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Article
Kinetic Study and Simulation of Oleic Acid Esterification in Different Type of Reactors

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Abstract

Esterification reaction is most important reaction in biodiesel production. In this study, oleic acid was used as a suggested feedstock to study and simulate production of biodiesel. Batch esterification of oleic acid was carried out at operating conditions; temperature from 40 to 70 °C, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio from 1/1 to 6/1, H2SO4 as the catalyst 1 and 5% wt of oleic acid, reaction time up to 180 min. The optimum conditions for the esterification reaction were molar ratio of ethanol/oleic acid 6/1, 5%wt H2SO4 relative to oleic acid, 70 °C, 90 min and conversion of oleic 0.92. The activation energy for the suggested model was 26625 J/mole for forward reaction and 42189 J/mole for equilibrium constant. The obtained results simulated to other types of reactors with different operating conditions using reactop cascade package. The conversion of oleic acid of simulation results at optimum operating conditions was 0.97 for isothermal batch and plug flow reactors, 0.67 for isothermal CSTR, while the conversions of oleic acid in the adiabatic mode were 0.82, 0.40, 0.74 for batch, CSTR, PFR reactors respectively.


Article
An attempt to Stimulate lipids for Biodiesel Production from locally Isolated Microalgae in Iraq
محاولة لتحفيز انتاج الدهون للديزل الحيوي من الطحالب الدقيقة المعزولة محليا في العراق

Authors: Thaer I. Kassim *** ** ثائر ابراهيم قاسم --- Ibtsam F. Aljbory * ابتسام فريد الجبوري** --- Fikrat M. Hassan* فكرت مجيد حسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 97-108
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Two locally isolated microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris Bejerinck and Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith) were used in the current study to test their ability to production biodiesel through stimulated in different nitrogen concentration treatments (0, 2, 4, 8 gl ), and effect of nitrogen concentration on the quantity of primary product (carbohydrate, protein ), also the quantity and quality of lipid. The results revealed that starvation of nitrogen led to high lipid yielding, in C. vulgaris and N. palea the lipid content increased from 6.6% to 40% and 40% to 60% of dry weight (DW) respectively.Also in C. vulgaris, the highest carbohydrate was 23% of DW from zero nitrate medium and the highest protein was 50% of DW in the treatment 8gl. While in N. palea the highest carbohydrate was 25% of DW in the treatment 4gl, and the highest protein was 15% of DW in 8gl treatment.

استخدمت عزلتين محلية من الطحالب الدقيقة (Chlorella vulgaris Bejerinck and Nitzschia palae (Ktz.) W. Smith) ,لاختبار قدرتها على انتاج الديزل الحيوي من خلال تحفيزها بمعاملات مختلفة من النتروجين (صفر و 2 و 4و 8 ملغم/لتر), وتاثيرها على المنتجات الاساسية (الكاربوهيدرات والبروتين) كذلك على كمية ونوعية الدهون. اظهرت النتائج بان المعاملة ناقصة النتروجين (صفر) حفزت على انتاج عالي من الدهون في كلا من الطحالب الدقيقة C. vulgaris و N. palea حيث ارتفع محتوى الدهون من 6.6 ٪ الى 40 ٪ ومن 40 ٪ الى 60٪ من الوزن الجاف على التوالي. واظهرت C. vulgaris اعلى محتوى للكاربوهيدرات 23٪ من الوزن الجاف في المعاملة صفر نتروجين وسجلت اعلى محتوى للبروتين 50٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة 8 ملغم / لتر. في حين N. palea كان اعلى محتوى للكاربوهيدرات 25٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة نتروجين 4ملغم/لتر واعلى محتوى للبروتين 15٪ من الوزن الجاف في معاملة نتروجين 8 ملغم/لتر. الكلمات المفتاحية: طحالب دقيقة, دهون, حامض ستيرك , حامض اويلك, الديزل الحيوي


Article
Kinetic Study and Simulation of Oleic Acid Esterification over Prepared NaY Zeolite Catalyst

