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Article
The Effect of Orthodontic Force on Salivary Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme

Authors: Suha Ali Abdul Ameer سهى علي عبد الامير --- Akram Faisal Alhuwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 175-179
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is characterized by tissue reactions, which consist of an inflammatoryresponse in periodontal ligament and followed by bone remodeling in the periodontium depending on the forcesapplied. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva.The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva during orthodontic tooth movement usingdifferent magnitude of continuous orthodontic forces.Materials and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (12 males and 18 females) aged 17-23 years with class II division Imalocclusion all requiring bilateral maxillary first premolar extractions were randomly divided into three groupsaccording to the magnitude of the force application (40, 60 and 80gm). A sectional fixed appliance was bondedand designed to give labial force to the maxillary first premolar for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collectedfrom the patients before force application, then 1 hour after force application, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 daysand 21 days.Salivary levels of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer and compared with the baseline level.Results: The results revealed that ALP enzymelevel increased with increasing magnitude of orthodontic force (from 40to 80gm). This was statistically insignificant after 1 hour and 1 day of force application, but significant after 7, 14 and21 days.The ALP level significantly increased from baseline after 7 days of force application and peaked at 21 daysfor all the three force levels.Conclusions: The ALP level reflect the biological activity that takes place in the periodontium during orthodontictooth movement, and therefore they can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring of correct orthodontic toothmovement in clinical practice


Article
Pain Perception to Orthodontic Tooth Movement during Menstrual Cycle: A Clinical Study

Author: Munad J. AL_Duliamy
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2018 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-37
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Pain during orthodontic treatment is inevitable side effect. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the orthodontist to alleviate this pain as possible. Menstrual cycle is often a painful event to female. Female is the most of orthodontic patient. Hence, study the pain perception of female to orthodontic treatment during menstrual cycle is essential. Aim: the aim of the present study is to asses, if there is change in pain perception to orthodontic tooth movement during menstrual cycle. Seventeen healthy female with regular menstrual cycle intended to receive orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were participated in the study. Elastomeric separators were placed mesial and distal to maxillary and mandibular first molars during the menstrual and postmenstrual period respectively. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain perception at 4 hours, 24 hours, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th days after the separators were placed. Data of VAS scores were statistically analyzed. There were statistically significant increase in the pain perception level after the insertion of separators during menstrual cycle period and decrease during postmenstrual period. During menstrual cycle, female experienced higher pain perception to orthodontic tooth movement. Hence, it is better to postpone orthodontic visits for female patients to postmenstrual period.


Article
A scanning electron microscopical study of initial changes in human premolars teeth after orthodontic tooth movement

Author: Dalia Kubad Taher, B.D.S., M.Sc د. داليا طاهر
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2005 Volume: 2 Issue: 2 Pages: 230-234
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

scanning electron microscope was used to study the effect of orthodontic tooth movement by using a force of 50 grams on the pressure side of 2l upper left premolarmt for 5- 75 days while the contralaterl side 14 teeth were used as a control. In order toruiy the morphology and occurrence of root resorptions, the organic tissue was removedrsigg sodium hypochlorite and the denuded root surface were re—examined in thescanning electron microscope. Initially, tissue affected by pressure was mainly located inhe marginal region and subsequently the mid- portion of the roots became generallyuri genced. The resorption process of cementum begins after 5 days as around cavitiesmeasuring about 4u. Further resorption in cementum was characterized by measuringsmall, thin—walled round lacunae which confluence into extensive, shallow resorptionsafter 25 days and more


Article
Time-related salivary cathepsin B levels and periodontal status in different orthodontic force magnitudes

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Abstract

Background: Biologically active substances, such as Cathepsin B (CAB) which is a lysosomalcystein protease may beinvolved in periodontal metabolism in the degradation of organic bone matrix containing collagen fibers in responseto mechanical stress from orthodontic appliance. The aims of study were to determine and compare salivary levelsof CAB, pH as well as clinical periodontal parameters (Plaque index PLI and gingival index GI) with differentorthodontic force magnitudes at different time intervals.Materials and methods: A twenty-four patients (both gender) with age range (17-23) years had Angle's Class IIdivision 1 malocclusion with GI <0.5 enrolled in this study. The level of salivary CAB and pH, in addition to the clinicalperiodontal parameters (PLI and GI) were measured before (baseline), 1 hour (1H), 1 day (1D), 1week (1W), 2 weeks(2W) and 3 weeks (3W) after fixed orthodontic appliance placement with different forces applied to the teeth (F1 (40gm), F2 (60 gm) and F3 (80 gm)).Results: The highest mean concentration of salivary CAB was (12.057) at F1 in 1D visit with highly significantdifferences among the visits as well as among the forces (p≤0.05). Weak correlations were revealed between all pairsof forces as well as between each visit with the baseline visit about salivary CAB except the strong negativecorrelations between F1 with F3 at 3W and baseline with 3W visits at F3. Maintenance of good oral hygiene duringthe study period demonstrated that the highest mean values of PLI and GI were (0.2) and (0.25) respectively, inaddition to the non-significant differences regarding pH among the visits.Conclusion: The concentration of salivary CAB was increased following fixed orthodontic appliance insertion. Thevery light continuous orthodontic force could produce significant increase of this enzyme activity and give enougheffectiveness to produce tooth movement as compared to the higher forces


Article
Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein

Authors: Noor Saadi --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators suchas cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and newbone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosisfactor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontictooth movement.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19-23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction oftheir maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructionsbefore and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper archby using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediatelybefore placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) followingplacement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recordedduring the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralphawere determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined bylatex agglutination.Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumornecrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) thanthe baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, inaddition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean valuesof C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among femalesand total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significantdifferences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover therewere positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactiveprotein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index).Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin –one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic toothmovement.

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