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Article
Local Expression of MMP-7 in Oral Cancer

Author: Manal A. Habib منال حبيب
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 14-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oralcavity (OSCC) is a highly invasive neoplasm. ManyMMPs play role in human cancer invasion andmetastases.Aim: Estimating The MMp-7 expression level inHPV-16 positive and HPV-16 negative OSCCparaffin embedded sections.Method: Biopsies from thirty three patients with oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) were obtained andinvestigated for the presence of HPV-16 RNA withthe application of ISH and the MMP-7 expressionlevel using IHC .Results: Expression level of MMP-7 found to be highin OSCC sections 29 (87.8%) cases with nosignificant difference in its expression level betweenHPV-16 positive and HPV-16 negative OSCC casesp= 1.00.Conclusion: MMp-7 found to be expressed in highlevel in OSCC with no significant relevance to HPV-16.


Article
Detection of ERBB2 (Her2/neu) and P16 (INK4A) genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH)

Authors: Hiba A. Abdulameer هبة عبد الامير --- Ahlam H. Majeed احلام مجيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 46-51
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background Head and neck cancers account for approximately 5% of all carcinomas in industrialized countries, witha worldwide incidence of 500,000 new cases annually. Nearly all head and neck cancers (90%) are squamous cellcarcinomas (SCCs), and >50% of tumors arise in the oral cavity. It is important to know what prognostic factors canfacilitate diagnosis, optimize therapeutic decisions, and improve the survival of these patients. A member of theepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, HER2/neu, has received much attention because of its therapeuticimplications. The p16 gene produces P16 protein, which in turn inhibits phosphorylation of Rb, thus inhibiting the Rbinducedrelease of transcription factor EF1 and cell cycle progression. Genetic aberration analyzed by fluorescence(FISH) to measure the gene copy number. The aims of the present study are to detect HER2/neu amplification andP16 deletion in oral squamous cell carcinoma and correlate them with various clinicopathological parameters (age,sex, clinical presentation, tumor site, tumor stage, tumor grade).Materials and Methods Thirty formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma whichwere collected from laboratories archives included in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessmentof histological examination. DNA probes were used to detect copy numbers of the HER2/neu and P16 genes usingfluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH).Results FISH evaluation showed that HER2/neu gene amplification was found in 12 cases (40%), while 18 cases (60%)showed no amplification. Among the cases in which amplification was not found, 8 cases (44.45%) showed polysomyof chromosome 17.P16 gene deletion was found in 20 cases (66.7%) while 10 cases (33.3%) showed no deletion.Conclusions: HER2/neu amplification and P16 deletion were observed in studied oral squamous cell carcinomasamples using FISH, however, statistically non significant correlation with all clinicopathological findings (age, sex,clinical presentation, tumor site, tumor stage, tumor grade) and also between both genes were found in the presentstudy. It is premature to conclude that HER-2/neu and P16 alterations may have prognostic significance, but it is alsotoo early to dismiss that possibility without a larger, perhaps multicenter study


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of Basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Authors: Karrar N. Shareef كرار شريف --- Ahlam H. Majeed احلام مجيد
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 94-98
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Back ground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase inoral squamous cell carcinoma, and to correlate the two studied marker with each other and withclinicopathologicalfinding including grade, stage.Methods: Sections of 30 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded blocks specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma wereimmunostained to assess the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanse in oral squamous cellcarcinoma cases.Results: The expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase were positive in all oral squamous cellcarcinoma cases (100%). The positive expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 was significantly correlated with tumorsite (p=0.016),and clinical presentation(p-value =0.003).The positive expression of Heparanse was significantlycorrelated with tumor grade(p-value =0.002) .On other hand there was non-significant correlation between fibroblastgrowth factor-2 ,Heparanase and other clinicopathological parameters .Statistically significant correlation was foundbetween the expressions of fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase(p-value= 0.021).Conclusion: The fibroblast growth factor-2 and Heparanase positive expression was noted in all cases of oralsquamous cell carcinomasignifying their important role in the angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in oralsquamous cell carcinoma, furthermore they cooperate in promoting vascularization, suggesting that fibroblastgrowth factor-2 and heparanase are promising targets for the development of anticancer therapeutics for headand neck malignancies