Authors: Rowaida N. Abbas رويدة نزيه --- Ammar S. Abbas عمار صالح عباس
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2013 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 35-43
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Esterification considers the most important reaction in biodiesel production. In this study, oleic acid was used as a suggested feedstock in order to study and simulate production of biodiesel. The batch esterification reaction of oleic acid was carried out at various operating conditions; temperature from 40 to 70 °C, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio from 3/1 and 6/1 and a reaction time up to 180 min. The catalyst used was prepared NaY zeolite, which is added to the reaction mixture as 2, 5 and 10 wt.% of oleic acid. The results show that the optimum conditions, gives 0.81 conversion of oleic acid, were 6/1 molar ratio of ethanol/oleic acid, 5 wt.% NaY relative to initial oleic acid, 70°C and 60 minutes. The activation energy of the suggested model was 42692 J/mole for forward reaction and 17218 J/mole for backward reaction.


Article
Simulation of Batch Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production from Oleic Acid Esterification

Authors: Nada B. Nakkash --- Sarah R. Al-Karkhi سارة رشيد
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2014 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-21
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work concerns with simulating unsteady state equilibrium model for production of methyl oleate (biodiesel) from reaction of oleic acid with methanol using sulfuric acid as a catalyst in batch reactive distillation. MESHR equations of equilibrium model were solved using MATLAB (R2010a). The validity of simulation model was tested by comparing the simulation results with a data available in literature. UNIQUAC liquid phase activity coefficient model is the most appropriate model to describe the non-ideality of OLAC-MEOH-MEOL-H2O system. The chemical reactions rates results from EQ model indicating the rates are controlled by chemical kinetics. Several variables was studied such as molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1, amount of catalyst 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, reaction time 36, 57 and 75 minutes, and reaction temperature 100, 120 and 130oC. Taguchi method based on signal to noise ratio was used to determine the best operating conditions for biodiesel production.


Article
Synthesis and optical properties of CdS quantum dots via paraffin liquid and oleic acid
تحضير الخصائص البصرية ل CdS QDs عن طريق سائل البارافين وحامض الاوليك

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Abstract

In this study, an easy, low-cost, green, and environmentally friendlier reagents have been used to prepare CdS QDs, in chemical reaction method by mixed different ratio of CdO and sulfur in paraffin liquid as solvent and oleic acid as the reacting media in different concentration to get the optimum condition of the reaction to formation CdS QDs. The results give an indication that the behavior is at small concentration of 4ml of the oleic acid is best concentration which give CdS QDs of small about to 9.23 nm with nano fiber configuration.

في الدراسة الحالية، استخدمت طريقة سهلة وقليلة التكاليف وصديقة للبيئة لتحضير مادة كبريتيد الكادميوم النانوية باستخدام طريقة التفاعل الكيمائي، حضرت العينات باستخدام نسب مختلفة من أوكسيد الكادميوم والكبريت في خليط مذيب البارافين وحامض الاوليك كعامل مساعد وبتراكيز مختلفة للوصول الى شروط التفاعل لتكوين QDsCdS. أظهرت النتائج انه عند التراكيز القليلة4ml من حامض الاوليك يتم الحصول على افضل تركيزممكن للحصول على حجم منCdS QDs صغير بحدود 9.24 nm بتشكيل نانوفايبر.


Article
Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Oleic Acid and Comparison of its Properties with Petroleum Diesel

Authors: Sarah R. Al-Karkhi --- Nada B. Nakkash
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2012 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 13-25
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Biodiesel define as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oil and animal fats is an alternative diesel fuel that is steadily gaining attention because the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas has been identify as a major cause of the increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere and causing global warming. The present work concerns with estimating the physical properties experimentally such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and carbon residue of biodiesel that produced by the esterification reaction of methanol and oleic acid with homogeneous catalysts H2SO4 in a lab-scale packed reactive distillation column using the best operating conditions of methanol to oleic acid 8:1, catalyst amount 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, time 57 min and reaction temperature 130°C that obtained from studying different variables such as molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid 4:1, 6:1 and 8:1, amount of catalyst 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g sulfuric acid/g oleic acid, reaction time 36, 57 and 75 minutes, and reaction temperature 100oC, 120oC and 130oC. The physical properties of biodiesel from the present work compared with those of ASTM (American Standard for Testing Material) standard for biodiesel, previous work and petrol diesel, from the results the biodiesel obtained can be used as alternative to diesel.


