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Article
The Effect of Orthodontic Force on Salivary Levels of Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme

Authors: Suha Ali Abdul Ameer سهى علي عبد الامير --- Akram Faisal Alhuwaizi اكرم فيصل الحويزي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2015 Volume: 27 Issue: 4 Pages: 175-179
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic tooth movement is characterized by tissue reactions, which consist of an inflammatoryresponse in periodontal ligament and followed by bone remodeling in the periodontium depending on the forcesapplied. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva.The purpose of thisstudy was to evaluate the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in saliva during orthodontic tooth movement usingdifferent magnitude of continuous orthodontic forces.Materials and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (12 males and 18 females) aged 17-23 years with class II division Imalocclusion all requiring bilateral maxillary first premolar extractions were randomly divided into three groupsaccording to the magnitude of the force application (40, 60 and 80gm). A sectional fixed appliance was bondedand designed to give labial force to the maxillary first premolar for three weeks. Unstimulated saliva was collectedfrom the patients before force application, then 1 hour after force application, followed by 1 day, 7 days, 14 daysand 21 days.Salivary levels of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer and compared with the baseline level.Results: The results revealed that ALP enzymelevel increased with increasing magnitude of orthodontic force (from 40to 80gm). This was statistically insignificant after 1 hour and 1 day of force application, but significant after 7, 14 and21 days.The ALP level significantly increased from baseline after 7 days of force application and peaked at 21 daysfor all the three force levels.Conclusions: The ALP level reflect the biological activity that takes place in the periodontium during orthodontictooth movement, and therefore they can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring of correct orthodontic toothmovement in clinical practice


Article
Bacteraemia Following Different Orthodontic Treatment Procedure

Author: Mustafa M. Al-Khatieeb* BDS, MSc
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 2 Pages: 130-135
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: since the occurrence of transient bacteraemia is fatal following different dental procedures in patients at-risk of bacterial endocarditis, the purpose of this research was to estimate the percentage and nature of bacteraemia following four orthodontic treatment procedures which were: an upper alginate impression, separator placement, band fitting or placement, and arch wire adjustment on a fixed appliance.Materials and methods: the study group consisted of 40 patients (25 females and 15 males) ranging from 17-25 years of age attending Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry/Baghdad University, and out patients department from private clinic. The 40 patients were divided into four groups (10 patients each). A cannula was inserted into either the left or right antecubital fossa using an aseptic technique. A 5ml of blood was taken immediately before orthodontic treatment procedure and a second 5ml sample was taken 1-2 minutes after the procedure.Results: the blood samples showed a percentage of bacteraemia of 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% in cases of post-band placement, post-separator placement, post-arch wire adjustment, and post-alginate impression procedures respectively.Conclusion: this investigation demonstrated that the placement of separator and fitting of band procedures could cause a significant bacteraemia, thus these procedures for patients at–risk of bacterial endocarditis should be placed in consideration, and prescribe the necessarily antibiotic coverage.


Article
Index of orthodontic treatment need of 10-12 years Iraqi pupils

Author: Ahmed D. Mathedi احمد داود المعاضيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 94-97
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Many orthodontic problems arise at the age of 10-12 years therefore the aim of this study was to detect the percentage of pupil at age 10-12 year that need orthodontic treatment and have not done it till now, and the possibility of motivating them.Materials and methods: 1500 Iraqi pupil at school age of 10-12 year were examined according to grade designed by Sweden orthodontic board.Results: 57% of the sample required no treatment, 23.3% required mild treatment, and 14% required moderate while 5.3% required great treatment & 0.3% require very great treatment.Conclusion: Majority of pupils that need treatment didn’t receive any motivation even from their dentist. There is a great shortage in dental health education programs. About half of pupil examined didn’t need treatment although there is a large number of the sample who needs treatment.