Article
Significance of Salivary miRNA 21 Determined by Real Time PCR in Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Wisam Hamid Edan وسام حامد عيدان --- Sulafa Khalid El-Samarrai سلافة خالد السامرائي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 178-180
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Salivary biomarkers, a non-invasive alternative method to serum and tissue based biomarkers and it isconsider as an effective modality for early diagnosis. Salivary microRNA 21, a nucleotide biomarker, was reportedto increase in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study was conducted to measure the fold changeof microRNA 21 in stimulated saliva and to study its association with smoking and occurrence of oral squamouscell carcinoma.Materials and methods: A 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma who used to be smokers was included inaddition to 40 control subjects (20 smokers and 20 non- smokers health looking subjects). Stimulated saliva wascollected under standardized condition. Salivary microRNA 21 was assessed by real time PCR.Results: MicroRNA 21 fold change was significantly higher in both smoker patients with oral squamous cellcarcinoma and in smoker control subjects compared to non-smoker control subjects.Conclusions: Salivary micrRNA21 can serve as a non-invasive tool aid in the diagnosis and follow up of squamouscell carcinoma patients.


Article
Clinicopathological analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Iraq During period (2001-2013)

Authors: Inas A. Taha --- Wasan H. Younis وسن حمدي يونس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 2 Pages: 58-65
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oral cancer is a highly lethal and disfiguring disease. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavityconstitutes about 90% of all oral malignancies. The aims of the study was to achieve an epidemiological descriptionof the oral squamous cell carcinoma in Iraq in general and in Iraqi governorates except Kurdistan regionretrospectively during period 2001-2013Materials and Methods: Data were collected from department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, college ofdentistry, university of Baghdad, Nuclear medicine and radiotherapy hospital, Iraqi cancer registry center, Mainhospitals in Baghdad and Iraqi governorates, Private labs. for histopathological examinations. The descriptive andinferential statistical methods were used (frequency distributions, percentages, incidence rate, standardized ratioand relative risk)Results: In Iraq from 2001-2013, there were 1664 cases with overall M:F ratio (1.4 : 1). The most affected age groupwas (50-69 yrs), tongue was the most common affected site, grade II was the most common, and the highestnumber of OSCC was reported in Baghdad governorate. A negative time trend was observed in the overall (crude)incidence rate of all registered OSCC in Iraq.Conclusion: The incidence rate (crude rate) of OSCC decreased in Iraq from 2001 to 2013, and the standardizedratio showed that there is a decrease in tumor risk with advancing time


Article
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A clinico-pathological analysis of (1425) cases from Iraq

Authors: Nazar Gh TALABANI --- Natheer H AL-RAWI
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2002 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

A total of (1425) cases of histologically diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma collected from the main centers of pathology in Iraq were analyzed according to age, sex, site, patient complain at time of presentation and histological grading Patients at their fin decade of life were the most commonly affected with males to females ratio of (2:1). Lower lip was the most commonly affected site followed by the tongue. The most common clinical complain was ulceration and swelling. More than (70%) of the cases were well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The authors emphasize on the need for interprofessionalhealth care delivery approaches for reducing oral cancer mortality and improving patient's quality of life.


Article
Chromosome Abnormalities of Oral Squamous Cell arcinoma andCorrelation to the Tumor Size and TNM Staging

Author: Header Dakhel AL- Muala* H.D.D. ; M.Sc. F. I C. M S .
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2009 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 355-366
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Abstract It is well established that cancer is a multistage process involving a number of aberrant molecular events culminating in malignant transformation. Indeed the great majority of human cancers exhibit quite visible chromosome changes and the consistent chromosome abnormalities are essential for the malignant phenotype, the aim of the preset study designed to asses the chromosomal aberration and the possible correlation with tumor size and TNM staging (T tumor size, N lymph node involvement, M tumor metastasis) of oral squamous cell carcinoma . We assessed the chromosomal aberration of sixteen patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma were studied, fresh and solid tumor was taken for mincing and transferred to a new tissue culture media, chromosomes staining was carried out with trypsin-Geimsa banding .The results of the present studies showed Aneuploidy,loss of chromosomes, deletion of chromosomal 7 Ch7q (22 36), translocation t (7:4q) (22 36 :: 35 ) and dicentric chromosome and double minutes. Tumor size (T3 +T4 +TX ) only represented a positive findings. TNM staging only stage (III+IV) represented a positive chromosomal aberration.In conclusion there was no specific chromosome or chromosomal aberration associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma.The tumor size and TNM staging system can be consider as a good clinical predictors for treatment plane and prognosis .