Article
Kinetics and Mass Transfer Study of Oleic Acid Esterification over Prepared Nanoporous HY zeolite

Authors: Ammar S. Abbas --- Talib M. Albayati --- Ziad T. Alismaeel --- Aidan M. Doyle
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2016 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 47-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

A mathematical model was proposed to study the microkinetics of esterification reaction of oleic acid with ethanol over prepared HY zeolite catalyst. The catalyst was prepared from Iraqi kaolin source and its properties were characterized by different techniques. The esterification was done under different temperature (40 to 70˚C) with 6:1 for molar ratio of ethanol to oleic acid and 5 % catalyst loading. The microkinetics study was done over two period of time each period was examined individually to calculate the reaction rate constant and activation energy. The impact of the mass transfer resistance to the reactant was also investigated; two different studies have been accomplished to do this purpose. The effect of the external mass transfer resistance was studied by exploring different stirring speed (400 to 800 rpm). The results show that, the oleic acid conversion increase with increasing the stirring speed until reached 600 rpm, after this rpm the conversion doesn’t increase significantly, which mean that, the effect of external mass transfer resistance was eliminated. The activation energy for the first period is equal to 41.84 kJ/mol while in the second period is equal to 52.03 kJ/mol. The Thiele modulus calculation results show that there is no effect of mass transfer on the reaction inside the catalyst pores.


Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Multishapes of Fe3O4 Nanoparticle by Solve-Hydrothermal Method Using Microwave Radiation
تحضير وتشخيص دقائق Fe3O4 النانوية متعددة الاشكال بطريقة المذيب –الهيدروحرارية بواسطة اشعة الميكروويف

Authors: Ahlam Jameel Abdulghani احلام جميل عبد الغني --- Waleed Madhloom Al-Ogedy وليد مظلوم العكيدي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 331-339
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Iron oxide(Fe3O4) nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes were synthesized by solve-hydrothermal reaction assisted by microwave irradiation using ferrous ammonium sulfate as a metal precursor, oleic acid as dispersing agent, ethanol as reducing agent and NaOH as precipitating agent at pH=12. The synthesized Fe3O4 nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and thermal analysis TG-DTG. Sizes and shapes of Fe3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

حضرت دقائق Fe3O4 النانوية من مختلف الأحجام والأشكال بطريقة المذيب-هيدروحرارية بواسطة إشعاع الميكروويف باستخدام كبريتات الأمونيوم الحديد كمصدر للفلز، وحامض الأولييك كعامل مشتت، والإيثانول كعامل مختزل وهيدروكسيد الصوديوم كعامل ترسيب في دالة الحموضة = 12. شخصت دقائق Fe3O4 النانوية من حيود الأشعة السينية (XRD)، تحليل الاشعة تحت الحمراءوالتحاليل الحرارية (TG-DTG). شخصت الحجوم والأشكال للدقائق النانوية Fe3O4 بواسطة المجهر الإلكتروني الماسح (SEM)، ومجهر القوة الذرية (AFM).


Article
Preparation and Surface Modification of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Noor Hadi Aysa --- Mohamed Hamza Al-Maamori --- Nehad Abdul Ameer Al-Maamori
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2017 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 503-497
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in medical applications. This study aims to prepare ZnO nanoparticles with particle size ranging from 23-29  nm. In the present study, surface modification of ZnO nanoparticles was performed, and influence of modification on the structure and morphological properties was investigated. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force (AFM). Zinc oxide nanoparticles with the average diameter of about 29 nm were modified with oleic acid, as coupling agents, in order to modify their surface properties and make them more hydrophobic dispersible in the organic area. Results showed that the surface modified ZnO nano-particles were more dispersible in the examined organic media indicating better compatibility, ZnO modified with oleic acid exerted more compatibility. From the results obtained it is suggested that modified ZnO-nanoparticles could be used effectively in safety environmental applications and also can be used in future medical applications.