Article
A Microbiological Study On PatientsWith Fixed Orthodontic Appliance In Ramadi City.
دراسة ميكروبية على المرضى المعالجين بأجهزة التقويم الثابتة للأسنان في مدينة الرمادي

Authors: Sahar Kh. AL-Ani --- Saleem O. AL-Mawla --- Zena Hekmat AL-Taee
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2010 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-3
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

:The present study aimed to isolate and identify the microorganisms associated withcausing problems to patient in all period of wearing fixed orthodontic appliance ( FOA) in Ramadi city.Sixty-six patients treated with FOA for a period ranged from 14 – 35 years included in this study wabswere collected from gingival area around fixed orthodontic appliance to be cultured aerobically. Manyimportant pathogens were isolated and identified in all age groups and in all duration include candidaalbicans, E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Staphylococci and many α.Hemolytic and β.HemolyticStreptococci.The study recommended the use of antibiotic and antifungal drugs during wearingappliance in addition to the maintenance of a good oral hygiene.Further study is also recommended tocover the role of anaerobic bacteri

الخلاصة:هدفت الد ا رسة إلى عزل وتشخیص المسببات المرضیة الم ا رفقة للمعالجة بأجهزة التقویم الثابتة للأسنان خلال فت ا رت متفاوتةمن وجود الجهاز في الفم في مدینة الرمادي . شملت الد ا رسة ٦٦ شخصاً من الذین یحملون جهاز التقویم الثابت وت ا روحت أعمارهم بین٣٥ سنة جمعت المسحات من اللثة من منطقة تواجد الجهاز وعزلها هوائیاً بینت نتائج الزرع نمو عدد كبیر من مسببات – ١٤β.Hemolytic و α.Hemolytic و Staphylococci و Klebsiella spp., وE.coli, وCandida albicans المرض منهاأوصت الد ا رسة على ضرورة استعمال بعض المضادات الحیویة ومضادات الفطریات أثناء المعالجة إضافة إلى Streptococci.توعیة المریض بالاهتمام بنظافة الفم والأسنان.وأوصت الد ا رسة بضرورة إج ا رء د ا رسة مستقبلیة شاملة على البكتریا اللاهوائیة لمعرفةدورها .


Article
Gingival response to relief and non relief removable orthodontic appliances

Authors: Nada M Al–Sayagh --- Ghada Dh Al–Sayagh --- Alaa D Al–Dawoody
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 6 Pages: 103-107
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The gingival state of thirty seven young patients (meanage 11.6 years) wearing simple removable orthodontic applianceswas assessed and followed at monthly intervals for 3months. For 17 of the patients, intentional relief of the appliancewas carried out in the upper right area. Statistically, theplaque index levels were similar in both “relief” and “non relief”groups and reached a similar score at 2 and 3 months.The gingival index was significantly higher in the “relief” group.


Article
Pain intensity and control with fixed orthodontic appliance therapy (A clinical comparative study on Iraqi sample)

Author: Hayder Fadhil Saloom حيدر فاضل سلوم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 122-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized clinical trial was to investigate the level and intensity ofpatients` pain and discomfort, and to compare between the use of Bite Wafer and Paracetamol in reducing painand discomfort associated with initial orthodontic tooth movement in both adolescents and adults.Sample: 110 subjects with two age groups, 52 adolescents with age range from 12 to less than 18 years and 58 adultswith age range 18-24 years, successfully completing the study. For each subject fixed orthodontic appliance (Roth0.022) was bonded and round 0.014 NiTi arch wire was ligated with elastic ligature. The subjects in the Bite Wafergroup were instructed to chew on it whenever they feel pain for the next 7 days, and document the time andeffectiveness of it in the questionnaire. The Paracetamol group subjects instructed to use Paracetamol 500mg torelive pain and record times and effectiveness of its use in questionnaire.Results: The peak of pain was occurred in the first day and declined gradually till totally disappeared at the sixth dayafter initial arch wire placement. A marked reduction of pain intensity was noticed in both adolescents and adultsgroups, using Bite Wafer, from the first to the sixth day which is much higher than Paracetamol group especially inadolescents. No gender differences (P>0.05) was noticed in this study.Conclusion: Although both Bite Wafer and Paracetamol reduced pain gradually, Bite Wafer reduced pain moreobviously and safely in comparison to Paracetamol especially in adolescents

Keywords

pain --- Wafer --- orthodontic


Article
Effect of chlorhexidine mouth wash and flouridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of orthodontic arch wires (An in vitro study)