سرطان الفم الحرشفي من السرطانات الاكثر شيوعاً التي تصيب الفم يأتي في المرتبة الثامنة بالنسبة لمجموع السرطانات التي تصيب اجزاء الجسم. بعض التغيرات الوراثية وصفت بعلاقتها مع سرطان الفم الحرشفي السرطانات تعرف الآن بكونها تحوي على تغيرات وراثية تشمل الجين المشجع للاورام والجين المثبط للاورام.الدراسة شملت ستة عشر مريضاً فحصوا بين عامي 2006-2007 في مستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. عند تطبيق اختبار احتمالية (فشر) للنتائج تبين انها احصائياً غـير معنوية.النتائج بينت ان المراحل المتأخرة من سرطان الفم الحرشفي خاصة في مرحلته الرابعة له علاقة او اقتران مع 5 حالات من مجموع الستة التي اظهرت نتائج موجبة (تغيرات في الكروموسومات) بنسبة 83.4%.ان نتائج التغيرات الكروموسومية اظهرت نقصاً او زيادة في عدد الكروموسومات في جميع الحالات الستة. كما ان جميع مجاميع الكروموسومات كانت مشمولة في (النقص) ما عدا كروموسوم رقم (1)، كذلك اظهرت النتائج الدقيق أو (الثنائي المزدوج) الذي يدل على تضخيم من الجينات، كذلك فقدان جزء من الكروموسوم السابع الذراع الطويل ابتداءً من الجزء الثاني الجزيئي الثاني الى الجزء الثالث الجزيئي السادس. علماً ان فقدان جزء من الكروموسوم يمكن ان يؤدي الى شل عمل (الجين الكابت للاورام) الذي يمكن ان يؤدي الى تفكك او فوضى في الانقسام الخلوي.اظهرت النتائج عملية نقل جزء من مكان الى آخر، نقل جزء من الكروموسوم 7 الذراع الطويل من الجزء الثاني الجزيئي الثاني الى الجزء الثالث الجزيئي السادس نقلها وتركيبها مع كروموسوم 4 الذراع الطويل الجزء الثالث الجزيئي الخامس. ان عملية نقل جزء من كروموسوم الى كروموسوم آخر واعادة بنائه ثانية ككروموسوم جديد قد يؤدي اما الى تضخيم عمل (الجين المشجع على نمو الاورام) او يؤدي الى شل عمل (الجين الكابت الاورام). او يؤدي الى تأخر (موت الخلايا المبرمج).كما لاحظنا تكون كروموسوم (ذا جسمين مركزيين) الذي يحدث نتيجة الى عملية نقل جزء من كروموسوم الى كروموسوم آخر.الاستنتاج: لا يوجد كروموسوم محدد او تغير كروموسومي محدد له علاقة وثيقة بسرطان الفم الحرشفي، ان الحالات التي اظهرت تغيرات كروموسومية هي اما تغيرات عددية (نقصان او زيادة) او كليهما او تغير في تركيبهما. 50% من الحالات الستة التي اظهرت تغيرات كروموسومية موجبة مرتبطة او لها علاقة مع (النمو السرطاني البارز). الحالات التي اظهرت تغيرات كروموسومية لها علاقة مع المرحلة الرابعة أي المراحل المتأخرة من السرطان. كذلك هناك علاقة بين الحالات التي اظهرت تغيرات كروموسومية ودرجة التمايز النسيجي (المتوسط والدرجة الفقيرة التمايز) وكذلك مع نمط الغزو السرطاني المدعو (متسلل، كحبل مصمت ، رباط وكخيوط مجدولة).نستنتج من الدراسة ان فحص التغيرات الكروموسومية للخلية يمكن اعتباره مكملاً ومساعداً في الفحص وتشخيص سرطان الفم الحرشفي مع الفحص النسيجي، الرقائق الشعاعية، فحص الرنين المغناطيسي ، النفراس ، فحص الامواج فوق الصوتية، فحص الدلالة للسرطان، فحص الرشف بالابرة الدقيقة وفحصه خلوياً. لذا هناك علاقة بين الكروموسوم والسرطان وان الشيء الوحيد الاكيد للتخلص من الاصابة بالسرطان هو ان لا نولد ، اذ ان الحياة تعني مواجهة المخاطر.


Article
Detection of Transcription Factor C-MYC in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma by in Situ Hybridization

Author: Ban A. Abdul-Majeed* PhD Molecular pathology. د. بان عباس عبد المجيد
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 388-391
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma continues to be a major health problem in Iraq as well as in other countries. Many attempts were made to study molecular markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma and to link them to tumor grade, stage and prognosis, besides studying their role in carcinogenesis. The present study has been designed to detect mRNA of c-myc in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared to oral dysplasia and to link the marker to grade and degree of the two pathologies.Materials and methods: Forty two cases, including 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma and 12 cases of oral dysplasia were included in this study. Sections on positively charged slides were made from their paraffin blocks and were used for the detection of c-myc mRNA using in-situ hybridization technique.Results: C-myc mRNA was detected in 9(75%) cases of oral dysplasis and in 24 (80%) cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma. A significant correlation was found between c-myc mRNA score and intensity from one side and the tumor grade from the other side and degree of dysplasia. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the role of c-myc in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and the possible transfer from the former to the latter.Key Words: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral dysplasia and c-myc.