جسيمات أكسيد الزنك النانويه معروفة جيدا لتكون واحدة من المركبات غير العضوية متعددة الوظائف والتي تستخدم على نطاق واسع في التطبيقات الطبية. وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحضير جسيمات أكسيد الزنك النانوي بحجم جسيمي يتراوح (23-29) نانومتر. في الدراسة الحاليه، تم إجراء تعديل سطح أوكسيد الزنك النانوي ، ودراسة تأثير التعديل على هيكل وخصائص التركيب البلوري. درست خصائص الجسيمات باستخدام التحليل الطيفي بالأشعة تحت الحمراء (FT-IR)، حيود الأشعة السينية (XRD)، المجهر الإلكتروني الماسح (SEM) ومجهرالقوة الذرية .(AFM) تم تعديل جسيمات أكسيد الزنك بمتوسط قطر حوالي 29 نانومتر مع حمض الأوليك، كعامل ربط ، من أجل تعديل خصائص سطحها وجعلها أكثر طرد للماء. ومن النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها أن تعديل سطح جسيمات أكسيد الزنك النانويه يؤدي الى المزيد من التشتت في الوسائط العضوية والتي تشير إلى توافق عضوي أفضل. من النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تعديل أكسيد الزنك-النانوية يمكن أن تستخدم بشكل فعال في التطبيقات البيئية والسلامة ويمكن أيضا أن تستخدم في التطبيقات الطبية في المستقبل.


Article
Preparation and Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles for Superhydrophopic Coating

Author: Noor Hadi Aysa
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 167-173
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Silica nanoparticles are well-known to be one of the multifunctional inorganic compounds which are widely used in medical applications. The aim of this study is to prepare the particles of nano silica oxide with particle size ranging from 20-25  nm. In the present study, surface modification of Silica nanoparticles was performed, and influence of modification on the structure and morphological properties was investigated. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silica nanoparticles with the average diameter of about 20 nm were modified with oleic acid, as coupling agents, in order to modify their surface properties and make them more waterproof dispersible in the organic area. Among the results is that the surface modification of the Silica nano-particles leads to more dispersion in the organic medium which indicates better organic synthesis. One of the results obtained, is that modified silica-nanoparticles can be used effectively in environmental and safety applications and can be used in future medical applications as wound stick that prevent water from reaching the wound and then prevent an inflamation.

جسيمات السيلكا النانوية معروفة جيدا لتكون واحدة من المركبات غير العضوية متعددة الوظائف والتي تستخدم على نطاق واسع في التطبيقات الطبية. وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى تحضير جسيمات أكسيد الزنك النانوي بحجم جسيمي يتراوح (20-25) نانومتر. في الدراسة الحالية، تم إجراء تعديل سطح السيلكا النانوية ، ودراسة تأثير التعديل على الخصائص الهيكلية والتركيبيه. درست خصائص الجسيمات باستخدام حيود الأشعة السينية (XRD)، المجهر الإلكتروني الماسح (SEM) ومجهرالقوى الذرية .(AFM) تم تعديل جسيمات السيلكا بمتوسط قطر حوالي 20 نانومتر مع حمض الأوليك، كعامل ربط ، من أجل تعديل خصائص سطحها وجعلها أكثر طرد للماء. ومن النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها أن تعديل سطح جسيمات السيلكا النانويه يؤدي الى المزيد من التشتت في الوسائط العضوية والتي تشير إلى توافق عضوي أفضل. من النتائج التي تم الحصول عليها تعديل سطح السيلكا النانوية بحيث يمكن أن تستخدم بشكل فعال في التطبيقات البيئية والسلامة ويمكن أيضا أن تستخدم في التطبيقات الطبية في المستقبل والتي تتضمن لاصقات الجروح التي تمنع وصول الماء للجرح وبالتالي منع الالتهاب.

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