Authors: Khawla M Awni --- Hind T Jarjees --- Hakam H Sabah
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2011 Volume: 11 Issue: SpIss Pages: S150-S159
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: The aims of the this study were to measure the effect of chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and to study the effect of three time intervals (3, 7, and 10 days) immersion on these mechanical properties. Materials and Methods: Two types of orthodontic wires were taken which included stainless steel and superelastic nickel titanium wires (Dentaurum, Germany). The 0.016×0.016 inch wires were selected. Each type of wires divided into seven groups; control group and six experimental groups in which the wires immersed in the chlorhexidine and fluoridated mouth wash for 3, 7, and 10 days and then the mechanical properties of wires (yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, modulus of elasticity) measured by using the universal tensile testing machine. Results: The results of the present study showed that a significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the fluoridated mouth wash and this decreased in the mechanical properties as immersion time increased. Also the results of the present study showed that a non significant difference in the mechanical properties of both stainless steel and nickel titanium wires between the control group and experimental groups immersed in the chlorhexidine mouth wash. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that the fluoridated mouth wash decreased the mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires and this degradation in mechanical properties could contributed to prolong orthodontic treatment. While the chlorhexidine has no effect on mechanical properties of stainless steel and nickel titanium wires


Article
White Spot Lesions Among Patients Treated With Fixed Orthodontic Appliance at Different Time Intervals

Authors: Elaf Abdul Kareem Alidan --- Nadia A. Alrawi
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 1 Pages: 177-182
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:- White spot lesions are common esthetic problem that compromise the success of orthodontic treatment. This study aimed to assess white spot lesions in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance at different time intervals.Materials & Methods:- Thirty two patients (24 females and 8 males) were included in this study and they underwent clinical examination for white spot lesions using enamel decalcification index at four time intervals: (2-3 weeks after appliance insertion, 2, 4 and 6 months).Results:- The patients were free of white spot lesions at the appliance insertion visit. The mean of white spot lesions was 2.22 which were increased significantly during six months to reach 24.59 at the end of study. There was a significant difference between the maxillary and the mandibular arches, however, there was no significant difference found between the right and the left sides in both arches. The total numbers of teeth affected by white spot lesions were 74.61% after six months of treatment. Maxillary second premolar and mandibular canine were the most affected teeth; whereas the gingival area around the orthodontic brackets was the most affected area.Conclusion:-Orthodontic patients had a high risk for development of white spot lesions


Article
Influence of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Dr. Saba Fouad Jaburon Oral Microbiological Status

Author: Saba Fouad Jabur
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 2 Pages: 199-202
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: the placement of orthodontic appliances creates a favorable
environment for the accumulation of microbiota, therefore this study is to assess
the relationship between removable orthodontic appliance and oral microflora.
Materials and methods: a sample 45 patients who come to orthodontic
department at the collage of dentistry/Baghdad university, divided into 3 groups:
group 1 (15) without appliance, group2 (15) with appliance for 2 weeks-2 months,
and group 3 (15) with appliance for 2 -4 months, then examine the oral microflora
and compared between the 3 groups.
Results: the result showed eleven types of microorganisms appear in group 3 then
followed by seven types in group 2 but only three types of microorganisms in
group 1.
Conclusion: there is need to educate the patients who received orthodontic
appliance about their oral hygiene because oral microflora were changed among
orthodontic patients.


Article
Index of orthodontic treatment need of 10-12 years Iraqi pupils.

Author: Dr. Abeer B. mahmoud B.D.S., M.Sc د. عبير محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-43
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Many orthodontic problems arise at the age of 10-12 years therefore the aim of this study was to detect the percentage of pupil at age 10-12 year that need orthodontic treatment and have not done it till now, and the possibility of motivating them. 1500 Iraqi pupil at school age of 10-12 year were examined according to grade designed by Sweden orthodontic board. 57% of the sample required no treatment, 23.3% required mild treatment, and 14% required moderate while 5.3% required great treatment & 0.3% require very great treatment. Majority of pupils that need treatment didn't receive any motivation even from their dentist, There is a great shortage in dental health education programs. About half of pupil examined didn't need treatment although there is a large number of thesample who needs treatment

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