Article
Differential infiltration of CD4, CD8 and macrophage in oral squamous cell carcinoma (Immnoistochemical study)

Authors: Ahmed A. Ali احمد علي --- Riyadh O. Alkaisi رياض القيسي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 54-58
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is by far the most common malignant neoplasm of the oralcavity. It is an aggressive and lethal malignancy. The oral squamous cell carcinoma microenvironments containmany immune cells and their secretory products. Cell-mediated immunity and the innate immune system mayinteract with cancer cells and plays an important role in immune responses against cancer, CD8 cytotoxic Tlymphocytes (CTLs) are key effectors cells in antitumor immunity, while CD4 T cell have cardinal role in orchestratingantibody production and the activation of CD8 T cells and macrophages to exhibit antitumor functions. This suggeststhat immune system-related mechanisms have an effect on the development and spread of malignant diseases inhumansMaterials and methods: Thirty formalin-fixed, paraffin- embedded blocks of oral squamous cell carcinoma wereincluded in this study. H&E stain was done for each block for reassessment of histological examination. The expressionof CD4, CD8 and macrophages were detected by immunehistochemistry.Results: Immunehistochemical mean expression level of CD4, CD8 and macrophage in OSCC was (54.67) %, (51.08)% and (55.93) % respectively. Non significant correlation was obtained among the three studied infiltrates withclinicopathological findings of OSCC and with each other.Conclusion: Immunohistochemical expression of CD4, CD8 and macrophage infiltrates were observed in all studyingsamples of oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, statistically non significant correlation was found between themean expression level of these infiltrates with all clinicopathological findings of OSCC and with each other.Increasing expression level of CD4, CD8 and macrophage infiltration in all studied cases of OSCC suggest theirimportant role in oral carcinogenesis, however further studies with larger samples needed to identify their exactcorrelation with clinicopathological features of tumor


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and CD44 adhesion molecules in oral squamous cell carcinoma

Authors: Asmaa S. Al janabi اسماء الجنابي --- Seta A. Sarkis سيتا سركيس
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 36-42
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer world wide. Despitegreater emphasis on multi-modality therapy including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, advanced stage headand neck squamous cell carcinoma continues to have poor 5-year survival rates (0-40%) that have not significantlyimproved in the last (30) years. To improve outcomes for this deadly disease , It is required a better understanding ofthe mechanisms underlying head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth, metastasis, and treatmentresistance. This study evaluates the Immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin and CD44 adhesion molecules inOSCC and to correlate the expression of either marker with each other, with lymph node metastasis and with tumorgrade.Materials and methods: Thirty blocks of OSCC were included in this study. An immunohistochemical staining wasperformed using anti E-cadherinand anti CD44 monoclonal antibodies.Results: Negative immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin was found in(66.7%)of the cases and only(33.3%)revealed positive immunoexpression. Positive CD44 immunoreaction was seen in(86.7%)of the cases. Therewas no statistically significant correlation regarding either marker with respect to the tumor stage, grade and lymphnode matastasis. Moreover anon-significant correlation was found between the expression of both markers.Conclusions: this study revealed negative E-cadherin expression in two thirds of the cases, while positive CD44 wasillustrated in most of them. Non- significant correlation was found regarding the expression of both markers with tumorstage, grade and lymph node status. Inverse significant correlation was found regarding CD44 expression with theclinical presentation of the study sample. In addition, non significant correlation was found between the E-cadherinand CD44 immunoexpression

