light fractions (gasoline, kerosene, gas oil) and residue for these two samples at atmospheric pressure according to their boiling point.These fractions for these two samples are also distillated inatmospheric distillation device, in order to calculatesome important physical and chemical properties (Mean average boiling point, specific gravity, flash point, aniline point, smoke point, molecular weight) of these fractions, to comparison with standardphysical and chemical properties, alsostudying the possibilities of industrial uses for these fractions. The yield of gas oil for the first samplein waste lubricant oilisabout 50%, more than gasoline 15% and kerosene 30%from 100 ml of treatment waste lubricant oil, and more identical curve from gasoline and kerosene curve.Also for the second sample, the yield of gas oil is the largest quantity 43%fromtheyield of gasoline 15% and yield of kerosene 35% from 200 ml of treatment waste lubricant oil, and more identical curve with kerosene from gasoline curve.

هذا البحث يتعلق بدراسة امكانية معالجة زيوت التزييت المستعمله والمتجمعهمن السيارات و المحركات الميكانيكيه المختلفه بعمليات تحويليه حراريه وبالتالي اعادة استخدامها مرة اخرى.تم استعمال نموذجين مختلفين من زيوت التزييت المستعمله في محرك السيارات احدهمها مستعمل لمسافه سير 2000 كم والاخر لمسافة سير 4000 كم.تم معالجة كل نموذج على حده وذلك باستعمال جهاز التقطير الجوي(ASTM D-86) حيث تم فصل كل نموذج الى مقطعين احدهما( مقطع زيتي ومقطع مخلفات) وتم ذلك عند درجة حرارة اقصاها 350 م° وعند الضغط الجوي الاعتيادي.تم الحصول على مقدار تحول (conversion) يصل الى 95 % للنموذج الزيتي المستعمل الاول ومعدل تحولconversion) ) مقداره 92.5 % للنموذج الزيتي المستعمل الثاني.تم تقطير كل سائل زيتي للنموذجين على حدة مرة اخرى بواسطة جهاز التقطير الجوي (ASTM D-86) الى مقاطع بتروليه خفيفه ثلاث ( كازولين, كيروسين , كاز اويل) للنموذجينعند الضغط الجوي الاعتيادي ,وذلك اعتمادا على درجة حرارة غليانها.تم تقطير كل مقطع خفيف من هذه المقاطع الثلاثة ولكل نموذج زيتي مستعمل وذلك لايجاد منحنى التقطير لها لكي تتم مقارنتها مع منحنى التقطير القياسي (التجاري) لهذه المقاطع الثلاثه وبالتالي المقبوليه.تم حساب بعض المواصفات المختبريه الفيزياويه والكيمياويه الحاكمة لهذه المقاطع الثلاثه (معدل درجه الغليان, الوزن النوعي, نقطة الوميض, نقطة الانلين, نقطة الدخان. الوزن الجزيئي)وللنموذجين وذلك لمقارنتها مع المواصفات المختبريه الفيزياويه والكيمياويه القياسيه (التجاريه) ولغرض دراسة امكانية استعمالها مره اخرى.تم التوصل الى ان مقطع الكازاويل هو مطابق جدا من ناحية المواصفات المختبريه الفيزياويه والكيمياويه ومنحنى التقطير الى النموذجين من الزيوت المستعمله والمقطرة اضافة الى نسبته العالية مقارنة بمقطع الكازولين والكيروسين.نسبة الكاز اويل (زيت الغاز) الناتج من النموذج الاول 50% والكازولين 15% والكيروسين 30%.في حين كانت نسبة الكاز اويل (زيت الغاز) الناتج من النموذج الثاني 43% والكازولين 15% والكيروسين 35%.امكانية استعمال المقاطع البترولية الثلاثة الخفيفة (الكازولين, الكيروسين, الكازاويل) والناتجة من نموذجي زيوت التزيت المستعملة , لتسير السيارات(الكازولين) والاستخدامات المنزلية (كيروسين) ووقود الديزل (الكازاويل) وذلك لتطابق المواصفات المختبرية الفيزياوية والكيمياوية لهذه المقاطع الثلاثه مع المواصفات القياسيه (التجاريه).


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STADY OF USING OLIVE OIL AND BIODIESEL ON POLLUTANTS EMISSIONS IN THE CONTINUOUS COMBUSTION CHAMBER
تاثيراستخدام زيت الزيتون على انبعاث الملوثات في عملية الاحتراق المستمر

Authors: Noora Saleh Ekaab --- Abdul Sattar Jawad M. --- Abdul Kadhim M. Hasan
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2017 Volume: 21 Issue: 2 Pages: 192-204
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

This study investigates the effect of using olive oil on the pollutants emissions in the continuous combustion chamber. The bio-fuels used are mixtures of olive oil with two types of hydrocarbon fuels (gas oil and kerosene). The pollutants measured include carbon monoxide CO, unburned hydrocarbon UHC, soot and nitrogen oxide NOx .It is found that all pollutants have less percent emissions when using olive oil blended with percent addition of 5%, 10%, and 15%. The reduction in emission with olive oil blends is due to the existence of oxygen O2 in the chemical structure of the olive oil which is sufficient to achieve the complete combustion. The test was conducted through the range of equivalence ratio between (0.85-1.7). Results showed that olive oil blends with gas oil brings about 45.63% reduction in UHC and 36.48% soot, while CO 32.24% and NOx showed only about 39.54% reduction from that of pure gas oil. Whilst, blends with kerosene, showed a reduction of about 48.92% in UHC and 42.13% soot, while for CO and NOx the reduction was 37.41% and 42.85% respectively compared with those of pure kerosene emission.

تقدم هذه الدراسة استقصاء لتاثيراستخدام زيت الزيتون على انبعاث الملوثات من غرفة احتراق مستمر. الوقود العضوي المستخدم هو عبارة عن خليط من زيت الزيتون مع نوعين من الوقود الهيدروكربوني (زيت الغاز والكيروسين). الملوثات المقاسة تتضمن (اول اوكسيد الكربون , الهيدروكربونات غير المحترقة , السخام واكاسيد النتروجين). لقد وجد ان كل الملوثات قد انخفضت انبعاثاتها مع استخدام زيت الزيتون مخلوطا بنسب مختلفة وهي 5% , 10% , و15% . الانبعاث الاوطئ مع خلائط زيت الزيتون تعود الى وجود الاوكسجين في البنية الكيمياوية لزيت الزيتون وبكمية كافية سعيا الى الاحتراق التام. تم اجراء الاختبارات ضمن حدود نسبة مكافئة تتراوح بين 0,85 الى 1,7 . اظهرت النتائج ان خلط زيت الزيتون مع زيت الغاز يحقق خفضا بالانبعاث بحدود 45.63% لكل من الهيدروكربون غير المحترق 36.48% والسخام , بينما يصل الانخفاض الى حدود 32.24% فقط لاول اوكسيد الكربون و 39.54% اكاسيد النتروجين مقارنة مع انبعاث زيت الغاز النقي .بينما الخلائط مع الكيروسين تظهر خفضا بحدود 48.92% لكل من الهيدروكربون غير المحترق و 42.13% السخام ,في حين كان الانخفاض بحدود37.41% و 42.85 % لكل من اول اوكسيد الكربون واكاسيد النتروجين على التوالي مقارنة مع انبعاث الكيروسين النقي.

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