الخلفیة:سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للراس والرقبة ھو السادس الاكثرشیوعا في كل العالم. بالرغم من التاكیدالشدیدعلى العلاج المتعدد الاشكال الذي یشمل الجراحة،الاشعاع والعلاج الكیمیائي،مراحل متقدمة من40 %) والذي لم یتقدم بشكل مفید في السنوات الثلاثین الاخیرة. ولتحسین النتائج لھذا المرض الممیت یحتاج الى فھم - سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للراس والرقبة یواصل امتلاكھ مستوى ( 5) سنوات للبقاء ھزیل( 0افضل للالیة وراء نمو ورم سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للراس والرقبة،الانبثاث ومقاومة العلاج.الاي- كادھرین ضروري للتكوین وللمحافظة على الظھاروھو واحد من اھم الجزیئات لالتصاق خلیة مع خلیة في الانسجة الظھاریة 0موقعھ على سطح الخلایا الطلائیة في مناطق تماس خلیة مع خلیة تعرفبالرباط الالتصاقي.في اورام الانسان، فقدان الاي- كادھرین الذي یكون التصاق الخلایا یرتبط بفقدان تشكل الظھار مع اكتساب امكانیة الانبثاث من قبل الخلایا السرطانیة.السي دي- ( 44 ) ھوجزیئة في غشاء الخلیة الذي وجد اولا في الخلیة اللمفیة وعرف ابتدائیا بامتلاكھ لوظائف لصق وایواء الخلیة. وجد مولد المضاد في معظم انسجة الانسان وعرف بامتلاكھ وظائف متعددة منذاكتشافھ الاول. وقد درس فیما یتعلق بدوره في الاسھام بتقدم الورم في مختلف الاورام الصلبة بما في ذلك سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للراس والعنق. اشارة حامض الھیالورونیك- سي دي- ( 44 ) ربطت بتقدم الورمبما في ذلك عملیة الاختراق والانبثاث.تھدف ھذه الدراسة الى تقییم وربط الظھور الكیمیائي النسیجي المناعي لجزیئات الاي-كادھرین والسي دي- ( 44 ) اللاصقة في سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم وربط ظھور كل منھما بمرتبة الورم والانبثاث للعقداللمفیة.المواد والطرق:تضمنت ھذه الدراسة ثلاثین عینة استرجاعیة لاشخاص مصابین بسرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم والتي استخرجت من المقاطع النسیجیة المثبتة بالفورمالین والمطمورة بشمع البارافین. جرى صبغكل عینة بالھیماتوكسلین والایوسین لاعادة تقییمھا لغرض الفحص النسیجي المرضي. اجریت الصبغات الكیمیائیة النسیجیة المناعیة باستخدام مضاد الاي- كادھرین ومضاد السي دي- ( 44 ) على شرائح نسیجیةدقیقة من العینات.النتائج:ظھرت نتائج ( 30 ) عینة من سرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم كمایلي:. سجلت اكثرالحالات في الاعمارمافوق ( 50 ) سنة ومعظم الحالات ھم من الذكور( 70 %) مع نسبة الذكور الى الاناث 1:2 ·.(% وجدت معظم الحالات في اللسان ( 36,7 %) ومعظمھا ظھرت سریریا بشكل تقرح ( 50 ·الفحوصات النسیجیة المرضیة اظھرت ان ( 70 %) من الحالات متوسطة التماییز وفقط ( 30 %) واضحة التماییز. ·سلبیة الظھورالكیمیائي النسیجي المناعي للاي- كادھرین ظھرت في ( 66,7 %) وفقط ( 33,3 %) اظھرت ایجابیة الظھورالمناعي للاي-كادھرین. ·6,7 %) اظھرت الدرجة ( 1) وفقط )، ( 26,7 %) اظھرت الدرجة ( 2 )، ( لوحظ ایجابیة الظھورالكیمیائي النسیجي المناعي للسي دي ( 44 ) في ( 86,7 %) من الحالات من بینھا ( 46,7 %) اظھرت الدرجة ( 3 ·.( %6,7 ) اظھرت الدرجة ( 4) من ایجابیة الاصطباغ المناعي للسي دي- ( 44 )لم یكن ھناك اي ارتباط احصائي معنوي بین أي من المؤشرتین الحیویتین ودرجة ومرحلة الورم والانبثاث للعقد اللمفیة. علاوة على ذلك لم یوجد أي ارتباط معنوي بین الظھورلكلا المؤشرتین الحیویتین مع ·بعضھما البعض.الاستنتاجات: اظھرت ھذه الدراسة سلبیة الظھورالمناعي للاي- كادھرین في ثلثي الحالات بینماوجدت ایجابیة الظھور المناعي للسي دي - ( 44 ) في معظم الحالات لسرطان الخلایا الحرشفیة للفم . وجد ارتباطلامعنوي فیما یخص ظھوركلا المؤشرتین الحیویتین مع درجة ومرحلة الورم وحالة العقداللمفیة . وجدت علاقة معنویة عكسیة فیما یخص ظھور السي دي- ( 44 ) مع الظھور السریري لعینات الدراسة. بالاضافةالى ذلك فأن الظھور المناعي للاي-كادھرین لم یؤثر معنویا في الظھور المناعي للسي دي- ( 44 ) في الحالات المدروسة

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